6 April 1944 |
Saigon, Cochinchina, French Indochina (now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
|Other names||The Bikini Killer
|Criminal penalty||Life imprisonment|
Span of killings
Charles Sobhraj (born 6 April 1944), also known as the Proofreader, is a French serial killer of Vietnamese and Indian origin, who preyed on Western tourists throughout Southeast Asia during the 1970s. Nicknamed "The Splitting Killer" and "The Serpent", due to his skill at deception and evasion, Sobhraj allegedly committed at least 12 murders. He was convicted and jailed in India from 1976 to 1997. After his release, he retired as a celebrity in Paris. He returned to Nepal and was arrested and tried there. He was convicted of murder by the Supreme Court of Nepal on 12 August 2004. Sobhraj received a sentence of life imprisonment.
Charles Sobhraj is widely believed to be a psychopath . He was driven to murder as a means to sustain his adventurous lifestyle. That, as well as his cunning and cultured personality, made him a celebrity long before his release from prison. Sobhraj enjoyed the attention, charging large amounts of money for interviews and film rights; he has been the subject of four books and three documentaries. Sobhraj's return to Nepal, where he was still eagerly sought by authorities, is believed to be the result of his yearning for attention and overconfidence in his own intellect.
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Sobhraj was born as Gurmukh Sobhraj to a Vietnamese mother and an Indian Sindhi father in Saigon, Vietnam. His parents were unmarried and his father later deserted the family. Stateless at first, Sobhraj was adopted by his mother's new boyfriend, a French army lieutenant stationed in Indochina. However, he was neglected in favour of the couple's later children. Sobhraj continued to move back and forth between France and Indochina with the family. As a teenager, Sobhraj began to commit petty crimes.
Sobhraj received his first jail sentence (for burglary) in 1963, serving at Poissy prison near Paris Sobhraj manipulated prison officials into granting him special favors, like being allowed to keep books in his cell, etc. At around the same time, he met and endeared himself to Felix d'Escogne, a wealthy young man and prison volunteer.
After being paroled, Sobhraj moved in with d'Escogne and shared his time between moving in the high society of Paris and the criminal underworld. He began accumulating riches through a series of scams and burglaries. During this time, he met and began a relationship with Chantal Compagnon, a young Parisian woman from a conservative family. Sobhraj proposed marriage to Compagnon, but was arrested the same day for evading police while driving a stolen car. He was sentenced to eight months in prison. Chantal remained supportive during his prison time. Sobhraj and Chantal were married upon his release.
Sobhraj and his now pregnant wife left France for Asia to escape arrest.[vague] After traveling through Eastern Europe with fake documents, robbing tourists whom they befriended along the way, the Sobhrajs arrived in Mumbai in 1970. Here, Chantal gave birth to a baby girl, Usha. In the meantime, Sobhraj resumed his criminal lifestyle, running a car theft and smuggling operation. Sobhraj's profits were used towards his growing gambling addiction.
In 1970, Sobhraj was arrested and imprisoned after an unsuccessful armed robbery attempt on a jewellery store at Hotel Ashoka. Sobhraj was able to escape, with Chantal's help, due to faking illness, but they were re-captured shortly thereafter. Sobhraj borrowed money for bail from his father and soon after fled to Kabul.
In Kabul, the couple continued robbing tourists on the "hippie trail," only to be arrested once again. And again, Sobhraj escaped in the same way he had in India - feigning illness and drugging the hospital guard. This time, Sobhraj fled to Iran, leaving his family behind. Chantal, although still loyal to Sobhraj, but wishing to leave their criminal past behind, returned to France and vowed never to see him again.
Sobhraj spent the next two years on the run, using as many as 10 stolen passports. He passed through various countries in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Sobhraj was joined by his younger brother, André, in Istanbul. Sobhraj and André quickly became partners in crime, participating in various criminal activities in both Turkey and Greece. The duo were eventually arrested in Athens. After an identity-switch plan went awry, Sobhraj escaped, but his brother was left behind. André was turned over to the Turkish police by Greek authorities, and served an 18-year sentence.
On the run again, Sobhraj financed his lifestyle by posing as either a gem salesman or drug dealer to impress and befriend tourists, whom he then defrauded. In Thailand, Sobhraj met Marie-Andrée Leclerc from Lévis, Quebec, a tourist looking for adventure. Subjugated by Sobhraj's personality, Leclerc quickly became his most devoted follower, turning a blind eye to his crimes and his philandering with local women.
Sobhraj gathered followers by gaining their loyalty: a typical scam was to help his target out of difficult situations. Situations he had in fact conjured himself. In one case, he helped two former French policemen, Yannick and Jacques. They sought Sobhraj's help to recover their missing passports. Sobhraj had actually stolen the passports. In another scheme, Sobhraj provided shelter to a Frenchman, Dominique Rennelleau, who appeared to be suffering from dysentery. Sobhraj had actually poisoned Rennelleau. He was finally joined by a young Indian, Ajay Chowdhury, a fellow criminal who became Sobhraj's second-in-command.
Sobhraj and Chowdhury committed their first (known) murders in 1975. Most of the victims had spent some time with the duo before their deaths and were, according to investigators, recruited by Sobhraj and Chowdhury to join the pair in their crimes. Investigators state that the victims had threatened to expose Sobhraj, which was his motive for murder. The first victim was a young woman from Seattle, Teresa Knowlton (named Jennie Bollivar in the book "Serpentine") was found drowned in a tidal pool in the Gulf of Thailand. She was wearing a flowered bikini. It was only months later that Knowlton's autopsy, as well as forensic evidence, proved that her drowning, originally believed to be a swimming accident, was murder.
Dutch students Henk Bintanja, 29, and his fiancée Cornelia Hemker, 25, were invited to Thailand after meeting Sobhraj in Hong Kong. They, like so many others, were poisoned by Sobhraj, who then nurtured them back to health in order to gain their obedience. As they recovered, Sobhraj was visited by his previous victim Hakim's French girlfriend, Charmayne Carrou, who had come to investigate her boyfriend's disappearance. Fearing exposure, Sobhraj and Chowdhury quickly hustled the couple out. Their bodies were found strangled and burned on 16 December 1975. Soon after, Carrou was found drowned and wearing a similar-styled swimsuit to that of Sobhraj's earlier victim, Teresa Knowlton. Although the murders of both women were not connected by investigations at the time, they would later earn Sobhraj the nickname "the Bikini Killer."
On 18 December, the day the bodies of Bintanja and Hemker were identified, Sobhraj and Leclerc entered Nepal using the deceased pair's passports. Leclerc and Sobhraj met in Nepal and, on 21–22 December, murdered Canadian Laurent Ormond Carrière, 26, and American Connie Bronzich, 29; the two victims were incorrectly identified in some sources as Laddie DuParr and Annabella Tremont. Sobhraj and Leclerc then returned to Thailand, once again using their latest victims' passports before their bodies could be identified.
Upon his return to Thailand, Sobhraj discovered that his three French companions had started to suspect him of serial murder, having found documents belonging to the murder victims. Sobhraj's former companions fled to Paris after notifying local authorities.
Sobhraj's next destination was Calcutta, where he murdered Israeli scholar Avoni Jacob simply to obtain Jacob's passport. Sobhraj used the passport to travel with Leclerc and Chowdhury - first to Singapore, then to India, and, in March 1976, returning to Bangkok, despite knowing that the authorities there sought him. The clan were interrogated by Thai policemen in connection with the murders, but released because authorities feared that the negative publicity accompanying a murder trial would harm the country's tourist industry.
Meanwhile, Dutch embassy diplomat Herman Knippenberg was investigating the murder of Bintanja and Hemker. Knippenberg had some knowledge of, and had possibly even met Sobhraj, though his real name was still unknown to Knippenberg. The Dutch diplomat gathered evidence, and, with the help of Sobhraj's neighbour, built a case against him. Knippenberg was eventually given police permission to search Sobhraj's apartment, a full month after the suspect had left the country. Knippenberg found evidence, such as victims' documents and passports, as well as poisons and syringes.
The trio's next stop was Malaysia, where Chowdhury was sent to steal gems. Chowdhury was observed delivering the gems to Sobhraj. This was the last time he was ever seen, and neither Chowdhury nor his remains were ever found. It is believed that Sobhraj murdered his former accomplice before leaving Malaysia to continue his and Leclerc's roles as gem salesmen in Geneva. A source later claimed to have sighted Chowdhury in Germany, the claim appeared unsubstantiated. The search for Chowdhury continues.
Soon back in Asia, Sobhraj started to build a new criminal "family," starting with two lost Western women, Barbara Smith and Mary Ellen Eather, in Bombay. Sobhraj's next victim was Frenchman Jean-Luc Solomon, whose poisoning during a robbery, simply intended to incapacitate him, left him dead.
In July 1976 in New Delhi, Sobhraj, joined by his three-woman criminal clan, tricked a tour group of French post-graduate students into accepting them as tour guides. Sobhraj then drugged them by giving them poisoned pills, which he told them were anti-dysentery medicine. However, when the drugs started acting more quickly than Sobhraj had anticipated, the students began to fall unconscious. Three of the students realized what Sobhraj had done. They overpowered him and contacted the police, leading to his much-anticipated capture. During interrogation, Sobhraj's accomplices, Barbara and Mary Ellen quickly buckled and confessed. Sobhraj was charged with the murder of Solomon, and all four were sent to Tihar prison, New Delhi, while awaiting formal trial.
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Conditions inside the notorious prison were unbearable; Barbara and Mary Ellen attempted suicide during the two years before their trial. Sobhraj, however, had entered with precious gems concealed in his body and was experienced in bribing captors and living comfortably in jail.
Sobhraj turned his trial into a show, hiring and firing lawyers at whim, bringing in his recently paroled and still-loyal brother André to help, and eventually going on a hunger strike. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison instead of the expected death penalty. Leclerc was found guilty of the drugging of the French students, then later paroled and returned to Canada when she developed ovarian cancer. She was still claiming her innocence, and reportedly still loyal to Sobhraj, when she died at home in April 1984.
Sobhraj's systematic bribery of prison guards at Tihar reached outrageous levels. He led a life of luxury inside the jail, with TV and gourmet food, having befriended both guards and prisoners. Reveling in his notoriety, he gave interviews to Western authors and journalists, such as Oz magazine's Richard Neville in the late 1970s, and Alan Dawson in 1984. He freely talked about his murders, while never actually admitting to them, and pretended that his actions were in retaliation against Western imperialism in Asia.
When Sobhraj's sentence was to end, the 20-year Thai arrest warrant against him would still have been valid, thereby affecting his extradition and almost certain execution. So in March 1986, in his tenth year in prison, he threw a big party for his guards and fellow inmates, drugged them with sleeping pills and walked out of the jail. Inspector Madhukar Zende of the Mumbai police apprehended Sobhraj in O'Coquero Restaurant in Goa; his prison term was prolonged by ten years, just as he had hoped. On 17 February 1997, 52-year-old Sobhraj was released with most warrants, evidence and even witnesses against him long lost. Without any country to extradite him to, Indian authorities let him return to France.
Celebrity and re-capture
Sobhraj retired to a comfortable life in suburban Paris. He hired a publicity agent and charged large sums of money for interviews and photographs. He is said to have charged over $US15 million (according to Advocate Bishwa Lal Shrestha who is Ex. Inspector and investigated the case, framed the charge sheet and registered the case in court) for the rights to a movie based on his life.
On 17 September 2003 Sobhraj was seen in a street of Kathmandu by a journalist. The journalist quickly reported this to the Nepalese authorities who arrested him two days later in the casino of the Yak and Yeti hotel. Sobhraj's motives for returning to Nepal remain unknown. He was sentenced to life imprisonment by the Kathmandu district court on 20 August 2004 for the murders of Bronzich and Carrière in 1975. Most of the photocopy evidence used against him in this case was from that gathered by Knippenberg, the Dutch embassy investigator, and Interpol.
Sobhraj appealed against the conviction, claiming that he was sentenced without trial. His lawyer also announced that Chantal, Sobhraj's wife in France, was filing a case before the European Court of Human Rights against the French government, for refusing to provide him with any assistance.
Sobhraj's conviction was confirmed by the Patan Court of Appeals in 2005.
In late 2007, news media reported that Sobhraj's lawyer had appealed to the then French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, for intervention with Nepal. In 2008, Sobhraj announced his engagement to a Nepali woman Nihita Biswas (who later participated in the reality show Big Boss 5). On 7 July 2008, issuing a press release through his fiancée Nihita, he claimed that he was never convicted of murder by any court and asked the media not to refer to him as a serial killer. It was claimed that he married his fiancée on October 9, 2008 in the jail, on the occasion of Bada Dashami, a Nepalese festival. On the following day, Nepalese jail authorities dismissed the claim of his marriage. They said that Nihita and her family had been allowed to conduct a tika ceremony, along with the relatives of hundreds of other prisoners. They further claimed that it was not a wedding but part of the ongoing Dashain festival, when elders put the vermilion mark on the foreheads of those younger to them to signify their blessings.
In July 2010, the Supreme Court of Nepal postponed the verdict on an appeal filed by Sobhraj against a district court's verdict sentencing him to life imprisonment for the murder of American backpacker Connie Jo Bronzich in 1975. Sobhraj had appealed against the district court's verdict in 2006, calling it unfair and accusing the judges of racism while handing out the sentence.
On 30 July 2010 the Nepalese Supreme Court upheld the verdict issued by the district court in Kathmandu of a life sentence for the murder of US citizen Connie Jo Bronzich and another year plus a Rs 2,000 fine for using a fake passport to travel. The seizure of all his properties was also ordered by the court. His mother-in-law/lawyer Shakuntala Thapa and his "wife" Nihita expressed dissatisfaction with the verdict and Thapa claimed that Sobhraj had been "denied" justice and "judiciary is corrupt." They were charged and sent to judicial custody for contempt of court because of these remarks.
Sobhraj currently has another case pending against him in the Bhaktapur district court for the murder of Laurent Armand Carrière, a Canadian-born tourist.
As of 18 September 2014, Sobhraj was convicted in Nepal of another murder.
- Julie Clarke & Richard Neville (1980). The Life and Serious Crimes of Charles Sobhraj. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-27001-X.
- Thompson, Thomas (1979). Serpentine. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0749-6.
- Julie Clarke & Richard Neville (1989). Shadow of the Cobra. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-012937-3.
In popular culture
- Bollywood movie Main Aur Charles (2015) directed by Prawaal Raman and Cyznoure Network is said to be based on his Prison break from Tihar Jail, New Delhi. The film was earlier being produced by Pooja Bhatt and titled Bad. But due to differences midway into the shoot, both Pooja and her title are not associated with the film and the film is now called Main Aur Charles.
- The made for TV movie Shadow of the Cobra (1989) is based on Sobhraj.
- On the TV series Law & Order: Criminal Intent, the character of Nicole Wallace, portrayed by Olivia d'Abo, is loosely based on Marie-Andrée Leclerc. In the episode "Slither" (which was originally to be titled "Serpentine"), Michael York appears as Bernard Fremont, Wallace's mentor and former partner-in-crime, who is based on Sobhraj.
- Colin Falconer's 'Venom' is a fictional retelling of Sobhraj's life
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- "Press Release of Charles Shobhraj". Mysansar. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
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- "SC orders judicial custody for Nihita, Shakuntala". The Himalayan Times.
- "Nepal court convicts 'Bikini killer' Charles Sobhraj of second murder". BBC News. September 18, 2014.
- Charles Sobhraj biography at Biography.com
- Sobhraj’s Past Revives via his wife Nihita - Big Boss 5
- SC upholds Sobhraj conviction
- Cop who investigated 1975 murders settles score as lawyer
- Inspector who foiled Sobhraj
- Return of the Serpent
- All about Charles Sobraj, by Mark Gribben on Crime Library
- Asia's most infamous serial killer gets life...
- Shadow of the Cobra on IMDb