Charles Murray (political scientist)

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Charles Murray
Charles Murray Speaking at FreedomFest.jpeg
Murray in 2013
Charles Alan Murray

(1943-01-08) January 8, 1943 (age 78)
EducationHarvard University (BA)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MS, PhD)
Known forThe Bell Curve
Losing Ground
Coming Apart
Human Accomplishment
Facing Reality
  • Suchart Dej-Udom
    (m. 1966; div. 1980)
  • Catherine Bly Cox
    (m. 1983)
AwardsIrving Kristol Award (2009)
Kistler Prize (2011)
Scientific career
FieldsPolitical science
Race and intelligence
ThesisInvestment and Tithing in Thai Villages: A Behavioral Study of Rural Modernization (1974)
Doctoral advisorLucian Pye

Charles Alan Murray (/ˈmɜːri/; born January 8, 1943) is an American political scientist, writer and public speaker. He is the W.H. Brady Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank in Washington, D.C.[3]

Murray's work has been and remains highly controversial.[5][6][7][8][9]

His book Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950–1980 (1984) discussed the American welfare system. He co-wrote the controversial book The Bell Curve (1994), co-authored with Richard Herrnstein, in which the authors argue that in American society, in the course of the 20th century, intelligence became a better predictor than parental socioeconomic status or education level of many individual outcomes, including income, job performance, pregnancy out of wedlock, and crime, and that social welfare programs and education efforts to improve social outcomes for the disadvantaged are largely counterproductive.

Early life[edit]

Of Scotch-Irish ancestry,[10][11] Murray was born in Newton, Iowa, and raised in a Republican, "Norman Rockwell kind of family" that stressed moral responsibility. He is the son of Frances B. (née Patrick) and Alan B. Murray, a Maytag Company executive.[12] His youth was marked by a rebellious and pranksterish sensibility.[13] As a teen, he played pool at a hangout for juvenile delinquents, developed debating skills, espoused labor unionism (to his parents' annoyance), and on one occasion helped burn a cross that he and his friends had erected near a police station.[14]

Murray credits the SAT with helping him get out of Newton and into Harvard. "Back in 1961, the test helped get me into Harvard from a small Iowa town by giving me a way to show that I could compete with applicants from Exeter and Andover," wrote Murray. "Ever since, I have seen the SAT as the friend of the little guy, just as James Bryant Conant, president of Harvard, said it would be when he urged the SAT upon the nation in the 1940s."[15] However, in an op-ed published in The New York Times on March 8, 2012, Murray suggested removing the SAT's role in college admissions, noting that the SAT "has become a symbol of new-upper-class privilege, as people assume (albeit wrongly) that high scores are purchased through the resources of private schools and expensive test preparation programs".[16]

Murray obtained a B.A. in history from Harvard in 1965 and a Ph.D. in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1974.[3]

Peace Corps[edit]

Murray left for the Peace Corps in Thailand in 1965, staying abroad for six years.[17] At the beginning of this period, Murray kindled a romance with his Thai Buddhist language instructor (in Hawaii), Suchart Dej-Udom, the daughter of a wealthy Thai businessman, who was "born with one hand and a mind sharp enough to outscore the rest of the country on the college entrance exam". Murray subsequently proposed by mail from Thailand, and their marriage began the following year, a move that Murray now considers youthful rebellion. "I'm getting married to a one-handed Thai Buddhist," he said. "This was not the daughter-in-law that would have normally presented itself to an Iowa couple."[18]

Murray credits his time in the Peace Corps in Thailand with his lifelong interest in Asia. "There are aspects of Asian culture as it is lived that I still prefer to Western culture, 30 years after I last lived in Thailand," says Murray. "Two of my children are half-Asian. Apart from those personal aspects, I have always thought that the Chinese and Japanese civilizations had elements that represented the apex of human accomplishment in certain domains."[19]

His tenure with the Peace Corps ended in 1968, and during the remainder of his time in Thailand he worked on an American Institutes for Research (AIR) covert counter-insurgency program for the US military in cooperation with the CIA.[20][21][22]

Recalling his time in Thailand in a 2014 episode of "Conversations with Bill Kristol", Murray noted that his worldview was fundamentally shaped by his time there. "Essentially, most of what you read in my books I learned in Thai villages." He went on, "I suddenly was struck first by the enormous discrepancy between what Bangkok thought was important to the villagers and what the villagers wanted out of government. And the second thing I got out of it was that when the government change agent showed up, the village went to hell in terms of its internal governance."[23]

Murray's work in the Peace Corps and subsequent social research in Thailand for research firms associated with the US government led to the subject of his doctoral thesis in political science at M.I.T., in which he argued against bureaucratic intervention in the lives of Thai villagers.[24][25]

Divorce and remarriage[edit]

By the 1980s, his marriage to Suchart Dej-Udom had been unhappy for years, but "his childhood lessons on the importance of responsibility brought him slowly to the idea that divorce was an honorable alternative, especially with young children involved."[26]

Murray divorced Dej-Udom after fourteen years of marriage[13] and three years later married Catherine Bly Cox (born 1949, Newton, Iowa),[27] an English literature instructor at Rutgers University. Cox was initially dubious when she saw his conservative reading choices, and she spent long hours "trying to reconcile his shocking views with what she saw as his deep decency".[13] In 1989, Murray and Cox co-authored a book on the Apollo program, Apollo: Race to the Moon.[28] Murray attends and Cox is a member of a Quaker meeting in Virginia, and they live in Frederick County, Maryland near Washington, D.C.[29]

Murray has four children, two by each wife.[30] While his second wife, Catherine Bly Cox, had converted to Quakerism as of 2014, Murray still considered himself an agnostic.[31] Murray commonly describes himself as a "wannabe Christian" who takes faith seriously but has yet to acquire deep faith .[32]

Research and views[edit]

Murray continued research work at AIR, one of the largest of the private social science research organizations, upon his return to the US. From 1974 to 1981, Murray worked for the AIR eventually becoming chief political scientist. While at AIR, Murray supervised evaluations in the fields of urban education, welfare services, daycare, adolescent pregnancy, services for the elderly, and criminal justice.[citation needed]

From 1981 to 1990, he was a fellow with the conservative Manhattan Institute where he wrote Losing Ground, which heavily influenced the welfare reform debate in 1996, and In Pursuit.[citation needed]

He has been a fellow of the conservative American Enterprise Institute since 1990 and was a frequent contributor to The Public Interest, a journal of conservative politics and culture. In March 2009, he received AEI's highest honor, the Irving Kristol Award. He has also received a doctorate honoris causa from Universidad Francisco Marroquín.[33]

Murray has received grants from the conservative Bradley Foundation to support his scholarship, including the writing of The Bell Curve.

Murray identifies as a libertarian.[34] He has also been described as conservative,[35][36][37][38] far-right,[39][40][41][42] and as a white nationalist.[43]

His views on race and intelligence are now considered discredited by mainstream science.[44][45][46]

Losing Ground[edit]

Murray argues in his book Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980 that social welfare programs actually hurt society as a whole, as well as the very people those programs are trying to help, and concludes that these programs should therefore be eliminated.[47] Murray proposes three “laws” of social programs to defend this policy prescription:

  1. "Law of Imperfect Selection": Any objective rule that defines eligibility for a social transfer program will irrationally exclude some persons.
  2. "Law of Unintended Rewards": Any social transfer increases the net value of being in the condition that prompted the transfer.
  3. "Law of Net Harm": The less likely it is that the unwanted behavior will change voluntarily, the more likely it is that a program to induce change will cause net harm. [48]

The Bell Curve[edit]

External video
video icon Booknotes interview with Murray on The Bell Curve, December 4, 1994, C-SPAN

The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (1994) is a controversial bestseller that Charles Murray wrote with Harvard professor Richard J. Herrnstein. The book's title comes from the bell-shaped normal distribution of IQ scores. Its central thesis is that in American society in the 20th century intelligence had become a better predictor of many factors including financial income, job performance, unwed pregnancy, and crime than one's parents' socio-economic status or education level. The book also argued that those with high intelligence (the "cognitive elite") were becoming separated from those with average and below-average intelligence, and that this constituted a dangerous social trend. He also warned of a merger of the "cognitive elite" with the "wealth elite", which would become increasingly isolated and could result in an authoritarian "custodial state".

Much of the controversy stemmed from Chapters 13 and 14, where the authors write about the enduring differences in race and intelligence and discuss implications of that difference. They write in the introduction to Chapter 13 that "The debate about whether and how much genes and environment have to do with ethnic differences remains unresolved,"[49] and that "It seems highly likely to us that both genes and the environment have something to do with racial differences."[50] This stands in contrast to the contemporary and subsequent consensus of mainstream researchers, who do not find that racial disparities in educational attainment or measured intelligence are explained by between-group genetic differences.[51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59]

After its publication, various academics criticized the book. Some said it supported long-discredited "scientific racism"[60][61][62][63][64][65] and a number of books were written to rebut The Bell Curve. Those works included a 1996 edition of evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man; a collection of essays, The Bell Curve Wars (1995), reacting to Murray and Herrnstein's commentary; and The Bell Curve Debate (1995), whose essays similarly respond to issues raised in The Bell Curve. Arthur S. Goldberger and Charles F. Manski critique the empirical methods supporting the book's hypotheses.[66]

Francis Wheen summarised Murray's arguments as "Black people are more stupid than white people: always have been, always will be. This is why they have less economic and social success. Since the fault lies in their genes, they are doomed to be at the bottom of the heap now and forever."[67]

Citing assertions made by Murray in The Bell Curve, The Southern Poverty Law Center labeled him a "white nationalist", charging his ideas were rooted in eugenics.[65] Murray disputed this characterization.[68]

Coming Apart[edit]

In his 2012 bestseller Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010, Murray describes diverging trends between poor and upper middle-class white Americans in the half-century after the death of John F. Kennedy Jr. He focuses on white Americans in order to argue that economic decline in that period was not experienced solely by minorities, whom he brings into his argument in the last few chapters of the book. He argues that class strain has cleaved white Americans into two distinct, highly segregated strata: "an upper class, defined by educational attainment, and a new lower class, characterized by the lack of it. Murray also posits that the new [white] 'lower class' is less industrious, less likely to marry and raise children in a two-parent household, and more politically and socially disengaged."[69]

Critics have suggested that he cherry-picked the data and time period under analysis, with Nell Irvin Painter, for example, writing that "behaviors that seem to have begun in the 1960s belong to a much longer and more complex history than ideologically driven writers like Mr. Murray would have us believe."[70]

Op-ed writings[edit]

Murray has published opinion pieces in The New Republic, Commentary, The Public Interest, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, National Review, and The Washington Post. He has been a witness before United States House and Senate committees and a consultant to senior Republican government officials in the United States and other conservative officials in the United Kingdom, Eastern Europe, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.[71]

In the April 2007 issue of Commentary magazine, Murray wrote on the disproportionate representation of Jews in the ranks of outstanding achievers and says that one of the reasons is that they "have been found to have an unusually high mean intelligence as measured by IQ tests since the first Jewish samples were tested". His article concludes with an assertion: "At this point, I take sanctuary in my remaining hypothesis, uniquely parsimonious and happily irrefutable. The Jews are God's chosen people."[72]

In the July/August 2007 issue of The American, a magazine published by the American Enterprise Institute, Murray says he has changed his mind about SAT tests and says they should be scrapped: "Perhaps the SAT had made an important independent contribution to predicting college performance in earlier years, but by the time research was conducted in the last half of the 1990s, the test had already been ruined by political correctness." Murray advocates replacing the traditional SAT with the College Board's subject achievement tests: "The surprising empirical reality is that the SAT is redundant if students are required to take achievement tests."[15]

In June 2016, Murray wrote that replacing welfare with a Universal Basic Income was the best way to adapt to "a radically changing U.S. jobs market".[73]

Views on education[edit]

Murray has been critical of the No Child Left Behind law, arguing that it "set a goal that was devoid of any contact with reality.... The United States Congress, acting with large bipartisan majorities, at the urging of the President, enacted as the law of the land that all children are to be above average." He sees the law as an example of "Educational romanticism [which] asks too much from students at the bottom of the intellectual pile, asks the wrong things from those in the middle, and asks too little from those at the top."[74]

Challenging "educational romanticism", he wrote Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back to Reality. His "four simple truths" are as follows:

  1. Ability varies.
  2. Half of all children are below average.
  3. Too many people are going to college.
  4. America's future depends on how we educate the academically gifted.[75]

In 2014, a speech that Murray was scheduled to give at Azusa Pacific University was "postponed" due to Murray's research on human group differences.[76] Murray responded to the institution by pointing out that it was a disservice to the students and faculty to dismiss research because of its controversial nature rather than the evidence. Murray also urged the university to consider his works as they are and reach conclusions for themselves, rather than relying on sources that "specialize in libeling people".[77][78]

Public speech and protest at Middlebury College[edit]

Charles Murray speaks at Middlebury College as students protest

On March 2, 2017, Murray was scheduled to speak at Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont about Coming Apart: the State of White America, 1960–2010. Murray was invited to attend the college by Middlebury's American Enterprise Institute Club, who received co-sponsorship of the event from a professor in the political science department. Before Murray was able to speak, students within the hall rose to their feet and recited in unison a speech about the eugenicist implications of Murray's work. Students proceeded to chant—"Charles Murray go away, racist sexist anti-gay!" ; "Who is the enemy? White supremacy!" ; "This is what democracy looks like!"—and dance in the hall in an effort to stop Murray from speaking. Bill Burger, Middlebury College's Vice President of Communications, announced that the speech would be moved to another location. A closed circuit broadcast showed Murray being interviewed by political science professor Allison Stanger—chanting from protesters could be heard throughout the broadcast. After the interview, there was a violent confrontation between protesters—both from the college and the surrounding community—and Murray, Vice President for Communications Bill Burger, and Stanger (who was hospitalized with a neck injury and concussion) as they left the McCullough Student Center. Middlebury students claimed that Middlebury Public Safety officers instigated and escalated violence against nonviolent protesters and that administrator Bill Burger assaulted protesters with a car.[79] Middlebury President Laurie L. Patton responded after the event, saying the school would respond to "the clear violations of Middlebury College policy that occurred inside and outside Wilson Hall".[80][81][82][83] The school took disciplinary action against 74 students for their involvement in the incident.[84][85]

Selected bibliography[edit]

  • A Behavioral Study of Rural Modernization: Social and Economic Change in Thai Villages, Praeger Publishers, 1977.
  • Beyond Probation: Juvenile Corrections and the Chronic Delinquent (with Louis A. Cox, Jr.), SAGE Publishing, 1979.
  • Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980, Basic Books, 1984, ISBN 0465042317. Analyzes welfare reform.
  • In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government, Simon & Schuster, 1989, ISBN 0671687433.
  • Apollo: The Race to the Moon (with Catherine Bly Cox), Simon & Schuster, 1989, ISBN 978-0671706258.
  • The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (with Richard J. Herrnstein), Free Press, 1994, ISBN 0029146739.
  • What It Means to Be a Libertarian, Broadway Books, 1997, ISBN 0553069284.
  • "IQ and economic success", The Public Interest (1997): 128, 21–35.
  • Income Inequality and IQ, AEI Press, 1998.
  • The Underclass Revisited, AEI Press, 1999. PDF copy
  • Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950, HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 006019247X. A quantification and ranking of well-known scientists and artists.
  • In Our Hands: A Plan To Replace The Welfare State, AEI Press, March 2006, ISBN 0844742236.
  • Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing American Schools Back to Reality, Crown Forum, August 2008, ISBN 978-0307405388.
  • Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010, Crown Forum, 2012, ISBN 0307453421.
  • The Curmudgeon's Guide to Getting Ahead: Dos and Don'ts of Right Behavior, Tough Thinking, Clear Writing, and Living a Good Life, Crown Business, 2014, ISBN 978-0804141444.
  • By the People: Rebuilding Liberty Without Permission, Crown Forum, 2015, ISBN 978-0385346511.[86]
  • Human Diversity: The Biology of Gender, Race, and Class, Twelve, 2020, ISBN 978-1538744017
  • Facing Reality: Two Truths About Race in America, Encounter Books, 2021, ISBN 978-1641771979

In addition to these books, Murray has published articles in Commentary magazine, The New Criterion, The Weekly Standard, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and The New York Times.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Contemporary Authors Online", Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2008. Document Number: H1000118555
  2. ^ "Book Discussion on Real Education". C-SPAN. July 12, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2015. Charles Murray talked about his book, Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back to Reality (Crown Forum; August 19, 2008). The book takes a critical look at the education system in America and proposes ways to improve it. Among Dr. Murray's assertions are that too many people are going to college. Following his remarks, Dr. Murray responded to questions from the audience.
  3. ^ a b c d "Charles Murray AEI Scholar". American Enterprise Institute website. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  4. ^ "Biography of Murray, Charles A." (fee). Current Biography. HW Wilson. 1986. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
  5. ^ Martin, Michel (January 7, 2018). "Controversial Social Scientist Charles Murray Retires". National Public Radio. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  6. ^ Siegel, Eric (April 12, 2017). "The Real Problem with Charles Murray and "The Bell Curve"". Scientific American. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  7. ^ Lemann, Nicholas (January 18, 1997). "The Bell Curve Flattened: Subsequent research has seriously undercut the claims of the controversial best seller". Slate. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  8. ^ "Bell Curve author Charles Murray speaks out after speech cut short by protests". The Guardian. March 6, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  9. ^ Sehgal, Parul (February 12, 2020). "Charles Murray Returns, Nodding to Caution but Still Courting Controversy". The New York Times.
  10. ^ "The Inequality Taboo, by Charles Murray".
  11. ^ Magazine,, Jewish. "The Secret of Jewish Genius".
  12. ^ "Current Biography Yearbook". H.W. Wilson Co. 1986 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ a b c Jason DeParle (October 9, 1994). "Daring Research or 'Social Science Pornography'?: Charles Murray". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  14. ^ DeParle 1994, pp. 3–4. DeParle's biographical article finds throughout Murray's life the persona of a high-school prankster who "only [learns] later what the fuss [is] all about" (p. 12). Some critics have found particularly revealing DeParle's discussion of the cross-burning incident and Murray's subsequent choice to not mention it. Murray and his chums had formed a kind of good guys' gang, "the Mallows". In the fall of 1960, during their senior year, they nailed some scrap wood into a cross, adorned it with fireworks, and set it ablaze on a hill beside the police station, with scattered marshmallows as a calling card.
    Rutledge [a social worker and former juvenile delinquent] who was still hanging around the pool hall [and considers some of Murray's other memories to be idealized] recalls his astonishment the next day when the talk turned to racial persecution in a town with two black families. "There wouldn't have been a racist thought in our simple-minded minds," he says. "That's how unaware we were."
    A long pause follows when Murray is reminded of the event. "Incredibly, incredibly dumb", he says. "But it never crossed our minds that this had any larger significance. And I look back on that and say, 'How on earth could we be so oblivious?' I guess it says something about that day and age that it didn't cross our minds" (p. 4).
  15. ^ a b Charles Murray (July–August 2007). "Abolish the SAT". The American. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  16. ^ "Narrowing the New Class Divide". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  17. ^ DeParle, pp. 4–5.
  18. ^ Deparle, Jason (October 9, 1994). "Daring Research or 'Social Science Pornography'?: Charles Murray". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  19. ^ Steve Sailer. (October 16, 2003). "Q&A with Charles Murray on Human Accomplishment". UPI. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  20. ^ "Charles Murray". S.H.A.M.E. Project. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  21. ^ Eric R. Wolf; Joseph G. Jorgensen (November 19, 1970). "A Special Supplement: Anthropology on the Warpath in Thailand". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  22. ^ Wakin, Eric (1998). Anthropology Goes to War: Professional Ethics and Counterinsurgency in Thailand. Madison, WI: Center for Southeast Asian Studies.
  23. ^ Murray, Charles. (July 14, 2014) [1] Retrieved on 2014-09-18.
  24. ^ De Parle 1994.
  25. ^ McIntosh 2006: "My epiphany came in Thailand in the 1960s, when I first came to understand how badly bureaucracies dealt with human problems in the villages, and how well (with qualifications) villagers dealt with their own problems given certain conditions." Gene Expression: 10 questions for Charles Murray Archived December 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ DeParle, p. 7.
  27. ^ "Cox, Catherine Bly, 1949– . Papers, 1962–1967: A Finding Aid". Radcliffe College. January 1986. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  28. ^ Nasa Symposium on Forty Years of Human Spaceflight (2001). The book was well reviewed: "Rich, densely packed and beautifully told.... Filled with cliffhangers, suspense and spine-tingling adventure". – Charles Sheffield, Washington Post Book World, July 9, 1989. "Heart-gripping.... So brilliantly told one can almost smell the perspiration in Houston Mission Control". Charles Petit, San Francisco Chronicle, July 9, 1989:
  29. ^ Quaker meeting: The Quaker Economist #82 – The Bell Curve Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; current location: DeParle p. 8.
  30. ^ Two children from each marriage: DeParle, pp. 7–8.
  31. ^ Murray, Charles A. (2014). The curmudgeon's guide to getting ahead : dos and don'ts of right behavior, tough thinking, clear writing, and living a good life. Oliver Wendell Holmes Library Phillips Academy. New York : Crown Business. ISBN 978-0-8041-4144-4.
  32. ^ Olasky, Marvin. "Charles Murray and God". Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  33. ^ "Doctorado Honorífico durante el Acto de Graduación, Charles Murray" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  34. ^ Murray, Charles (2010). What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation. Crown/Archetype. ISBN 978-0307764928.
  35. ^ "Conservative Writer Charles Murray Speaks Out Against Middlebury Students Who Shut Down Talk". Time.
  36. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (February 10, 2012). "Tramps Like Them".
  37. ^ "What makes Charles Murray a lightning rod?".
  38. ^ Holley, Peter (March 4, 2017). "A conservative author tried to speak at a liberal arts college. He left fleeing an angry mob". The Washington Post.
  39. ^ "Why Is Charles Murray Odious?". Current Affairs. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  40. ^ "Analysis – Forget Milo Yiannopoulos. Charles Murray is the free-speech martyr to pay attention to". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  41. ^ "Charles Murray". Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  42. ^ Lane, Charles. "The Tainted Sources of 'The Bell Curve'". Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  43. ^ "Charles Murray". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  44. ^ Evans, Gavin (March 2, 2018). "The unwelcome revival of 'race science'". The Guardian.
  45. ^ Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Nisbett, Richard E. "There's still no good reason to believe black-white IQ differences are due to genes". Vox. Vox Media. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  46. ^ Panofsky, Aaron; Dasgupta, Kushan; Iturriaga, Nicole (September 28, 2020). "How White nationalists mobilize genetics: From genetic ancestry and human biodiversity to counterscience and metapolitics". American Journal of Physical Anthropology: 1–12.
  47. ^ Mattison, Edward (1985). "Stop Making Sense: Charles Murray and the Reagan Perspective on Social Welfare Policy and the Poor". Yale Law & Policy Review. 4 (1): 90–102.
  48. ^ Taylor, Joan Kennedy (2002), "Deregulating the Poor", in Boaz, David (ed.), Toward Liberty: The Idea that is Changing the World, Washington, DC: Cato Institute, pp. 81–94
  49. ^ Murray, Charles; Herrnstein, Richard J. (2010). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Simon and Schuster. p. 270. ISBN 978-1439134917. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  50. ^ Murray and Herrnstein 2010, p. 311.
  51. ^ Mackintosh, N. J. (Nicholas John), 1935- (2011). IQ and human intelligence (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958559-5. OCLC 669754008.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  52. ^ Nisbett, Richard E.; Aronson, Joshua; Blair, Clancy; Dickens, William; Flynn, James; Halpern, Diane F.; Turkheimer, Eric (2012). "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments". American Psychologist. 67 (2): 130–159. doi:10.1037/a0026699. ISSN 1935-990X. PMID 22233090.
  53. ^ Kaplan, Jonathan Michael (January 2015). "Race, IQ, and the search for statistical signals associated with so-called "X"-factors: environments, racism, and the "hereditarian hypothesis"". Biology & Philosophy. 30 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1007/s10539-014-9428-0. ISSN 0169-3867. S2CID 85351431.
  54. ^ Horn, John L. (2013). "Selections of Evidence, Misleading Assumptions, and Oversimplifications: The Political Message of the Bell Curve". In Fish, Jefferson M. (ed.). Race and intelligence : separating science from myth. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 297–325. ISBN 9781135651787. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  55. ^ Cravens, Hamilton (2009). "Race, IQ, and Politics in Twentieth-Century America". In Farber, Paul Lawrence; Cravens, Hamilton (eds.). Race and science : scientific challenges to racism in modern America. Oregon State University Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780870715761.
  56. ^ Richards, Graham (January 2004). Winston, Andrew S. (ed.). Defining difference : race and racism in the history of psychology (1st ed.). American Psychological Association. p. 143. ISBN 9781591470274.
  57. ^ "Genetic Differences and School Readiness" William T. Dickens, 2005
  58. ^ "Race, IQ, and Jensen" James R. Flynn (London: Routledge, 1980)
  59. ^ Nisbett, Richard. "Race, Genetics, and IQ", in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips (Brookings, 1998), pp. 86–102.
  60. ^ Christopher R. Brand; Denis Constales (2003). "Why ignore the g factor? – Historical considerations". In Nyborg, Helmuth (ed.). The Scientific Study of General Intelligence: Tribute to Arthur Jensen. Pergamon. p. 505. ISBN 978-0080437934. Herrnstein and Murray were swiftly and widely denounced as 'attempting to revive scientific racism'
  61. ^ Jerry Phillips (2002). "Richard Price and the Ordeal of the Post-Modern City". In Strickland, Ronald (ed.). Growing Up Postmodern: Neoliberalism and the War on the Young. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0742516519. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  62. ^ Purpel, David E.; Shapiro, H. A. (2005). Critical Social Issues in American Education: Democracy and Meaning in a Globalizing World. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates. p. 228. ISBN 080584452X.
  63. ^ Harold Berlak (September 22, 2004). "Racism and the Achievement Gap". In Shapiro, H. Svi; Purpel, David E. (eds.). Critical Social Issues in American Education: Democracy and Meaning in a Globalizing World. Routledge. p. 224. ISBN 978-1138453043. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  64. ^ Dennis, Rutledge M. "Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race". The Journal of Negro Education 64, no. 3 (1995): 243–52. doi:10.2307/2967206.
  65. ^ a b "Charles Murray". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  66. ^ Goldberger, Arthur S.; Manski, Charles F. (1995). "Review Article: The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and Murray". Journal of Economic Literature. 33 (2): 762–776. ISSN 0022-0515. JSTOR 2729026.
  67. ^ Wheen, Francie (May 10, 2000). "The 'science' behind racism | Columnists |". Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  68. ^ Charles Murray (March 24, 2017). "Charles Murray's SPLC page as edited by Charles Murray". American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  69. ^ NPR Staff. "Is White, Working Class America 'Coming Apart'?". NPR. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  70. ^ Painter, Nell Irvin. "When Poverty Was White". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  71. ^ "National Review Cruise Speakers". November 15, 2006. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006.
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External links[edit]