Charles M. Lieber

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Charles M. Lieber
Lieber website photo.jpg
Born1959 (age 62–63)[1]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[1]
NationalityAmerican
EducationFranklin & Marshall College
Stanford University
Known forNanomaterials synthesis and assembly
Nanostructure characterization
Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics
Nanobioelectronics
AwardsWolf Prize in Chemistry (2012)
MRS Von Hippel Award (2016)
Scientific career
FieldsNanoscience and nanotechnology
Chemistry
Materials physics
Neuroscience
InstitutionsHarvard University
Columbia University
Wuhan University of Technology
Doctoral studentsHongjie Dai
Philip Kim
Peidong Yang
Latha Venkataraman
Criminal statusConvicted
MotiveProfessional accolades
Conviction(s)December 21, 2021
Criminal chargeTwo counts each of making false statements to federal authorities
(18 USC § 1001), filing false tax returns
(26 USC § 7206) and failing to report foreign income
(26 USC § 5322)
PenaltyAwaiting sentencing
Date apprehended
January 28, 2020

Charles M. Lieber (born 1959)[1] is an American chemist, pioneer in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and a convicted felon.[2][3] In 2011, Lieber was named the leading chemist in the world for the decade 2000–2010 by Thomson Reuters, based on the impact of his scientific publications.[4] He is known for his contributions to the synthesis, assembly and characterization of nanoscale materials and nanodevices, the application of nanoelectronic devices in biology, and as a mentor to numerous leaders in nanoscience.[5]

Lieber, a professor at Harvard University, has published over 400 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has edited and contributed to many books on nanoscience.[6] Until 2020 he was the chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and held a joint appointment in that department and the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences as the Joshua and Beth Friedman University Professor. He is the principal inventor on over fifty issued US patents and applications, and joined nanotechnology company Nanosys as a scientific co-founder in 2001 and Vista Therapeutics in 2007.[7] In 2012, Lieber was awarded the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in a special ceremony held at the Israeli Knesset.[8][9]

In December 2021, Lieber was convicted of six felonies, including two counts of making false statements to the FBI and investigators from the Department of Defense and National Institutes of Health regarding his participation in the Chinese government's Thousand Talents Program,[10][11] as well as four counts of filing false tax returns.[12][13] The US government began its investigation of Lieber as part of the China Initiative, a program established by the Department of Justice in 2018 to investigate academic espionage at American universities.[12][14]

Lieber has been on paid leave from Harvard since his arrest in 2020[15] as a result of his criminal charges and a lymphoma diagnosis.

Early life, education, and career[edit]

Lieber was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1959[16] and "spent much of his childhood building – and breaking – stereos, cars and model airplanes."[17]

Lieber obtained a B.A. in Chemistry from Franklin & Marshall College, graduating with honors in 1981. He went on to earn his doctorate at Stanford University in Chemistry, carrying out research on surface chemistry in the lab of Nathan Lewis, followed by a two-year postdoc at Caltech in the lab of Harry Gray on long-distance electron transfer in metalloproteins.[7] Studying the effects of dimensionality and anisotropy on the properties of quasi-2D planar structures and quasi-1D structures in his early career at Columbia and Harvard led him to become interested in the question of how one could make a one-dimensional wire, and to the epiphany that if a technology were to emerge from nascent work on nanoscale materials "it would require interconnections – exceedingly small, wire-like structures to move information around, move electrons around, and connect devices together".[18] Lieber was an early proponent of using the fundamental physical advantages of the very small to meld the worlds of optics and electronics and create interfaces between nanoscale materials and biological structures,[19] and "to develop entirely new technologies, technologies we cannot even predict today."[20]

Lieber joined the Columbia University Department of Chemistry in 1987, where he was Assistant Professor (1987–1990) and Associate Professor (1990–1991) before moving to Harvard as Full Professor in 1992. He holds a joint appointment at Harvard University in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and the Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, as the Joshua and Beth Friedman University Professor. He became Chair of Harvard's Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology in 2015.[7] Lieber was placed on "indefinite" paid administrative leave in January 2020 shortly after his arrest for making false statement to federal agents.[21]

Lieber's contributions to the rational growth, characterization, and applications of a range of functional nanoscale materials and heterostructures have provided concepts central to the bottom-up paradigm of nanoscience. These include rational synthesis of functional nanowire building blocks, characterization of these materials, and demonstration of their application in areas ranging from electronics, computing, photonics, and energy science to biology and medicine.[22]

Contributions[edit]

Lieber's contributions to the rational growth, characterization, and applications of a range of functional nanoscale materials and heterostructures have provided concepts central to the bottom-up paradigm of nanoscience. These include rational synthesis of functional nanowire building blocks, characterization of these materials, and demonstration of their application in areas ranging from electronics, computing, photonics, and energy science to biology and medicine.[22]

Nanomaterials synthesis. In his early work Lieber articulated the motivation for pursuing designed growth of nanometer-diameter wires in which composition, size, structure and morphology could be controlled over a wide range,[23] and outlined a general method for the first controlled synthesis of free-standing single-crystal semiconductor nanowires,[24][25] providing the groundwork for predictable growth of nanowires of virtually any elements and compounds in the periodic table. He proposed and demonstrated a general concept for the growth of nanoscale axial heterostructures[26] and the growth of nanowire superlattices with new photonic and electronic properties,[27] the basis of intensive efforts today in nanowire photonics and electronics.

Nanostructure characterization. Lieber developed applications of scanning probe microscopies that could provide direct experimental measurement of the electrical and mechanical properties of individual carbon nanotubes and nanowires.[28][29] This work showed that semiconductor nanowires with controlled electrical properties can be synthesized, providing electronically tunable functional nanoscale building blocks for device assembly. Additionally, Lieber invented chemical force microscopy to characterize the chemical properties of materials surfaces with nanometer resolution.[30]

Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Lieber has used quantum-confined core/shell nanowire heterostructures to demonstrate ballistic transport,[31] the superconducting proximity effect,[32] and quantum transport.[33] Other examples of functional nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices include nanoscale electrically driven lasers using single nanowires as active nanoscale cavities,[34] carbon nanotube nanotweezers,[35] nanotube-based ultrahigh-density electromechanical memory,[36] an all-inorganic fully integrated nanoscale photovoltaic cell[37] and functional logic devices and simple computational circuits using assembled semiconductor nanowires.[38] These concepts led to the integration of nanowires on the Intel roadmap, and their current top-down implementation of these structures.[39]

Nanostructure assembly and computing. Lieber has originated a number of approaches for parallel and scalable of assembly of nanowire and nanotube building blocks. The development of fluidic-directed assembly[40] and subsequent large-scale assembly of electrically addressable parallel and crossed nanowire arrays was cited as one of the Breakthroughs of 2001 by Science.[41] He also developed a lithography-free approach to bridging the macro-to-nano scale gap using modulation-doped semiconductor nanowires.[42][43] Lieber recently introduced the assembly concept "nanocombing",[44] to create a programmable nanowire logic tile[45] and the first stand-alone nanocomputer.[46]

Nanoelectronics for biology and medicine. Lieber demonstrated the first direct electrical detection of proteins,[47] selective electrical sensing of individual viruses[48] and multiplexed detection of cancer marker proteins and tumor enzyme activity.[49] More recently, Lieber demonstrated a general approach to overcome the Debye screening that makes these measurements challenging in physiological conditions,[50] overcoming the limitations of sensing with silicon nanowire field-effect devices and opening the way to their use in diagnostic healthcare applications. Lieber has also developed nanoelectronic devices for cell/tissue electrophysiology, showing that electrical activity and action potential propagation can be recorded from cultured cardiac cells with high resolution.[51] Most recently, Lieber realized 3D nanoscale transistors[52][53] in which the active transistor is separated from the connections to the outside world. His nanotechnology-enabled 3D cellular probes have shown point-like resolution in detection of single-molecules, intracellular function and even photons.[54]

Nanoelectronics and brain science. The development of nanoelectronics-enabled cellular tools underpins Lieber's views[55] on transforming electrical recording and modulation of neuronal activity in brain science. Examples of this work include the integration of arrays of nanowire transistors with neurons at the scale that the brain is wired biologically,[56] mapping functional activity in acute brain slices with high spatiotemporal resolution[57] and a 3D structure capable of interfacing with complex neural networks.[58] He developed macroporous 3D sensor arrays and synthetic tissue scaffold to mimic the structure of natural tissue, and for the first time generated synthetic tissues that can be innervated in 3D, showing that it is possible to produce interpenetrating 3D electronic-neural networks following cell culture.[59] Lieber's current work focuses on integrating electronics in a minimally/non-invasive manner within the central nervous system.[60][61] Most recently, he has demonstrated that this macroporous electronics can be injected by syringe to position devices in a chosen region of the brain.[62] Chronic histology and multiplexed recording studies demonstrate minimal immune response and noninvasive integration of the injectable electronics with neuronal circuitry.[62][63][64] Reduced scarring may explain the mesh electronics' demonstrated recording stability on time scales of up to a year.[65][66] This concept of electronics integration with the brain as a nanotechnological tool potentially capable of treating neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, stroke and traumatic injury has drawn attention from a number of media sources. Scientific American named injectable electronics one of 2015's top ten world changing ideas.[67] Chemical & Engineering News called it "the most notable chemistry research advance of 2015".[68]

Criminal conviction[edit]

On January 28, 2020, Lieber was charged with making materially false, fictitious and fraudulent statements about his links to a Chinese university. The Department of Justice (DOJ) charging document alleges two counts. [69] First, that during an interview by the Department of Defense (DoD) on April 24, 2018, Lieber was asked whether he was involved in the Thousand Talents Program. Lieber stated that "he was never asked to participate in the Thousand Talents Program," adding that "he 'wasn't sure' how China categorized him." The DOJ asserted that Lieber's statement was false because an intercepted email dated June 27, 2012, from Wuhan University of Technology (WUT) included a contract for Lieber to sign. Second, that in November 2018, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) asked Harvard University about Lieber's foreign affiliations. In January 2019, Harvard interviewed Lieber and then reported to the NIH that Lieber, "had no formal association with WUT," after 2012. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) believed Lieber's statements regarding the matter to be false.

During his arraignment, authorities executed search warrants at his home and office in Lexington, Massachusetts. At that time he was placed on paid administrative leave by Harvard.[70]

On June 9, 2020, the DOJ alleged that, beginning in 2011 and unbeknownst to Harvard, Lieber became a "Strategic Scientist" at Wuhan University of Technology (WUT) in China. And that he was a contractual participant in China's Thousand Talents Plan from at least 2012 through 2015.[71] A month later Lieber was charged with four counts of violating tax laws by failing to report income he allegedly received from China.[72]

Critics expressed worry that Lieber's arrest could amount to McCarthyism, as a part of rising tension with China amid the China–United States trade war, beginning during the Trump administration.[73][70][74][75] Dr. Ross McKinney Jr., chief scientific officer of the Association of American Medical Colleges, claimed there is increasing anxiety among his colleagues that scientists will be scrutinized over legitimate sources of international funding, "...slowly but surely, we're going to have something of a McCarthyish purity testing".[73] In March 2021, several dozen scientists, including seven Nobel Prize winners, published an open letter in support of Lieber, arguing that his prosecution by the government was "unjust" and "misguided" and "discouraging US scientists from collaborating with peers in other countries".[76]

In the spring of 2021, Lieber requested that his trial be expedited because he was suffering from lymphoma.[72]

Lieber's trial opened on December 14, 2021, in Boston with jury selection. He pleaded not guilty to all six felony charges.[77][78][79] On December 21, 2021, Lieber was found guilty on two counts of making false statements to the U.S. government, two counts of filing a false income tax return, and two counts of failing to report foreign bank accounts.[80] In a taped interview, Lieber admitted travelling from Wuhan to Boston with bags of cash containing between $50,000 and $100,000, which he said he never disclosed to the IRS.[15]

Awards[edit]

Other honors and positions[edit]

Lieber is a member of the National Academy of Sciences,[86] the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,[87] the National Academy of Engineering,[88] the National Academy of Medicine,[89] the National Academy of Inventors,[90] and an elected Foreign Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015).[91] He is an elected Fellow of the Materials Research Society, American Chemical Society (Inaugural Class), Institute of Physics, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), American Association for the Advancement of Science, and World Technology Network, and Honorary Fellow of the Chinese Chemical Society.[92] In addition he belongs to the American Physical Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), Optica, Biophysical Society and the Society for Neuroscience. Lieber is Co-editor of the journal Nano Letters, and serves on the editorial and advisory boards of a number of science and technology journals.[7] He is also a sitting member of the International Advisory Board of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Tel Aviv University.[93]

Pumpkin growing[edit]

Since 2007 Lieber has grown giant pumpkins in his front and back yards in Lexington, Massachusetts.[94][95] In 2010 he won the annual weigh-off at Frerich's Farm in Rhode Island with a 1,610-lb pumpkin,[96] and returned in 2012 with a 1,770-lb pumpkin that won 2nd place in that year's weigh-off but set a Massachusetts record.[97] His 1,870-lb pumpkin in 2014 was named the largest pumpkin in Massachusetts and ranked 17th largest in the world that year.[97][98] In 2020, the year of his arrest, he grew a 2,276-lb pumpkin that currently holds the record for the largest ever grown in Massachusetts.[99]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Charles M. Lieber". Lieber Research Group. Harvard University. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  2. ^ Ellen Barry (December 21, 2021), "In a Boston Court, a Superstar of Science Falls to Earth", The New York Times: "A jury found the Harvard chemist Charles Lieber guilty of lying to the federal government about his participation in China's Thousand Talents recruitment program."
  3. ^ (December 22, 2021), "Charles Lieber: Harvard professor guilty of hiding ties to Chinese programme" BBC
  4. ^ Top 100 Chemists, 2000–2010: Special Report on High-Impact Chemists Archived December 29, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, ScienceWatch, February 10, 2011.
  5. ^ "Lieber Research Group – Former Group Members". Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Dr Lieber was charged in a criminal complaint for failure to disclose Chinese government funding of his research.
  6. ^ "Lieber Research Group – Publications". Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d "Lieber Research Group – People – Charles M. Lieber". Archived from the original on November 10, 2016.
  8. ^ "2012 Wolf Prize in Chemistry". May 13, 2012. Archived from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  9. ^ "Harvard scientist with alleged ties to China may be released on $1.5M bond". MSN. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  10. ^ Chappell, Bill (January 28, 2020). "Acclaimed Harvard Scientist Is Arrested, Accused Of Lying About Ties To China". NPR. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  11. ^ "Harvard University Professor and Two Chinese Nationals Charged in Three Separate China Related Cases". www.justice.gov. January 28, 2020. Archived from the original on January 29, 2020. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  12. ^ a b Viswanatha, Byron Tau and Aruna (December 22, 2021). "Prominent Harvard Professor Found Guilty of Lying About China Ties". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  13. ^ Leonard, Jenny (December 12, 2019). "China's Thousand Talents Program Finally Gets the U.S.'s Attention". Bloomberg News. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  14. ^ Cho, Isabella; Kingdollar, Brandon; Soshi, Mayesha (December 22, 2021). "Harvard Professor Charles Lieber Found Guilty of Lying About China Ties". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  15. ^ a b Murphy, Shelley (December 21, 2021). "Harvard professor found guilty of lying about financial ties to Chinese university". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  16. ^ "Charles Lieber". chemistry.harvard.edu. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  17. ^ Lieber, Charles M. (2001). "The incredible shrinking circuit". Scientific American. 285 (3): 50–6. Bibcode:2001SciAm.285c..58L. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0901-58. PMID 11524970.
  18. ^ "An inside line on nanowires". ScienceWatch. 14: 1–5. 2003.
  19. ^ "Forget what you know about nanotech". Business 2.0. November 2003.
  20. ^ Cromie, William J. (July 22, 2004). "A giant step toward miniaturization". Harvard Gazette. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016.
  21. ^ Bikales, James S.; Chen, Kevin R. "Harvard Chemistry Chair Placed on Leave After Federal Gov. Charges He Hid Chinese Funding". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Zhang, Anqi; et al. (2016). Nanowires: Building blocks for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Springer.
  23. ^ Lieber, Charles (2002). "Nanowires take the prize". Materials Today. 5 (2): 48. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(02)05254-9.
  24. ^ "One-dimensional nanostructures: Rational synthesis, novel properties and applications". Proceedings of the Robert A. Welch Foundation 40th Conference on Chemical Research: Chemistry on the Nanometer Scale. 165–187. 1997.
  25. ^ Morales, A. M; Lieber, C. M (1998). "A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires". Science. 279 (5348): 208–11. Bibcode:1998Sci...279..208M. doi:10.1126/science.279.5348.208. PMID 9422689.
  26. ^ Hu, Jiangtao; Ouyang, Min; Yang, Peidong; Lieber, Charles M. (1999). "Controlled growth and electrical properties of heterojunctions of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires". Nature. 399 (6731): 48–51. Bibcode:1999Natur.399...48H. doi:10.1038/19941. S2CID 4352749.
  27. ^ Gudiksen, Mark S.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Wang, Jianfang; Smith, David C.; Lieber, Charles M. (2002). "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics". Nature. 617–20 (6872): 617–20. Bibcode:2002Natur.415..617G. doi:10.1038/415617a. PMID 11832939. S2CID 4333987.
  28. ^ Wong, Eric W.; Sheehan, Paul E.; Lieber, Charles M. (1997). "Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes". Science. 277 (5334): 1971–1975. doi:10.1126/science.277.5334.1971.
  29. ^ Ouyang, M.; Huang, J. L.; Cheung, C. L; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Energy gaps in "metallic" single-walled carbon nanotubes". Science. 292 (5517): 702–5. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..702O. doi:10.1126/science.1058853. PMID 11326093. S2CID 19088925. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
  30. ^ Frisbie, C. D.; Rozsnyai, L. F.; Noy, A.; Wrighton, M. S.; Lieber, C. M. (1994). "Functional group imaging by chemical force microscopy". Science. 265 (5181): 2071–4. Bibcode:1994Sci...265.2071F. doi:10.1126/science.265.5181.2071. PMID 17811409. S2CID 1192124.
  31. ^ "Nanowire transistors outperform silicon switches". NewScientist.com, May 24, 2006. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  32. ^ Belzig, Wolfgang (2006). "Super-semiconducting nanowires". Nature Nanotechnology. 1 (3): 167–168. Bibcode:2006NatNa...1..167B. doi:10.1038/nnano.2006.161. PMID 18654178. S2CID 32211652.
  33. ^ Eriksson, Mark A; Friesen, Mark (2007). "Nanowires charge towards integration". Nature Nanotechnology. 2 (10): 595–596. Bibcode:2007NatNa...2..595E. doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.314. PMID 18654378.
  34. ^ Ball, Phillip (January 16, 2003). "Lasers slim enough for chips". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news030113-5.
  35. ^ Kim, P; Lieber, C. M (1999). "Nanotube nanotweezers". Science. 286 (5447): 2148–50. doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2148. PMID 10591644.
  36. ^ Rueckes, T; Kim, K; Joselevich, E; Tseng, G. Y; Cheung, C. L; Lieber, C. M (2000). "Carbon nanotube-based nonvolatile random access memory for molecular computing". Science. 289 (5476): 94–7. Bibcode:2000Sci...289...94R. doi:10.1126/science.289.5476.94. PMID 10884232. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  37. ^ "Nanowire silicon solar cell for powering small circuits". IEEE Spectrum, October 18, 2007. 2007. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  38. ^ Huang, Y; Duan, X; Cui, Y; Lauhon, L. J; Kim, K. H; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks". Science. 294 (5545): 1313–7. Bibcode:2001Sci...294.1313H. doi:10.1126/science.1066192. PMID 11701922. S2CID 11476047.
  39. ^ "Will 5nm happen?". Semiconductor Engineering, January 20, 2016. January 20, 2016. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016.
  40. ^ Huang, Y; Duan, X; Wei, Q; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Directed assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into functional networks". Science. 291 (5504): 630–3. Bibcode:2001Sci...291..630H. doi:10.1126/science.291.5504.630. PMID 11158671. S2CID 15429898.
  41. ^ "Breakthrough of 2001: Nanoelectronics". Science, December 20, 2001. December 20, 2001. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  42. ^ Yang, C; Zhong, Z; Lieber, C. M (2005). "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires". Science. 310 (5752): 1304–7. Bibcode:2005Sci...310.1304Y. doi:10.1126/science.1118798. PMID 16311329. S2CID 575327.
  43. ^ "Making the world's smallest gadgets even smaller". Harvard Gazette, December 9, 2005. December 9, 2005. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  44. ^ Weiss, Nathan O; Duan, Xiangfeng (2013). "Untangling nanowire assembly". Nature Nanotechnology. 8 (5): 312–313. Bibcode:2013NatNa...8..312W. doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.83. PMID 23648735.
  45. ^ "Scaled-down success: Programmable logic tiles could form basis of nanoprocessors". Scientific American, February 9, 2011. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  46. ^ "Nanowire nanocomputer in new complexity record". Nanotechweb.org, February 6, 2014. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  47. ^ Cui, Y; Wei, Q; Park, H; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species". Science. 293 (5533): 1289–92. Bibcode:2001Sci...293.1289C. doi:10.1126/science.1062711. PMID 11509722. S2CID 1165124.
  48. ^ "Nanodevices target viruses". Physicsworld.com, October 8, 2004. October 8, 2004. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  49. ^ Eisenstein, Michael (2005). "Protein detection goes down to the wire". Nature Methods. 2 (11): 804–805. doi:10.1038/nmeth1105-804b. PMID 16285036. S2CID 10269939.
  50. ^ Gao, N; Zhou, W; Jiang, X; Hong, G; Fu, T. M; Lieber, C. M (2015). "General strategy for biodetection in high ionic strength solutions using transistor-based nanoelectronic sensors". Nano Letters. 15 (3): 2143–8. Bibcode:2015NanoL..15.2143G. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00133. PMC 4594804. PMID 25664395.
  51. ^ "Nanowire network measures cells' electrical signals". New Scientist, April 22, 2009. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  52. ^ Pastrana, Erika (2010). "Reading cells from within". Nature Methods. 7 (10): 780–781. doi:10.1038/nmeth1010-780a. PMID 20936771. S2CID 31249789.
  53. ^ "Nanobiotechnology: Tiny cell transistor". Nature. 466 (7309): 904. 2010. Bibcode:2010Natur.466Q.904.. doi:10.1038/466904a. S2CID 7525322.
  54. ^ Lockwood, Tobias (2012). "Nano Focus: Nanoscale transistor measures living cell voltages". MRS Bulletin. 37 (3): 184–186. doi:10.1557/mrs.2012.68.
  55. ^ Kruskal, P. B; Jiang, Z; Gao, T; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Beyond the patch clamp: Nanotechnologies for intracellular recording". Neuron. 86 (1): 21–4. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.01.004. PMID 25856481. S2CID 16548874.
  56. ^ "Harvard scientists use nanowires to connect neurons". Solid State Technology, August 25, 2006. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  57. ^ Xie, C; Cui, Y (2010). "Nanowire platform for mapping neural circuits". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (10): 4489–90. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.4489X. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000450107. PMC 2842070. PMID 20194753.
  58. ^ Qing, Q; Jiang, Z; Xu, L; Gao, R; Mai, L; Lieber, C. M (2014). "Free-standing kinked nanowire transistor probes for targeted intracellular recording in three dimensions". Nature Nanotechnology. 9 (2): 142–7. Bibcode:2014NatNa...9..142Q. doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.273. PMC 3946362. PMID 24336402. S2CID 4293027.
  59. ^ "Integrating man and machine". Chemical & Engineering News. 90 (52): 22. December 24, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  60. ^ Hong, G.; Fu, T. M.; Qiao, M.; Viveros, R. D.; Yang, X.; Zhou, T.; Lee, J. M.; Park, H. G.; Sanes, J. R.; Lieber, C. M. (2018). "A method for single-neuron chronic recording from the retina in awake mice". Science. 360 (6396): 1447–1451. Bibcode:2018Sci...360.1447H. doi:10.1126/science.aas9160. PMC 6047945. PMID 29954976. S2CID 49535811.
  61. ^ "Syringe-injectable mesh electronics for stable chronic rodent electrophysiology". J. Vis. Exp. 137: e58003. 2018.
  62. ^ a b Liu, J; Fu, T. M; Cheng, Z; Hong, G; Zhou, T; Jin, L; Duvvuri, M; Jiang, Z; Kruskal, P; Xie, C; Suo, Z; Fang, Y; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Syringe-injectable electronics". Nature Nanotechnology. 10 (7): 629–636. Bibcode:2015NatNa..10..629L. doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.115. PMC 4591029. PMID 26053995.
  63. ^ Xie, C; Liu, J; Fu, T. M; Dai, X; Zhou, W; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks as minimally invasive brain probes". Nature Materials. 14 (12): 1286–92. Bibcode:2015NatMa..14.1286X. doi:10.1038/nmat4427. PMID 26436341. S2CID 7344731.
  64. ^ Jarchum, Irene (2015). "A flexible mesh to record the brain". Nature Biotechnology. 33 (8): 830. doi:10.1038/nbt.3316. PMID 26252143. S2CID 26926468.
  65. ^ Fu, T. M; Hong, G; Zhou, T; Schuhmann, T. G; Viveros, R. D; Lieber, C. M (2016). "Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level". Nature Methods. 13 (10): 875–82. doi:10.1038/nmeth.3969. PMID 27571550. S2CID 205425194.
  66. ^ "Injectable nanowires monitor mouse brains for months". IEEE Spectrum, August 29, 2016. August 29, 2016. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  67. ^ "World changing ideas 2015". Scientific American Special Report, November 17, 2015. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016.
  68. ^ "Top research of 2015: Flexible electronics you can inject". Chemical & Engineering News Top Research of 2015. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  69. ^ "AFFIDAVIT IN SUPPORT OF APPLICATION FOR CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (AGAINST CHARLES M. LIEBER) by Robert Plumb, FBI Special Agent". US Department of Justice. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  70. ^ a b "Harvard scientist charged with lying about ties to Chinese university; two Chinese nationals accused of economic espionage – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  71. ^ "Harvard University Professor Indicted on False Statement Charges – Justice News". justice.gov. June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  72. ^ a b Wang, Andy Z. (April 7, 2021). "Lieber Prepares for Impending Trial on Federal Charges As He Battles Incurable Cancer". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  73. ^ a b Barry, Ellen (January 28, 2020). "U.S. Accuses Harvard Scientist of Concealing Chinese Funding". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  74. ^ Evelyn, Kenya (January 29, 2020). "Harvard professor accused of lying about ties with Chinese government". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  75. ^ Wong, Matteo N. (April 23, 2020). "The End of the Harvard Century". Archived from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  76. ^ Fernandes, Deirdre (March 1, 2021). "Nobel Prize winners and other scientists come to defense of Harvard professor Charles Lieber – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  77. ^ Tau, Byron (December 15, 2021). "Harvard Professor Charles Lieber's Trial Gets Under Way". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  78. ^ "As Trial Begins, Lawyers for Harvard Professor Charles Lieber Say He Did Not Conceal Ties to China | News | The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  79. ^ "Trial of Harvard chemist poses test for U.S. government's controversial China Initiative". www.science.org. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  80. ^ "In a Boston Court, a Superstar of Science Falls to Earth". The New York Times. December 21, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  81. ^ "Award for Research Excellence in Nanotechnology". UPenn Nano/Bio Interface Center. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  82. ^ "2012 Wolf Prize in Chemistry". ChemistryViews. May 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  83. ^ Morris, James (September 2013). "IEEE Nanotechnology Council Announces 2013 Winners". IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine. 7 (3): 30–31. doi:10.1109/MNANO.2013.2260465.
  84. ^ Wang, Linda (February 15, 2016). "Remsen Award to Charles Lieber". Chemical & Engineering News. 94 (7): 33. Archived from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018 – via American Chemical Society.
  85. ^ "Welch Award 2019". Archived from the original on October 9, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  86. ^ "Charles M. Lieber".
  87. ^ "Member Directory | American Academy of Arts and Sciences".
  88. ^ Lieber, Charles M. (February 11, 2020). "CV" (PDF). Charles M. Lieber's website. Harvard University. Retrieved June 13, 2022.
  89. ^ "Member".
  90. ^ "National Academy of Inventors".
  91. ^ "12 famous scientists elected 2015 CAS Foreign Members". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASAD), November 2015. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016.
  92. ^ "Chemistry professor Charles Lieber granted the honorary title of Fellow of the Chinese Chemical Society [in Chinese]". Chinese Chemical Society, October 25, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2016. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  93. ^ "International Advisory Board | The Department of Materials Science and Engineering | Tel Aviv University". Archived from the original on October 23, 2020. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  94. ^ Mahoney, Bryan (October 11, 2007). "Journey of the great pumpkins". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  95. ^ "Harvard Professor's Arrest Raises Questions About Scientific Openness : Short Wave". NPR.org. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  96. ^ "Frerich's Farm Newsletter/November 2010". Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  97. ^ a b "Chem professor grows Mass.'s largest pumpkin, no plans for pie". The Harvard Crimson. October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  98. ^ "Nanoscientist grows giant pumpkin, crabs in costume". Chemical and Engineering News 92(43):40. 2014. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016.
  99. ^ "Giant Pumpkin Family Tree For 2276 Lieber 2020". tools.pumpkinfanatic.com.

External links[edit]