Charley horse

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Charley horse
SpecialtySports medicine

A charley horse is a painful involuntary spasm or cramp in the leg muscles, typically lasting anywhere from a few seconds to about a day. The term formerly referred more commonly to bruising of the quadriceps muscle of the anterior or lateral thigh, or contusion of the femur, that commonly results in a haematoma and sometimes several weeks of pain and disability. In this latter sense, such an injury is known as dead leg.[citation needed]

Dead leg and charley horse are two different kinds of injury: A charley horse involves the muscles contracting without warning, and can last from a few seconds to a few days. A dead leg often occurs in contact sports, such as football when an athlete suffers a knee (blunt trauma) to the lateral quadriceps causing a haematoma or temporary paresis and antalgic gait as a result of pain.[citation needed]


The term can also be used to refer to cramps in the foot muscles. These muscle cramps can have many possible causes directly resulting from high or low pH or substrate concentrations in the blood, including hormonal imbalances, dehydration, low levels of magnesium, potassium, or calcium (although the evidence has been mixed),[1][2][3] side effects of medication, or, more seriously, diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neuropathy.[4] They are also a common complaint during pregnancy.[5]. Being physically un-fit can also be a main causing factor for the charley horse.[citation needed]


Relief is usually given by either massaging or stretching the foot, ankle or knee in the opposite direction of the spasm. Immediate relief comes from standing on the cramping leg, which serves to counter the muscle-tightening signal. [6].


  1. ^ Schwellnus MP, Nicol J, Laubscher R, Noakes TD (2004). "Serum electrolyte concentrations and hydration status are not associated with exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) in distance runners". Br J Sports Med. 38 (4): 488–492. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.007021. PMC 1724901. PMID 15273192.
  2. ^ Sulzer NU, Schwellnus MP, Noakes TD (2005). "Serum electrolytes in Ironman triathletes with exercise-associated muscle cramping". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 37 (7): 1081–1085. doi:10.1249/
  3. ^ Allen RE, Kirby KA (2012). "Nocturnal Leg Cramps". American Family Physician. 86 (4): 350–355.
  4. ^ Miller TM, Layzer RB (2005). "Muscle cramps". Muscle Nerve. 32 (4): 431–42. doi:10.1002/mus.20341. PMID 15902691.
  5. ^ Young GL, Jewell D (2002). Henderson S (ed.). "Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD000121. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000121. PMID 11869565.
  6. ^


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