Charlestown, New Hampshire
|Charlestown, New Hampshire|
Main Street in 1910
Location in Sullivan County and the state of New Hampshire
|• Board of Selectmen||Steven A. Neill, Chair
|• Total||38.0 sq mi (98.5 km2)|
|• Land||35.8 sq mi (92.7 km2)|
|• Water||2.2 sq mi (5.8 km2) 5.90%|
|Elevation||384 ft (117 m)|
|• Density||55.2/sq mi (21.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0873562|
Charlestown is a town in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 5,114 at the 2010 census. The town is home to Hubbard State Forest and the headquarters of the Student Conservation Association.
The primary settlement in town, where 1,152 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Charlestown census-designated place (CDP) and is located along New Hampshire Route 12. The town also includes the villages of North Charlestown, South Charlestown and Hemlock Center.
The area was first granted on 31 December 1735 by colonial governor Jonathan Belcher of Massachusetts as "Plantation No. 4", the fourth in a line of forts on the Connecticut River border established as trading posts. Settled in 1740, Number Four was the northernmost township, and its 1744 log fort became a strategic military site throughout the French and Indian Wars. On the evening of May 2, 1746, Seth Putnam joined Major Josiah Willard and several soldiers as they escorted women to milk the cows. As they approached the booth, Natives hiding in the bushes opened fire, killing Putnam. This was the first casualty in the hostilities that would lead to the French and Indian War. In 1747 the fort was besieged for three days by a force of 400 French and Native people. Captain Phineas Stevens and 31 soldiers, stationed at the fort, repelled the attack. Their success became well-known, and the fort was never attacked again.
On July 2, 1753, the town was regranted as "Charlestown" by Governor Benning Wentworth, after Admiral Charles Knowles of the Royal Navy, then governor of Jamaica. Admiral Knowles, in port at Boston during the 1747 siege, sent Captain Stevens a sword to acknowledge his valor. The town responded by naming itself in his honor.
Early in the morning of August 30, 1754, Susannah Willard Johnson along with her husband, her three children, her sister and two neighbors, Peter Labarree and Ebenezer Farnsworth, were captured by Abenaki people, marched to Montreal and incarcerated. Eventually they would all escape or be released and return home.
In 1781, Charlestown briefly joined Vermont because of dissatisfaction with treatment by the New Hampshire government. Returning at the insistence of George Washington, it was incorporated in 1783.
The community developed into a center for law and lawyers, second regionally only to Boston. Its prosperity would be expressed in fine architecture. Sixty-three buildings on Charlestown's Main Street are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. They include the Gothic Revival South Parish Church erected by master-builder Stephen Hassam in 1842, St. Luke's Church designed by Richard Upjohn in 1863, and the Italianate Town Hall designed in 1872 by Edward Dow, New Hampshire's most prominent architect after the Civil War. Dow also designed Thompson Hall, centerpiece of the University of New Hampshire.
A reproduction of the Fort at Number 4 is now a historical site, where military reenactments and musters occur frequently throughout the summer months. Tours are offered of its stockaded parade ground and pioneer-style houses.
Charlestown is located along the Connecticut River, the western border of New Hampshire. It is bordered to the north by the city of Claremont, to the east by the towns of Unity and Acworth, to the southeast by the town of Langdon, and to the south by Cheshire County with the town of Walpole. To the west, across the Connecticut River, is the state of Vermont, and specifically the town of Rockingham in Windham County and the town of Springfield in Windsor County.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 38.0 square miles (98.5 km2), of which 35.8 sq mi (92.7 km2) is land and 2.2 sq mi (5.8 km2) is water, comprising 5.90% of the town. Charlestown is drained by Clay Brook. The highest point in town is Sams Hill, at 1,683 feet (513 m) above sea level). Charlestown lies fully within the Connecticut River watershed.
The town center, defined as a census-designated place (CDP), covers an area of 0.85 sq mi (2.2 km2), about 2.4% of the area of the town. 0.81 sq mi (2.1 km2) of the CDP is land, and 0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2) of it (5.43%) is water.
In the Connecticut River in the 1800s were three islands within the limits of the town. Sartwell's Island, the largest, containing 10 acres (4.0 ha), was under a high cultivation in 1874. The others contained about 6 acres (2.4 ha) each. None show on maps today, and were presumably inundated by the power dam built downstream at Bellows Falls.
Charlestown is served by New Hampshire Routes 11, 12 and 12A. Routes 11 and 12 lead north from the town center 11 miles (18 km) to downtown Claremont. Route 12 leads south 7 miles (11 km) to North Walpole, adjacent to Bellows Falls, Vermont, and 28 miles (45 km) to Keene. Route 11 leads northwest from the center of Charlestown to the Cheshire Bridge (the old toll bridge) across the Connecticut River, after which it becomes Vermont Route 11 and provides access to Interstate 91 and U.S. Route 5 in Vermont.
Bus service is available from Community Alliance Transport Services (CATS), with several buses a day connecting Charlestown and Claremont.
The Amtrak Vermonter passenger rail line runs through Charlestown along the Connecticut River but does not stop in town. The closest stations are Bellows Falls to the south and Claremont to the north.
The nearest general aviation airports are Claremont Municipal Airport, 10 miles (16 km) to the north, and Hartness State Airport in North Springfield, Vermont, 11 miles (18 km) to the northwest. The nearest airport with scheduled airline service is Lebanon Municipal Airport, 33 miles (53 km) to the north in West Lebanon.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,749 people, 1,920 households, and 1,332 families residing in the town. The population density was 132.6 people per square mile (51.2/km²). There were 2,067 housing units at an average density of 22.3 persons/km² (57.7 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 98.53% White, 0.32% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.06% from other races, and 0.69% from two or more races. 0.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,920 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 30.6% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the town the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $38,024, and the median income for a family was $45,172. Males had a median income of $31,010 versus $22,986 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,654. 6.5% of the population and 3.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.7% are under the age of 18 and 10.3% are 65 or older.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,145 people, 468 households, and 301 families residing in the CDP (census-designated place) occupying the town center. The population density was 1,357.6 people per square mile (526.3/km²). There were 503 housing units at an average density of 231.2 persons/km² (596.4 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 98.95% White, 0.26% Native American, 0.26% Asian, and 0.52% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 468 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 35.5% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males.
The median income for a household is $38,083, and the median income for a family was $40,938. Males had a median income of $29,688 versus $21,344 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,565. 9.9% of the population and 5.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 10.9% are under the age of 18 and 14.6% are 65 or older.
Sites of interest
- James Broderick (1927–1982), actor
- William E. Corbin, inventor of the paper towel
- Carlton "Pudge" Fisk (b. 1947), Hall of Fame catcher with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox
- Joseph Glidden (1813–1906), inventor of barbed wire
- Charles Hale Hoyt (1859–1900), playwright and theatrical producer
- Henry Hubbard (1784–1857), 18th governor of New Hampshire
- Samuel Hunt (1765–1807), US congressman
- Susannah Willard Johnson (1729–1810), author of a notable captivity narrative
- Benjamin Labaree, minister, professor and college president
- Ralph Metcalf (1798–1858), 25th governor of New Hampshire
- Simeon Olcott (1735–1815), US senator
- DeForest Richards (1846–1903), fifth governor of Wyoming
- Richard H. Sylvester, journalist
- James Tufts (1829–1884), acting governor of Montana Territory
- Francis H. West (1825–1896), Union brigadier general during the Civil War
- Alexander Hamilton Willard (1777–1865), member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Charlestown town, Sullivan County, New Hampshire". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Charlestown CDP, New Hampshire". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Charlestown, NH". Economic & Labor Market Information Bureau of New Hampshire. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
- Article in Statistics and Gazetteer of New-Hampshire (1875)
- "History of Charlestown New Hampshire the Old No. 4".
- Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England. Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 438–441.
- Foster, Debra H.; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N.; Medalie, Laura (1995). Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
- "Bus Stops, Fares & Transfers". Community Alliance of Human Services. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "James Broderick". The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Beginnings of the Cascade Paper Mill" (PDF). Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Biography". Carltonfisk.com. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- Roberts, Gary Boyd, and David Curtis Dearborn (1998). Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS Nexus, 1986–1995. Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-936124-20-9.
- Van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th century: 100 inventions that shaped the Victorian Age from Aspirin to the Zeppelin. New York City: New York University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8147-8810-3.
- Hoyt, Cliff and Linda (March 2, 2009). "Charles Hoyt, Popular Playwright of the Gay Nineties". The Advertising Collections of Cliff & Linda Hoyt. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Hubbard, Henry, (1784–1857)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Hunt, Samuel, (1765–1807)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- Bastedo, Russell. "A Guide to Likenesses of New Hampshire Officials and Governors on Public Display at the Legislative Office Building and the State House Concord, New Hampshire, to 1998". New Hampshire Division of Historical Records. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Olcott, Simeon, (1735–1815)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Wyoming Governor De Forest Richards". Governor's Information. National Governors Association. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "Catalogue of Officers and Students of Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont," 1901, pg. 146
- Gass, Patrick, and James Kendall Hosmer (1904). Gass's Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. A. C. McClurg & Co. p. xxi.
- Clarke, Charles G., and Dayton Duncan (2002). The Men of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-8032-6419-9.
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