Charles R. Keyes
For the Iowa geologist, see Charles Rollin Keyes.
Charles Reuben Keyes (May 5, 1871 – July 23, 1951) was a pioneering Iowa archaeologist and linguist. Charles Keyes attended Harvard University for his Ph.D. in German, and taught German at Cornell College in Mount Vernon, Iowa until his retirement in 1941. He is best remembered as the founder of modern Iowa archaeology. While his early work dealt with linguistics, by the 1920s Keyes focused his research almost exclusively on archaeology. Keyes created the Iowa Archaeological Survey in 1922 and led it with Ellison Orr until their deaths in 1951, recording thousands of sites and conducting hundreds of excavations, and helping to create the modern prehistoric theoretical and temporal framework for Midwestern archaeology, and was among the first to describe the Mississippian culture. Keyes was one of the proponents and early booster of the creation of Effigy Mounds National Monument. The Iowa Archeological Society emerged in 1951 as Keyes' brainchild.
The Keyes family
Keyes was born in 5 May 1871 in Mt. Vernon, Iowa to Marsden and Martha Keyes. He attended Cornell College and married Sarah "Sadie" Naumann in 1902. Sadie Keyes died in 1963. Keyes had two daughters, Catherine Ann Keyes and Margaret Naumann Keyes.  Keyes was a descendant of Edmund Rice, an English immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
Works about Keyes
- Ennis, J. Harold (1951) "Charles Reuben Keyes," Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society (1):14–16
- Green, William (1992) "Charles Reuben Keyes and the History of Iowa Archaeology," Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science (99):80–85
- Jackson, Marilyn (1984) "Charles Reuben Keyes: Groundbreaker in Iowa Archaeology," The Iowan 33:32–54.
- Knauth, Otto (1982) The Keyes Collection: A Legacy of Indian Artifacts. Des Moines Register May 9.
- Perry, Michael J. (2009)"Keyes, Charles Reuben". In The Biographical Dictonary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press.
- Tandarich, John P. and Loren N. Horton (1976) "A Memorial Bibliography of Charles R. Keyes and Ellison J. Orr," Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society (23):45–144.
Selected works by Keyes
- 1902 Some Phrases of Alliteration and Rime in Modern English and German. Proceedings of the American Philological Association XXXIII.
- 1903 The Omission of the Auxiliary Verb in German. Proceedings of the American Philological Association XXXIV.
- 1920 Some Materials for the Study of Iowa Archaeology. Iowa Journal of History and Politics 18(3):357–370.
- 1925 Progress of the Archaeological Survey of Iowa. Iowa Journal of History and Politics 18(3):339–352.
- 1927 Prehistoric Man in Iowa. Palimpsest 8(6):185–229.
- 1928 The Hill-Lewis Archeological Survey. Minnesota History 9:96–108.
- 1928 Prehistoric Red Men. Palimpsest 9(2):33–37.
- 1928 Reports Archaeological Field Work in North America in 1927: Iowa. American Anthropologist 30:507–508.
- 1931 Grooved Axes of the Keokuk Type. The Wisconsin Archeologist 10(4):129–131.
- 1933 Shall Iowa Have National Monuments? Iowa Journal of History and Politics 31(1):31–46.
- 1934 Antiquities of the Upper Iowa. Palimpsest 15(10):321–354.
- 1935 Field Work in North America during 1934: Iowa. American Antiquity 1:65-66.
- 1941 An Outline of Iowa Archaeology. Iowa Academy of Science 48:91–98.
- 1944 Antiquities. The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 51:73–74.
- 1945 Ellison Orr: Naturalist, Archaeologist, Citizen. Iowa Bird Life 15(2):25–28.
- 1951 Ellison Orr: 1857-1951. The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 58:58–59.
- 1951 Prehistoric Indians of Iowa. Palimpsest 32(8):281–343.
- Perry, Michael J. (2009). "Keyes, Charles Reuben". The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- "Charles Reuben Keyes Papers". University of Iowa Special Collections. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- "Keyes Family Papers". University of Iowa Special Collections. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- Edmund Rice (1638) Association, 2009. Descendants of Edmund Rice: The First Nine Generations. See: Edmund Rice (1638) Association