Charles de Foucauld
|Blessed Charles de Foucauld|
de Foucauld around 1907
September 15, 1858|
|Died||December 1, 1916
Tamanrasset, French Algeria
|Beatified||13 November 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI|
Blessed Charles Eugène de Foucauld (15 September 1858 – 1 December 1916) was a French Catholic religious and priest living among the Tuareg in the Sahara in Algeria. He was assassinated in 1916 outside the door of the fort he built for the protection of the Tuareg, and is considered by the Catholic Church to be a martyr. His inspiration and writings led to the founding of the Little Brothers of Jesus among other religious congregations. He was beatified on 13 November 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI.
Charles de Foucauld was an officer of the French Army in North Africa where he first developed his strong feelings about the desert and solitude. On his subsequent return to France, and towards the end of October 1886, at the age of 28, he went through a conversion experience at the Church of Saint Augustin in Paris.
In 1890, de Foucauld joined the Cistercian Trappist order first in France and then at Akbès on the Syrian-Turkish border, but left in 1897 to follow an undefined religious vocation in Nazareth. He began to lead a solitary life of prayer, near a convent of Poor Clares and it was suggested to him that he be ordained. In 1901, at the age of 43, he was ordained in Viviers, France, and returned to the Sahara in French Algeria and lived a virtually eremitical life. He first settled in Béni Abbès, near the Moroccan border, building a small hermitage for "adoration and hospitality", which he soon referred to as the "Fraternity".
Later, he moved to be with the Tuareg people, in Tamanghasset in southern Algeria. This region is the central part of the Sahara with the Ahaggar Mountains (the Hoggar) immediately to the west. Foucauld used the highest point in the region, the Assekrem, as a place of retreat. Living close to the Tuareg, and sharing their life and hardships, he made a ten-year study of their language and cultural traditions. He learned the Tuareg language and worked on a dictionary and grammar. His dictionary manuscript was published posthumously in four volumes and has become known among Berberologues for its rich and apt descriptions. He formulated the idea of founding a new religious institute, which became a reality only after his death, under the name of the Little Brothers of Jesus.
On December 1, 1916, de Foucauld was dragged from his fortress by a gang of armed bandits led by El Madani ag Soba, who was connected with the Senussi Bedouin. Their intention was to kidnap de Foucauld, but when the gang was disturbed by two guardsmen, one startled bandit (15-year-old Sermi ag Thora) shot their prisoner through the head, killing him instantly. The murder was witnessed by sacristan and servant Paul Embarek, an African Arab former slave liberated and instructed by Fr de Foucauld.
The French authorities continued for years searching for the bandits involved. In 1943 El Madani fled French forces in Libya to the remote South Fezzan. Sermi ag Thora was apprehended, and executed at Djanet in 1944.
Charles de Foucauld died alone, and without the immediate fellowship of others sharing his practice of the life of Jesus of Nazareth and hospitality in the desert of Algeria. Yet he was successful at inspiring and helping to organize a confraternity within France in support of his idea. This organisation, called the Association of the Brothers and Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, consisted of lay and ordained members totaling 48 people at the time of his death. It was this group, and specifically the efforts of Louis Massignon, the world-famous scholar of Islam, and a best selling biography written by René Bazin in 1921 - La Vie de Charles de Foucauld Explorateur en Maroc, Eremite du Sahara - which kept his memory alive and inspired the family of lay and religious fraternities that include Jesus Caritas, the Little Brothers of Jesus and the Little Sisters of Jesus, among a total of ten religious congregations and nine associations of spiritual life. Though originally French in origin, these groups have expanded to include many cultures and their languages on all continents.
The 1936 French film The Call of Silence portrayed Charles de Foucauld's life.
In 1950, the Algerian government honored Charles de Foucauld by portraying his image on a stamp; the French government did likewise in 1959.
- Reconnaissance au Maroc, 1883-1884. 4 vols. Paris: Challamel, 1888.
- Dictionnaire Touareg–Français, Dialecte de l'Ahaggar. 4 vols. Paris: Imprimerie nationale de France, 1951-1952.
- Poésies Touarègues. Dialecte de l'Ahaggar. 2 vols. Paris: Leroux, 1925-1930.
- Vicar. "Visitor information".
- Fleming, Fergus (2003). The Sword and the Cross: Two Men and an Empire of Sand. New York: Grove Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 9780802117526.
- Fremantle, Anne Desert Calling: The Life of Charles de Foucauld London Hollis & Carter 1950 pp324-6
- Fremantle, Anne Desert Calling: The Life of Charles de Foucauld London Hollis & Carter 1950 p.328
- "Charles de Foucauld beatified in Rome". CathNews. 14 November 2005.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles de Foucauld.|
- Lay Fraternity, Lay Fraternity Page
- Facebook Group, Brother Charles' Facebook page
- Lay Fraternity in Canada, Canadian Lay Fraternity Page
- Association Famille Spirituelle Charles de Foucauld (Spiritual Family of Charles de Foucauld)
- Názáret, a Hungarian website about Charles de Foucauld and his spirituality
- "Charles de Foucauld" at Jesus Caritas
- "Books by or about Charles de Foucauld" at Jesus Caritas
- Charles de Foucauld at Find a Grave
- Casajus, Dominique (1997). "Charles de Foucauld et les Touaregs, Rencontre et Malentendu". Terrain 28: 29-42.
- Casajus, Dominique (2009). Charles de Foucauld: Moine et Savant. CNRS Éditions. ISBN 9782271066312.
- Chatelard, Antoine (2000). La Mort de Charles de Foucauld. Karthala Editions. ISBN 9782845861206.
- Fournier, Josette (2007). Charles de Foucauld: Amitiés Croisées. Éditions Cheminements. ISBN 9782844785695.
- Galand, Lionel (1999). Lettres au Marabout. Messages Touaregs au Père de Foucauld. Paris, Belin, 1999.
- Wright, Cathy (2005). Charles de Foucauld - Journey of the Spirit. Pauline Books and Media. ISBN 9780819815767.