Charles Starkweather

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Charles Starkweather
Mugshots of Starkweather in 1958
Charles Raymond Starkweather

(1938-11-24)November 24, 1938
DiedJune 25, 1959(1959-06-25) (aged 20)
Nebraska State Penitentiary, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.
Cause of deathExecution by electrocution
Conviction(s)First degree murder
Criminal penaltyDeath
Partner(s)Caril Ann Fugate (1956–1959; his death)
Time at large
60 days
Span of crimes
December 1, 1957 – January 29, 1958
CountryUnited States
State(s)Nebraska, Wyoming
Date apprehended
January 29, 1958
Imprisoned atNebraska State Penitentiary

Charles Raymond Starkweather (November 24, 1938 – June 25, 1959)[2] was an American spree killer who murdered eleven people in Nebraska and Wyoming between November 1957 and January 1958, when he was nineteen years old.[3] He killed ten of his victims between January 21 and January 29, 1958, the date of his arrest. During his spree in 1958, Starkweather was accompanied by his fourteen-year-old girlfriend, Caril Ann Fugate.[4]

Both Starkweather and Fugate were convicted on charges for their parts in the homicides; Starkweather was sentenced to death and executed seventeen months after the events. Fugate served seventeen years in prison, gaining release in 1976.[5] Starkweather's execution by electric chair in 1959 was the last execution in Nebraska until 1994, when Harold Lamont Otey was executed for murder.[6]

The Starkweather case has been analyzed by criminologists and psychologists in an attempt to understand spree killers' motivations and precipitating factors.[7][8][9] It also became notorious as one of the earlier crime scandals that reached national prominence, much like the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh's son with the media outlets covering the case at the time openly condemning Starkweather.[10][11]

Early life[edit]

Starkweather was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, the fourth of seven children of Guy and Helen Starkweather.[12] The Starkweathers were a working-class family; Starkweather's father was a carpenter who was often unemployed due to rheumatoid arthritis in his hands; Helen worked as a waitress to supplement the family's income.[13] Guy Starkweather admitted at Charles's trial to having pushed his son into a window; later his wife would divorce him on the grounds of extreme cruelty.[14] The family was downwardly mobile: Starkweather's great-great grandfather, George Anson Starkweather, was a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York's 21st district from 1847–1849.[citation needed]

Starkweather attended Saratoga Elementary School, Irving Junior High School, and Lincoln High School. In contrast to his family life, Starkweather later recalled nothing positive of his time at school.[15] He was born with genu varum, a mild birth defect that caused his legs to be misshapen, and claimed he was teased by classmates because he had a speech impediment.[15] His elementary school teacher did not recall his being teased.[16]

As he grew older and stronger, the only subject in which Starkweather excelled was the gym,[12] where he found an outlet for his rage against those who bullied him. Starkweather then began to bully those who had once picked on him.[17] Eventually he felt rage against anyone he disliked. Author Ginger Strand argues that his writings from prison suggest a strong element of class envy and bitterness.[18] Starkweather went from being one of the most well-behaved teenagers in the community to one of the most troubled. His high school friend Bob von Busch would later recall:

He could be the kindest person you've ever seen. He'd do anything for you if he liked you. He was a hell of a lot of fun to be around, too. Everything was just one big joke to him. But he had this other side. He could be mean as hell, cruel. If he saw some poor guy on the street who was bigger than he was, better looking, or better dressed, he'd try to take the poor bastard down to his size.[19]

By the time Starkweather dropped out of school, his parents and family were reportedly afraid of him due to his violent outbursts.[20]

Relationship with Caril Ann Fugate[edit]

In 1956, at eighteen, Starkweather was introduced to thirteen-year-old Caril Ann Fugate.[21] Starkweather dropped out of high school in his senior year and took a job at a newspaper warehouse[12][17] because it was near Fugate's school; he began to visit her every day after school.

Starkweather taught Fugate how to drive, and one day she crashed the car belonging to Starkweather's father, who banished Starkweather from the family home. Starkweather quit his warehouse job and became a garbage collector.[12]

Starkweather began developing a nihilistic worldview, believing that his current situation was the final determinant of how he would live the rest of his life, while striving only to satisfy his biological needs and acquire power over others.[further explanation needed][22][23] He began plotting bank robberies, and settled on a personal philosophy: "Dead people are all on the same level".[24]

First murder[edit]

Late on November 30, 1957, Starkweather became angry at Robert Colvert, a service station attendant in Lincoln, for refusing to sell him a stuffed animal on credit. He returned several times during the night to purchase small items, until finally, brandishing a shotgun, he forced Colvert to give him $100 from the till. He drove Colvert to a remote area, where they struggled over the gun, injuring Colvert before Starkweather killed him with several shots to the head.[15]

1958 murder spree[edit]

On January 21, 1958, Starkweather went to Fugate's home.[2] Fugate's mother and stepfather, Velda and Marion Bartlett, told him to stay away. He fatally shot them, then clubbed to death their two-year-old daughter Betty Jean.[15] He hid the bodies in an outhouse and chicken coop behind the house.[25]

Starkweather later said that Caril was there the entire time, but she said that when she arrived home, Starkweather met her with a gun and said that her family was being held hostage. She said Starkweather told her that if she cooperated with him, her family would be safe; otherwise, they would be killed. The pair remained in the house until shortly before the police, alerted by Fugate's suspicious grandmother, arrived on January 27.[15] When the police broke in, they found no one there and the house in apparent order. A few days later, Charles's brother Rodney and his friend Bob Von Busch searched the house and premises, finding the stashed bodies. The police issued an alert to pick up both Starkweather and Fugate.[26]

Starkweather and Fugate drove to the farmhouse of seventy-year-old August Meyer, one of his family's friends who lived in Bennet, Nebraska. Starkweather killed him with a shotgun blast to the head.[15] He also killed Meyer's dog.[27]

Fleeing the area, the pair drove their car into mud and abandoned the vehicle. When Robert Jensen and Carol King, two local teenagers, stopped to give them a ride, Starkweather forced them to drive back to an abandoned storm cellar in Bennet. He shot Jensen in the back of the head. He attempted to rape King, but was unable to do so.[28] He became angry with her and fatally shot her as well. Starkweather later admitted shooting Jensen, but claimed that Fugate shot King. Fugate said she had stayed in the car the entire time. The two fled Bennet in Jensen's car.[21]

Starkweather and Fugate drove to a wealthy section of Lincoln, where they entered the home of industrialist Chester Lauer Ward and his wife Clara.[15] Starkweather stabbed their maid Ludmila "Lilyan" Fencl to death, then waited for Lauer and Clara to return home. Starkweather killed the family dog by breaking its neck, to keep it from alerting the Wards. Clara arrived first alone, and was also stabbed to death. Starkweather later admitted to having thrown a knife at Clara, but insisted that Fugate had stabbed her numerous times, killing her. When Lauer Ward returned home that evening, Starkweather shot and killed him. While the killers were in the house, the Wards' newspapers arrived, and they cut out the front-page pictures of themselves and Fugate's dead family. These pictures were found on them later, casting doubt on Caril's claim that she didn't know her family was dead.[29] Starkweather and Fugate filled Ward's black 1956 Packard with stolen jewelry from the house and fled Nebraska.[23]

The murders of the Wards and Fencl caused an uproar within Lancaster County.[15] The flames of public fear were fanned by the era's ongoing panic about "juvenile delinquency."[30] Law enforcement agencies in the region sent their officers on a house-to-house search for the perpetrators. Governor Victor Emanuel Anderson contacted the Nebraska National Guard, and the Lincoln chief of police called for a block-by-block search of that city. After several sightings of Starkweather and Fugate were reported, the Lincoln Police Department was accused of incompetence for being unable to capture the pair.[7] Vigilante gangs were formed, and local sheriff Merle Karnopp started forming a posse by arming men he found in bars.[31]

Needing a new car because of Ward's Packard having been identified, the couple came upon traveling salesman Merle Collison sleeping in his Buick along the highway outside Douglas, Wyoming. After Collison was awakened, he was fatally shot. Starkweather later accused Fugate of performing a coup-de-grace after his shotgun jammed. Starkweather claimed Fugate was the "most trigger-happy person" he had ever met. Fugate denied ever having killed anyone.[3][failed verification]

The salesman's car had a parking brake, which was something new to Starkweather. While he attempted to drive away, the car stalled because the brake had not been released. He tried to restart the engine, and a passing motorist, geologist Joe Sprinkle, stopped to help. Starkweather threatened him with the rifle, and an altercation ensued. At that moment, Natrona County Sheriff's Deputy William Romer arrived on the scene. Fugate ran to him, yelling something to the effect of: "It's Starkweather! He's going to kill me!"[21]

Starkweather drove off and was involved in a car chase with three officers--Romer, Douglas Police Chief Robert Ainslie, and Converse County Sheriff Earl Heflin--exceeding speeds of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). A bullet fired by Heflin shattered the windshield and flying glass cut Starkweather deep enough to cause bleeding. He stopped, surrendered, and was captured near Douglas on January 29, 1958.[32] Heflin said, "He thought he was bleeding to death. That's why he stopped. That's the kind of yellow son of a bitch he is."[33]

Trial and execution[edit]

Starkweather chose to be extradited from Wyoming to Nebraska. He and Fugate arrived there in late January 1958. He believed that either state would have executed him. He was not aware, however, that Milward Simpson, Wyoming's governor at the time, opposed the death penalty.[34] Starkweather first said that he had kidnapped Fugate and that she had nothing to do with the murders. However, he changed his story several times. He testified against her at her trial, saying that she was a willing participant.[35]

Caril Fugate, pictured en route to Lincoln, Nebraska. February 3, 1958

Fugate has always maintained that Starkweather was holding her hostage by threatening to kill her family, claiming she was unaware they were already dead. Judge Harry A. Spencer did not believe Fugate was held hostage by Starkweather, as he determined she had had numerous opportunities to escape. When Starkweather was first taken to the Nebraska penitentiary after his trial, he said that he believed that he was supposed to die. He said if he was to be executed, then Fugate should be also.[36]

Starkweather was convicted, after the jury deliberated for only 22 hours, for the murder of Jensen, the only murder for which he was tried. On May 23, 1958, he was sentenced to death, and Starkweather was executed in the electric chair at the Nebraska State Penitentiary in Lincoln, Nebraska, at 12:04 a.m. on June 25, 1959.[37] Half an hour before the execution, the doctor who was supposed to pronounce Starkweather dead, B.A. Finkel, himself suffered a fatal heart attack.[38] Starkweather gave no last words but in a letter from prison to his parents, wrote: "but dad I'm not real sorry for what I did cause for the first time me and Caril have (sic) more fun."[35] He was reportedly indifferent about his impending death and had become resigned to his fate.[22]

Following the execution, Starkweather was buried in Wyuka Cemetery in Lincoln, as are five of his victims, including Mr. and Mrs. C. Lauer Ward.[39][40]

Fugate was convicted as an accomplice and received a life sentence on November 21, 1958. She was paroled in June 1976 after serving seventeen-and-a-half-years at the Nebraska Correctional Center for Women in York, Nebraska. She settled in Hillsdale, Michigan.


  1. Robert Colvert (21), gas station attendant
  2. Marion Bartlett (58), Fugate's stepfather
  3. Velda Bartlett (36), Fugate's mother
  4. Betty Jean Bartlett (2), Fugate's sister
  5. August Meyer (70), Starkweather's family's friend
  6. Robert Jensen (17), boyfriend to Carol King
  7. Carol King (16), girlfriend to Robert Jensen
  8. Lillian Fencl (51), maid in the Ward household
  9. Clara Ward (50), Chester Lauer Ward's wife
  10. Chester Lauer Ward (47), wealthy industrialist
  11. Merle Collison (34), traveling salesman

Starkweather also killed two family dogs.

In popular culture[edit]

Representation in film and television[edit]

  • The Starkweather–Fugate case inspired the films The Sadist (1963), Badlands (1973), Guncrazy (1992), Kalifornia (1993), Natural Born Killers (1994), and Starkweather (2004).[41]
  • "A Case Study of Two Savages," a 1962 episode of the TV series Naked City, was also inspired by the Starkweather killings (the couple played by Rip Torn and Tuesday Weld).
  • The 1968 first season Robert Stack-segment episode; 'The Bobby Currier Story', of The Name of the Game, was also based on these events.
  • The made-for-TV movie Murder in the Heartland (1993) is a biographical depiction of Starkweather, with Tim Roth in the starring role.
  • Stark Raving Mad (1981), a feature film starring Russell Fast and Marcie Severson, is a fictionalized account of the Starkweather–Fugate murder spree.[citation needed]
  • The Peter Jackson film The Frighteners (1996) features a Starkweather-inspired killer who goes on a similar murder spree, and has a female accomplice.
  • The fourth episode, "Dangerous Liaisons" (aired September 2, 2010), of season four from the ID series, Deadly Women, covers the murders.
  • "Teenage Wasteland", the Season 4 premiere episode (aired December 6, 2016) from the ID series A Crime to Remember, also covers the Starkweather–Fugate murder spree.
  • In "Fun with Chemistry", Season 1 Episode 7 of Breakout Kings, Starkweather and Fugate are mention as spree killers.
  • The 12th Victim (2023) the Showtime limited series focuses on Caril Ann Fugate's role in the crime spree.


  • Wright Morris' 1960 novel Ceremony at Lone Tree is based, in part, on Starkweather's murders.[42]
  • The 1974 book Caril is an unauthorized biography of Caril Ann Fugate written by Ninette Beaver.
  • Liza Ward, the granddaughter of victims C. Lauer and Clara Ward, wrote the novel Outside Valentine (2004), based on the events of the Starkweather–Fugate murders.
  • The novel Not Comin' Home to You (1974) by Lawrence Block has fictional events that are similar to the Starkweather and Fugate spree.
  • Horror author Stephen King has said that he was strongly influenced by reading about the Starkweather murders when he was a youth, and that he kept a scrapbook of articles about them.[43] Starkweather is mentioned in King's novel The Stand as an acquaintance of Randall Flagg, the main antagonist of the book.

Visual arts[edit]

  • In 2011, art photographer Christian Patterson released Redheaded Peckerwood,[44] a collection of photos made each January from 2005 to 2010 along the 500-mile route traversed by Starkweather and Fugate. The book includes reproductions of documents and photographs of objects that belonged to Starkweather, Fugate, and their victims. Patterson had discovered several of these objects while making his photographs and they had never been seen publicly before or identified with these figures.[45]
  • The comic book series Northlanders referred to the murder spree in its 2010 story arc Metal.[46]


  • Bruce Springsteen's 1982 song "Nebraska" is a first-person narrative based on the Starkweather murders.
  • J Church's 1993 song "Hate So Real" retells the Starkweather murders.
  • "Starkweather homicide" is referenced in the lyrics to singer-songwriter Billy Joel's 1989 music single, "We Didn't Start the Fire".
  • The 2009 Church of Misery song "Badlands (Charles Starkweather & Caril Fugate)" is about the Starkweather murders.
  • A picture of Starkweather's arrest was used as a backdrop on singer-songwriter Morrissey's 2019 live tour, during the song "Jack The Ripper".
  • Nicole Dollanganger's 2012 song Nebraska details the events of the Starkweather murders.
  • The band Blood for Blood featured a photo of Charles Starkweather on the cover of their 1997 7” Enemy.
  • The Philadelphia metalcore band Starkweather took their name from Charles Starkweather.
  • "C.Redux" is a menacing ode to the legend of Charles Starkweather and Caril Ann Fugate by the Washington D.C. proto-punk band (The) Razz.

Video games[edit]

  • Lionel Starkweather, a snuff film director inspired by the eponymous murderer, is the primary antagonist in the stealth-horror game Manhunt. He is voiced by Brian Cox.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Teenage killers murder three people". History.
  2. ^ a b Wishart, David J. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. U of Nebraska Press. p. 462. ISBN 978-0-8032-4787-1. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  3. ^ a b Rule, Ann (2004). Kiss Me, Kill Me: Ann Rule's Crime Files. Simon and Schuster. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-671-69139-4. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  4. ^ Hanzlicek, C.G. (October 1, 1967). Newman, Charles (ed.). "Five for Charles Starkweather, murderer". TriQuarterly. Evanston, Illinois, United States of America: Northwestern University Press. 10 (2): 60. ISSN 0041-3097. OCLC 889376903. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  5. ^ Flowers, R. Barri; H. Loraine Flowers (April 2005). Murders In The United States: Crimes, Killers And Victims Of The Twentieth Century. McFarland. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7864-2075-9. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  6. ^ Lachance, Daniel (July 1, 2009). De Giorgi, Alessandro; Barker, Vanessa; Hannah-Moffat, Kelly; Lynch, Mona (eds.). "Executing Charles Starkweather: Lethal punishment in an age of rehabilitation". Punishment & Society. Thousand Oaks, California, United States of America: SAGE Publications. 11 (3): 337–358. doi:10.1177/1462474509334607. ISSN 1462-4745. LCCN sn99017542. OCLC 42208145. S2CID 145675504. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  7. ^ a b Parker, A.H., ed. (November 25, 1960). "Backward look at a boy killer". International news section. The Buckingham Post. Vol. 65, no. 30. Buckingham, Quebec, Canada: Estate of A.H. Parker. Newsweek. p. 4. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Reinhardt, James Melvin (June 17, 1958). Baker, Alton F.; Frazier, Robert B.; Baker Jr., Alton F.; Currey, A.H.; Strommer, Arne; Fugle, Jari E.; Johnston Jr., W.B. (eds.). "Reason sought by criminologist for youth's wild slaying spree". Eugene Register-Guard. Vol. 91, no. 238. Eugene, Oregon, United States of America. The Associated Press (AP). p. 12B. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ DeLisi, Matt; Hochstetler, Andy; Scherer, Aaron M.; Purhmann, Aaron; Berg, Mark T. (March 13, 2008). Tewksbury, Richard; Baker, David v.; Mustaine, Elizabeth Erhardt; Copes, Heith; Payne, Brian (eds.). "The Starkweather Syndrome: exploring criminal history antecedents of homicidal crime sprees". Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society. London, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain: Taylor & Francis. 21 (1): 37–47. doi:10.1080/14786010801972670. ISSN 1478-601X. S2CID 145389937. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  10. ^ Marshall, Chris E. (1991). Burruss, George W.; Matusiak, Matthew; Carson, Dena; Haberman, Cory (eds.). "Fear of crime, community satisfaction and self-protective measures: Perceptions from a Midwestern city". Journal of Crime and Justice. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Midwestern Criminal Justice Association /Taylor & Francis. 14 (2): 97–121. doi:10.1080/0735648X.1991.9721440. ISSN 0735-648X.
  11. ^ Ravnikar, Michelle Barret (1986). Brier, Warren J. (ed.). Reporting a mass murder: Coverage of the Charles Starkweather case by the "Lincoln Star" and the "Omaha World Herald" (PDF). University of Montana Graduate School (Master of Arts). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. Vol. 5065. Missoula, Montana, United States of America: University of Montana. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via ScholarWorks at University of Montana.
  12. ^ a b c d Charles Starkweather Archived November 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine,; accessed June 21, 2015.
  13. ^ Killers ISBN 978-0-752-20850-3 p. 174
  14. ^ Strand, p. 17
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Charles Starkweather and Caril Ann Fugate, retrieved (December 9, 2009)
  16. ^ Strand, p. 10
  17. ^ a b World of Criminal Justice on Charles Starkweather,; accessed June 21, 2015.
  18. ^ Strand, 18-19.
  19. ^ Allen, William. Starkweather: The Story of a Mass Murderer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Print.
  20. ^ Green, John G.; Green, Eleanor F.; Hume, Anna C., eds. (January 30, 1958). "Parents feared for own lives". Main section. Schenectady Gazette. Vol. LXIV, no. 105. Schenectady, New York, United States of America: Daily Gazette Company. The Associated Press (AP). p. 1. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ a b c Cawthorne, Nigel (1994) [1993]. "4. Rebel Without A Cause". In Cawthorne, Nigel; Tibballs, Geoff (eds.). Killers: Contract killers, spree killers, sex killers, the ruthless exponents of murder, the most evil crime of all. True Crime (2nd ed.). London, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain: Boxtree Limited. pp. 174–192. ISBN 9780752208503 – via Internet Archive.
  22. ^ a b Reinhardt, James Melvin (June 12, 1958). Perry, John H.; Perry Jr., John H.; Leavengood, H.D.; Dosh, R.N.; Watts, Bernard (eds.). "Teenage slayer of 11 awaits execution with indifference". Ocala Star-Banner. Vol. 92, no. 15. Ocala, Florida, United States of America: John H. Perry Associates. p. 21. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ a b Reinhardt, James Melvin (June 9, 1958). Cromie, Donald; Dampier, J.L.; Koshovoy, H.; MacKay, C.H.; Rooney, J.J. (eds.). "Killer hungered for a girl, a gun, power". International news section. The Vancouver Sun. Vol. LXXII, no. 208. Vancouver, British Columbia: Sun Publishing Company, Limited/Pacific Press Limited. The Associated Press (AP). p. 39. Retrieved September 9, 2021 – via Google Books.
  24. ^ Born Bad ISBN 978-1-87159-262-7 p. 21
  25. ^ Strand, p. 30
  26. ^ Strand, p. 11
  27. ^ Leyton, Elliot. Hunting Humans (p. 205); Pocket Books (1988); ISBN 9780671659615
  28. ^ Born Bad ISBN 978-1-87159-262-7 p. 40
  29. ^ Strand, p. 40
  30. ^ Strand pp. 34-35
  31. ^ Strand, p. 41
  32. ^ "Sequence of Events in the Charles Starkweather Case" (PDF). Lincoln Evening Journal. June 25, 1959. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  33. ^ McGowan, Joe (January 30, 1958). "Youth who slew ten captured in Wyoming". Main section. Alton Evening Telegraph. Alton, Illinois, United States of America. The Associated Press (AP). p. 1.
  34. ^ Profile Archived November 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine,; accessed June 18, 2015.
  35. ^ a b Sawyers, June Skinner (2006). Tougher Than the Rest: 100 Best Bruce Springsteen Songs. Omnibus Press. pp. 69–75. ISBN 978-0-8256-3470-3.
  36. ^ Born Bad ISBN 978-1-87159-262-7 pp. 69-71
  37. ^ "Starkweather Executed: Calm To The End, No Final Words". The Miami News. June 25, 1959. p. 1-A. Retrieved May 10, 2021 – via
  38. ^ Hanson, Odell (July 4, 1976). "Starkweather Death Haunts the Memory". Omaha World-Herald. Associated Press. p. 62. Retrieved May 29, 2023 – via
  39. ^ Zimmer, Ed. "Wyuka Cemetery: A Driving & Walking Tour"[Usurped!],; accessed June 21, 2015.
  40. ^ Nebraska State Historical Society website[Usurped!],; retrieved June 3, 2014.
  41. ^ González, Pamela (September 1, 2021). "Natural Born Killers: La ola de crímenes que inspiró la película de Oliver Stone". True Crime (in Spanish). New York City, New York, United States of America: Condé Nast (Advance Publications, Inc.). ISSN 0016-6979. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  42. ^ MacHann, Ginny Brown (June 20, 1979). Dawes, Kwame (ed.). "Ceremony at Lone Tree and Badlands: The Starkweather Case and the Nebraska Plains". Prairie Schooner. Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America: University of Nebraska Press. 53 (2): 165–172. ISSN 0032-6682. JSTOR 40630085. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via JSTOR.
  43. ^ Adams, Tim (September 14, 2000). Viner, Katharine; Rusbridger, Alan; Berkett, Neil (eds.). "The Stephen King interview, uncut and unpublished". The Guardian. London, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain: Guardian Media Group plc (Scott Trust). ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  44. ^ Patterson, Christian; Sante, Luc (September 8, 2012). Sulzberger, A.G.; Baquet, Dean; Sulzberger Jr., Arthur Ochs (eds.). "Violence, dissected". Sunday Review section. The New York Times. Vol. CLXI, no. 72. p. SR9. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  45. ^ Redheaded Peckerwood by Christian Patterson. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  46. ^ "Brian Wood On Northlanders: Metal". Warren Ellis. June 10, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2012.


External links[edit]

Preceded by
Roland Sundahl
Executions carried out in Nebraska Succeeded by
Harold Lamont Otey