|Charlie Hebdo shooting|
|Part of the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks|
|Location||10 Rue Nicolas-Appert, 11th arrondissement of Paris, France|
|Date||7 January 2015 |
11:30 CET (UTC+01:00)
|Target||Charlie Hebdo employees|
|Perpetrators||Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula|
|Assailants||Chérif and Saïd Kouachi|
On 7 January 2015, at about 11:30 a.m. CET local time, two French Muslim terrorists and brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. Armed with rifles and other weapons, they murdered 12 people and injured 11 others. The gunmen identified themselves as belonging to the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, which took responsibility for the attack. Several related attacks followed in the Île-de-France region on 7–9 January 2015, including the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege, where a terrorist murdered four Jewish people.
France raised its Vigipirate terror alert and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy. A major manhunt led to the discovery of the suspects, who exchanged fire with police. The brothers took hostages at a signage company in Dammartin-en-Goële on 9 January and were shot dead when they emerged from the building firing.
On 11 January, about two million people, including more than 40 world leaders, met in Paris for a rally of national unity, and 3.7 million people joined demonstrations across France. The phrase Je suis Charlie became a common slogan of support at rallies and on social media. The staff of Charlie Hebdo continued with the publication, and the following issue print ran 7.95 million copies in six languages, compared to its typical print run of 60,000 in French only.
Charlie Hebdo is a publication that has always courted controversy with satirical attacks on political and religious leaders. It published cartoons of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 2012, forcing France to temporarily close embassies and schools in more than 20 countries amid fears of reprisals. Its offices were firebombed in November 2011 after publishing a previous caricature of Muhammad on its cover.
On 16 December 2020, 14 people who were accomplices to both the Charlie Hebdo and Jewish supermarket attackers were convicted. However, three of these accomplices were still not yet captured and were tried in absentia.
Charlie Hebdo satirical works
Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly newspaper that features cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes. The publication, irreverent and stridently non-conformist in tone, is strongly secularist, antireligious, and left-wing, publishing articles that mock Catholicism, Judaism, Islam, and various other groups as local and world news unfolds. The magazine was published from 1969 to 1981 and has been again from 1992 on.
Charlie Hebdo has a history of attracting controversy. In 2006, Islamic organisations under French hate speech laws unsuccessfully sued over the newspaper's re-publication of the Jyllands-Posten cartoons of Muhammad. The cover of a 2011 issue retitled Charia Hebdo (French for Sharia Weekly), featured a cartoon of Muhammad, whose depiction is forbidden in most interpretations of Islam, with some Persian exceptions. The newspaper's office was fire-bombed and its website hacked. In 2012, the newspaper published a series of satirical cartoons of Muhammad, including nude caricatures; this came days after a series of violent attacks on U.S. embassies in the Middle East, purportedly in response to the anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims, prompting the French government to close embassies, consulates, cultural centres, and international schools in about 20 Muslim countries. Riot police surrounded the newspaper's offices to protect it against possible attacks.
Cartoonist Stéphane "Charb" Charbonnier had been the director of publication of Charlie Hebdo since 2009. Two years before the attack he stated, "We have to carry on until Islam has been rendered as banal as Catholicism." In 2013, al-Qaeda added him to its most wanted list, along with three Jyllands-Posten staff members: Kurt Westergaard, Carsten Juste, and Flemming Rose. Being a sport shooter, Charb applied for permit to be able to carry a firearm for self-defence. The application went unanswered.
Numerous violent plots related to the Jyllands-Posten cartoons were discovered, primarily targeting cartoonist Westergaard, editor Rose, and the property or employees of Jyllands-Posten and other newspapers that printed the cartoons.[a] Westergaard was the subject of several attacks and planned attacks, and lived under police protection for the rest of his life. On 1 January 2010, police used guns to stop a would-be assassin in his home, who was sentenced to nine years in prison.[b] In 2010, three men based in Norway were arrested on suspicion of planning a terror attack against Jyllands-Posten or Kurt Westergaard; two of them were convicted. In the United States, David Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana were convicted in 2013 of planning terrorism against Jyllands-Posten.
Secularism and blasphemy
In France, blasphemy law ceased to exist with progressive emancipation of the Republic from the Catholic Church between 1789 and 1830. In France, the principle of secularism (laïcité – the separation of church and state) was enshrined in the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, and in 1945 became part of the constitution. Under its terms, the government and all public administrations and services must be religion-blind and their representatives must refrain from any display of religion, but private citizens and organisations are free to practise and express the religion of their choice where and as they wish (although discrimination based on religion is prohibited).
In recent years, there has been a trend towards a stricter interpretation of laïcité which would also prohibit users of certain public services from expressing their religion (e.g. the 2004 law which bans school pupils from wearing "blatant" religious symbols) or ban citizens from expressing their religion in public even outside the administration and public services (e.g. a 2015 law project prohibiting the wearing of religious symbols by the employees of private crèches). This restrictive interpretation is not supported by the initial law on laïcité and is challenged by the representatives of all the major religions.
Authors, humorists, cartoonists, and individuals have the right to satirise people, public actors, and religions, a right which is balanced by defamation laws. These rights and legal mechanisms were designed to protect freedom of speech from local powers, among which was the then-powerful Catholic Church in France.
Though images of Muhammad are not explicitly banned by the Quran itself, prominent Islamic views have long opposed human images, especially those of prophets. Such views have gained ground among militant Islamic groups. Accordingly, some Muslims take the view that the satire of Islam, of religious representatives, and above all of Islamic prophets is blasphemy in Islam punishable by death. This sentiment was most famously actualized in the murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. According to the BBC, France has seen "the apparent desire of some younger, often disaffected children or grandchildren of immigrant families not to conform to western, liberal lifestyles – including traditions of religious tolerance and free speech".
Charlie Hebdo headquarters
On the morning of 7 January 2015, a Wednesday, Charlie Hebdo staff were gathered at 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert in the 11th arrondissement of Paris for the weekly editorial meeting starting around 10:30. The magazine had moved into an unmarked office at this address following the 2011 firebombing of their previous premises due to the magazine's original satirization of Muhammad.
Around 11:00 a.m., two armed and hooded men first burst into the wrong address at 6 Rue Nicolas-Appert, shouting "Is this Charlie Hebdo?" and threatening people. After realizing their mistake and firing a bullet through a glass door, the two men left for 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert. There, they encountered cartoonist Corinne "Coco" Rey and her young daughter outside and at gunpoint, forced her to enter the passcode into the electronic door.
The men sprayed the lobby with gunfire upon entering. The first victim was maintenance worker Frédéric Boisseau, who was killed as he sat at the reception desk. The gunmen forced Rey at gunpoint to lead them to a second-floor office, where 15 staff members were having an editorial meeting, Charlie Hebdo's first news conference of the year. Reporter Laurent Léger said they were interrupted by what they thought was the sound of a firecracker—the gunfire from the lobby—and recalled, "We still thought it was a joke. The atmosphere was still joyous."
The gunmen burst into the meeting room. The shooting lasted five to ten minutes. The gunmen aimed at the journalists' heads and killed them. During the gunfire, Rey survived uninjured by hiding under a desk, from where she witnessed the murders of Wolinski and Cabu. Léger also survived by hiding under a desk as the gunmen entered. Ten of the twelve people murdered were shot on the second floor, past the security door.
Psychoanalyst Elsa Cayat, a French columnist of Tunisian Jewish descent, was killed. Another female columnist present at the time, crime reporter Sigolène Vinson, survived; one of the shooters aimed at her but spared her, saying, "I'm not killing you because you are a woman", and telling her to convert to Islam, read the Quran and wear a veil. She said he left shouting, "Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!" Other witnesses reported that the gunmen identified themselves as belonging to al-Qaeda in Yemen.
An authenticated video surfaced on the Internet that shows two gunmen and a police officer, Ahmed Merabet, who is wounded and lying on a sidewalk after an exchange of gunfire. This took place near the corner of Boulevard Richard-Lenoir and Rue Moufle, 180 metres (590 ft) east of the main crime scene. One of the gunmen ran towards the policeman and shouted, "Did you want to kill us?" The policeman answered, "No, it's fine, boss", and raised his hand toward the gunman, who then murdered the policeman with a fatal shot to the head at close range.
Sam Kiley, of Sky News, concluded from the video that the two gunmen were "military professionals" who likely had "combat experience", saying that the gunmen were exercising infantry tactics such as moving in "mutual support" and were firing aimed, single-round shots at the police officer. He also stated that they were using military gestures and were "familiar with their weapons" and fired "carefully aimed shots, with tight groupings".
The gunmen then left the scene, shouting, "We have avenged the Prophet Muhammad. We have killed Charlie Hebdo!" They escaped in a getaway car, and drove to Porte de Pantin, hijacking another car and forcing its driver out. As they drove away, they ran over a pedestrian and shot at responding police officers.
It was initially believed that there were three suspects. One identified suspect turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station. Seven of the Kouachi brothers' friends and family were taken into custody. Jihadist flags and Molotov cocktails were found in an abandoned getaway car, a black Citroën C3.
Charlie Hebdo had attracted considerable worldwide attention for its controversial depictions of Muhammad. Hatred for Charlie Hebdo's cartoons, which made jokes about Islamic leaders as well as Muhammad, is considered to be the principal motive for the massacre. Michael Morell, former deputy director of the CIA, suggested that the motive of the attackers was "absolutely clear: trying to shut down a media organisation that lampooned the Prophet Muhammad".
In March 2013, al-Qaeda's branch in Yemen, commonly known as al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), released a hit list in an edition of their English-language magazine Inspire. The list included Stéphane Charbonnier (mentioned above in this article as Charlie Hebdo editor who died in this shooting) and others whom AQAP accused of insulting Islam. On 9 January, AQAP claimed responsibility for the attack in a speech from AQAP's top Shariah cleric Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari, citing the motive as "revenge for the honour" of Muhammad.
- Cartoonists and journalists
- Cabu (Jean Cabut), 76, cartoonist.
- Elsa Cayat, 54, psychoanalyst and columnist –  the only woman killed in the shooting.
- Charb (Stéphane Charbonnier), 47, cartoonist, columnist, and director of publication of Charlie Hebdo.
- Philippe Honoré, 73, cartoonist.
- Bernard Maris, 68, economist, editor, and columnist.
- Mustapha Ourrad, 60, copy editor.
- Tignous (Bernard Verlhac), 57, cartoonist.
- Georges Wolinski, 80, cartoonist.
- Frédéric Boisseau, 42, building maintenance worker for Sodexo, killed in the lobby as he came to the building on a call, the first victim of the shooting.
- Franck Brinsolaro, 49, Protection Service police officer assigned as a bodyguard for Charb.
- Ahmed Merabet, 42, police officer, shot in the head as he lay wounded on the ground outside.
- Michel Renaud, 69, a travel writer and festival organiser visiting Cabu.
Uninjured and absent
The cartoonist Coco was coerced into letting the murderers into the building, and was not harmed. Several other staff members were not in the building at the time of the shooting, including medical columnist Patrick Pelloux, cartoonists Rénald "Luz" Luzier and Catherine Meurisse and film critic Jean-Baptiste Thoret, who were late for work, cartoonist Willem, who never attends, editor-in-chief Gérard Biard and journalist Zineb El Rhazoui who were on holiday, journalist Antonio Fischetti, who was at a funeral, and comedian and columnist Mathieu Madénian. Luz arrived in time to see the gunmen escaping.
Chérif and Saïd Kouachi
Chérif and Saïd Kouachi
|Born||Chérif: 29 November 1982|
Saïd: 7 September 1980
10th Ardt, Paris, France
|Died||9 January 2015 (aged 32 and 34)|
|Cause of death||Gunshot wounds|
|Date||7–9 January 2015|
|Location(s)||Charlie Hebdo offices|
|Target(s)||Charlie Hebdo staff|
Police quickly identified brothers Saïd Kouachi (French: [sa.id kwaʃi]; 7 September 1980 – 9 January 2015) and Chérif Kouachi (French: [ʃeʁif]; 29 November 1982 – 9 January 2015) as the main suspects.[c] French citizens born in Paris to Algerian immigrants, the brothers were orphaned at a young age after their mother's apparent suicide and placed in a foster home in Rennes. After two years, they were moved to an orphanage in Corrèze in 1994, along with a younger brother and an older sister. The brothers moved to Paris around 2000.
Chérif, also known as Abu Issen, was part of an informal gang that met in the Parc des Buttes Chaumont in Paris to perform military-style training exercises and sent would-be jihadists to fight for al-Qaeda in Iraq after the 2003 invasion. Chérif was arrested at age 22 in January 2005 when he and another man were about to leave for Syria, at the time a gateway for jihadists wishing to fight US troops in Iraq. He went to Fleury-Mérogis Prison, where he met Amedy Coulibaly. In prison, they found a mentor, Djamel Beghal, who had been sentenced to ten years in prison in 2001 for his part in a plot to bomb the US embassy in Paris. Beghal had once been a regular worshipper at Finsbury Park Mosque in London and a disciple of the radical preachers Abu Hamza al-Masri and Abu Qatada.
Upon leaving prison, Chérif Kouachi married and got a job in a fish market on the outskirts of Paris. He became a student of Farid Benyettou, a radical Muslim preacher at the Addawa Mosque in the 19th arrondissement of Paris. Kouachi wanted to attack Jewish targets in France, but Benyettou told him that France, unlike Iraq, was not "a land of jihad".
On 28 March 2008, Chérif was convicted of terrorism and sentenced to three years in prison, with 18 months suspended, for recruiting fighters for militant Islamist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's group in Iraq. He said outrage at the torture of inmates by the US Army at Baghdad Central Prison in Abu Ghraib inspired him to help Iraq's insurgency.
French judicial documents state Amedy Coulibaly and Chérif Kouachi travelled with their wives in 2010 to central France to visit Djamel Beghal. In a police interview in 2010, Coulibaly identified Chérif as a friend he had met in prison and said they saw each other frequently. In 2010, the Kouachi brothers were named in connection with a plot to break out of jail with another Islamist, Smaïn Aït Ali Belkacem. Belkacem was one of those responsible for the 1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings that killed eight people. For lack of evidence, they were not prosecuted.
From 2009 to 2010, Saïd Kouachi visited Yemen on a student visa to study at the San'a Institute for the Arabic Language. There, according to a Yemeni reporter who interviewed Saïd, he met and befriended Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the perpetrator of the attempted bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 later in 2009. Also according to the reporter, the two shared an apartment for "one or two weeks".
In 2011, Saïd returned to Yemen for a number of months and trained with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula militants. According to a senior Yemeni intelligence source, he met al Qaeda preacher Anwar al-Awlaki in the southern province of Shabwa. Chérif Kouachi told BFM TV that he had been funded by a network loyal to Anwar al-Awlaki, who was killed by a drone strike in 2011 in Yemen. According to US officials, the US provided France with intelligence in 2011 showing the brothers received training in Yemen. French authorities monitored them until the spring of 2014. During the time leading to the Charlie Hebdo attack, Saïd lived with his wife and children in a block of flats in Reims. Neighbours described him as solitary.
The weapons used in the attack were supplied via the Brussels underworld. According to the Belgian press, a criminal sold Amedy Coulibaly the rocket-propelled grenade launcher and Kalashnikov rifles that the Kouachi brothers used for less than EUR €5,000 (US$5,910).
In an interview between Chérif Kouachi and Igor Sahiri, one of France's BFM TV journalists, Chérif stated that "We are not killers. We are defenders of the prophet, we don't kill women. We kill no one. We defend the prophet. If someone offends the prophet then there is no problem, we can kill him. We don't kill women. We are not like you. You are the ones killing women and children in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. This isn't us. We have an honour code in Islam."
After the attack: Manhunt (8 and 9 January)
A massive manhunt began immediately after the attack. One suspect left his ID card in an abandoned getaway car. Police officers searched apartments in the Île-de-France region, in Strasbourg and in Reims.
Police detained several people during the manhunt for the two main suspects. A third suspect voluntarily reported to a police station after hearing he was wanted and was not charged. Police described the assailants as "armed and dangerous". France raised its terror alert to its highest level and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy regions.
At 10:30 CET on 8 January, the day following the attack, the two primary suspects were spotted in Aisne, north-east of Paris. Armed security forces, including the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (GIGN) and the Force d'intervention de la police nationale (FIPN), were deployed to the department to search for the suspects.
Later that day, the police search concentrated on the Picardy, particularly the area around Villers-Cotterêts and the village of Longpont, after the suspects robbed a petrol station near Villers-Cotterêts, then reportedly abandoned their car before hiding in a forest near Longpont. Searches continued into the surrounding Forêt de Retz (130 km2), one of the largest forests in France.
The manhunt continued with the discovery of the two fugitive suspects early on the morning of 9 January. The Kouachis had hijacked a Peugeot 206 near the town of Crépy-en-Valois. They were chased by police cars for approximately 27 kilometres (17 miles) south down the N2 trunk road. At some point they abandoned their vehicle and an exchange of gunfire between pursuing police and the brothers took place near the commune of Dammartin-en-Goële, 35 kilometres (22 miles) northeast of Paris. Several blasts went off as well and Saïd Kouachi sustained a minor neck wound. Several others may have been injured as well but no one was killed in the gunfire. The suspects were not apprehended and escaped on foot.
Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis, death of Chérif and Saïd (9 January)
At around 9:30 am on 9 January 2015, the Kouachi brothers fled into the office of Création Tendance Découverte, a signage production company on an industrial estate in Dammartin-en-Goële. Inside the building were owner Michel Catalano and a male employee, 26-year-old graphics designer Lilian Lepère. Catalano told Lepère to go hide in the building and remained in his office by himself. Not long after, a salesman named Didier went to the printworks on business. Catalano came out with Chérif Kouachi who introduced himself as a police officer. They shook hands and Kouachi told Didier, "Leave. We don't kill civilians anyhow." These words were what caused Didier to guess that Kouachi was a terrorist and he alerted the police.
The Kouachi brothers remained inside and a lengthy standoff began. Catalano re-entered the building and closed the door after Didier had left. The brothers were not aggressive towards Catalano, who stated, "I didn't get the impression they were going to harm me." He made coffee for them and helped bandage the neck wound that Saïd Kouachi had sustained during the earlier gunfire. Catalano was allowed to leave after an hour. Before doing so, Catalano swore three different times to the terrorists that he was alone and did not reveal Lepère's presence; ultimately the Kouachi brothers never became aware of him being there. Lepère hid inside a cardboard box and sent the Gendarmerie text messages for around three hours during the siege, providing them with "tactical elements such as [the brothers'] location inside the premises".
Given the proximity (10 km) of the siege to Charles de Gaulle Airport, two of the airport's runways were closed. Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve called for a Gendarmerie operation to neutralise the perpetrators. An Interior Ministry spokesman announced that the Ministry wished first to "establish a dialogue" with the suspects. Officials tried to establish contact with the suspects to negotiate the safe evacuation of a school 500 metres (1,600 feet) from the siege. The Kouachi brothers did not respond to attempts at communication by the French authorities.
The siege lasted for eight to nine hours, and at around 4:30 p.m. there were at least three explosions near the building. At around 5:00 pm, a GIGN team landed on the roof of the building and a helicopter landed nearby. Before gendarmes could reach them, the pair ran out of the building and opened fire on gendarmes. The brothers had stated a desire to die as martyrs and the siege came to an end when both Kouachi brothers were shot and killed. Lilian Lepère was rescued unharmed. A cache of weapons, including Molotov cocktails and a rocket launcher, was found in the area.
During the standoff in Dammartin-en-Goële, another jihadist named Amedy Coulibaly, who had met the brothers in prison, took hostages in a kosher supermarket at Porte de Vincennes in east Paris, killing those of Jewish faith while leaving the others alive. Coulibaly was reportedly in contact with the Kouachi brothers as the sieges progressed, and told police that he would kill hostages if the brothers were harmed. Coulibaly and the Kouachi brothers died within minutes of each other.
Suspected Charlie Hebdo attack driver
The police initially identified the 18-year-old brother-in-law of Chérif Kouachi, a French Muslim student of North African descent and unknown nationality, as a third suspect in the shooting, accused of driving the getaway car. He was believed to have been living in Charleville-Mézières, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) northeast of Paris near the border with Belgium. He turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station early in the morning on 8 January 2015. The man said he was in class at the time of the shooting, and that he rarely saw Chérif Kouachi. Many of his classmates said that he was at school in Charleville-Mézières during the attack. After detaining him for nearly 50 hours, police decided not to continue further investigations into the teenager.
In December 2018, French authorities arrested Peter Cherif also known as Abu Hamza, for playing an "important role in organizing" the Charlie Hebdo attack. Not only was Cherif a close friend of brothers Chérif Kouachi and Saïd Kouachi, but had been on the run from French authorities since 2011. Cherif fled Paris in 2011 just before a court sentenced him to five years in prison on terrorism charges for fighting as an insurgent in Iraq.
On 2 September 2020, fourteen people went on trial in Paris charged with providing logistical support and procuring weapons for those who carried out both the Charlie Hebdo shooting and the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege. Of the fourteen on trial Mohamed and Mehdi Belhoucine and Amedy Coulibaly's girlfriend, Hayat Boumeddiene, were tried in absentia, having fled to either Iraq or Syria in the days before the attacks took place. In anticipation of the trial getting underway Charlie Hebdo reprinted cartoons of Muhammad with the caption: "Tout ça pour ça" ("All of that for this").
The remaining staff of Charlie Hebdo continued normal weekly publication, and the following issue print run had 7.95 million copies in six languages. In contrast, its normal print run was 60,000, of which it typically sold 30,000 to 35,000 copies. The cover depicts Muhammad holding a "Je suis Charlie" sign ("I am Charlie"), and is captioned "Tout est pardonné" ("All is forgiven"). The issue was also sold outside France. The Digital Innovation Press Fund donated €250,000 to support the magazine, matching a donation by the French Press and Pluralism Fund. The Guardian Media Group pledged £100,000 to the same cause.
On the night of 8 January, police commissioner Helric Fredou, who had been investigating the attack, committed suicide in his office in Limoges while he was preparing his report shortly after meeting with the family of one of the victims. He was said to have been experiencing depression and burnout.
In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings, grenade throwing at mosques and other Islamic centres, an improvised explosive device attack, and 33 cases of threats and insults.[d] Authorities classified these acts as right-wing terrorism.
On 7 January 2016, the first anniversary of the shooting, an attempted attack occurred at a police station in the Goutte d'Or district of Paris. The assailant, a Tunisian man posing as an asylum-seeker from Iraq or Syria, wearing a fake explosive belt charged police officers with a meat cleaver while shouting "Allahu Akbar!" and was subsequently shot and killed.
On 14 February 2015 in Copenhagen, Denmark, a public event called "Art, blasphemy and the freedom of expression", was organised to honour victims of the attack in January against the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo. A series of shootings took place that day and the following day in Copenhagen, with two people killed and five police officers wounded. The suspect, Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, a recently released, radicalized prisoner, was later shot dead by police on 15 February.
On 3 May 2015, two men attempted an attack on the Curtis Culwell Center in Garland, Texas. The centre was hosting an exhibit featuring cartoons depicting Muhammad. The event was presented as a response to the attack on Charlie Hebdo, and organised by the group American Freedom Defense Initiative (AFDI). Both gunmen were killed by police.
Following the attack, France raised Vigipirate to its highest level in history: Attack alert, an urgent terror alert which triggered the deployment of soldiers in Paris to the public transport system, media offices, places of worship and the Eiffel Tower. The British Foreign Office warned its citizens about travelling to Paris. The New York City Police Department ordered extra security measures to the offices of the Consulate General of France in New York in Manhattan's Upper East Side as well as the Lycée Français de New York, which was deemed a possible target due to the proliferation of attacks in France as well as the level of hatred of the United States within the extremist community. In Denmark, which was the centre of a controversy over cartoons of Muhammad in 2005, security was increased at all media outlets.
Hours after the shooting, Spanish Interior Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz said that Spain's anti-terrorist security level had been upgraded and that the country was sharing information with France in relation to the attacks. Spain increased security in public places such as railway stations and increased the police presence on streets throughout the country's cities.
The British Transport Police confirmed on 8 January that they would establish new armed patrols in and around St Pancras International railway station in London, following reports that the suspects were moving north towards Eurostar stations. They confirmed that the extra patrols were for the reassurance of the public and to maintain visibility and that there were no credible reports yet of the suspects heading towards St Pancras.
In Belgium, the staff of P-Magazine were given police protection, although there were no specific threats. P-Magazine had previously published a cartoon of Muhammad drawn by the Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard.
On the evening of the day of the attack, demonstrations against the attack were held at the Place de la République in Paris and in other cities including Toulouse, Nice, Lyon, Marseille and Rennes.
The phrase Je suis Charlie (French for "I am Charlie") came to be a common worldwide sign of solidarity against the attacks. Many demonstrators used the slogan to express solidarity with the magazine. It appeared on printed and hand-made placards, and was displayed on mobile phones at vigils, and on many websites, particularly media sites such as Le Monde. The hashtag #jesuischarlie quickly trended at the top of Twitter hashtags worldwide following the attack.
Not long after the attack, it is estimated that around 35,000 people gathered in Paris holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. 15,000 people also gathered in Lyon and Rennes. 10,000 people gathered in Nice and Toulouse; 7,000 in Marseille; and 5,000 each in Nantes, Grenoble and Bordeaux. Thousands also gathered in Nantes at the Place Royale. More than 100,000 people in total gathered within France to partake in these demonstrations the evening of 7 January.
Demonstrators gather at the Place de la République in Paris on the night of the attack
Memorial for Ahmed Merabet
Demonstrators in Bordeaux
Tribute to Charlie Hebdo in Strasbourg
Tributes to the victims in Toulouse
Similar demonstrations and candle vigils spread to other cities outside France as well, including Amsterdam, Brussels, Barcelona, Ljubljana, Berlin, Copenhagen, London and Washington, D.C. Around 2,000 demonstrators gathered in London's Trafalgar Square and sang La Marseillaise, the French national anthem. In Brussels, two vigils have been held thus far, one immediately at the city's French consulate and a second one at Place du Luxembourg. Many flags around the city were at half-mast on 8 January. In Luxembourg, a demonstration was held in the Place de la Constitution.
A crowd gathered on the evening of 7 January, at Union Square in Manhattan, New York City. French ambassador to the United Nations François Delattre was present; the crowd lit candles, held signs, and sang the French national anthem. Several hundred people also showed up outside of the French consulate in San Francisco with "Je suis Charlie" signs to show their solidarity. In downtown Seattle, another vigil was held where people gathered around a French flag laid out with candles lit around it. They prayed for the victims and held "Je suis Charlie" signs. In Argentina, a large demonstration was held to denounce the attacks and show support for the victims outside the French embassy in the Buenos Aires.
More vigils and gatherings were held in Canada to show support to France and condemn terrorism. Many cities had notable "Je suis Charlie" gatherings, including Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto. In Calgary, there was a strong anti-terrorism sentiment. "We're against terrorism and want to show them that they won't win the battle. It's horrible everything that happened, but they won't win," commented one demonstrator. "It's not only against the French journalists or the French people, it's against freedom – everyone, all over the world, is concerned at what's happening." In Montreal, despite a temperature of −21 °C (−6 °F), over 1,000 people gathered chanting "Liberty!" and "Charlie!" outside of the city's French Consulate. Montreal Mayor Denis Coderre was among the gatherers and proclaimed, "Today, we are all French!" He confirmed the city's full support for the people of France and called for strong support regarding freedom, stating that "We have a duty to protect our freedom of expression. We have the right to say what we have to say."
By 8 January, vigils had spread to Australia, with thousands holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. In Sydney, people gathered at Martin Place – the location of a siege less than a month earlier – and in Hyde Park dressed in white clothing as a form of respect. Flags were at half-mast at the city's French consulate where mourners left bouquets. A vigil was held at Federation Square in Melbourne with an emphasis on togetherness. French consul Patrick Kedemos described the gathering in Perth as "a spontaneous, grassroots event". He added, "We are far away but our hearts today [are] with our families and friends in France. It [was] an attack on the liberty of expression, journalists that were prominent in France, and at the same time it's an attack or a perceived attack on our culture."
On 8 January over 100 demonstrations were held from 18:00 in the Netherlands at the time of the silent march in Paris, after a call to do so from the mayors of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, and other cities. Many Dutch government members joined the demonstrations.
Luxembourg, 8 January 2015
French Embassy, Moscow, Russia
Around 700,000 people walked in protest in France on 10 January. Major marches were held in Toulouse (attended by 180,000), Marseille (45,000), Lille (35–40,000), Nice (23–30,000), Pau (80,000), Nantes (75,000), Orléans (22,000), and Caen (6,000).
On 11 January, up to 2 million people, including President Hollande and more than 40 world leaders, led a rally of national unity in the heart of Paris to honour the 17 victims. The demonstrators marched from Place de la République to Place de la Nation. 3.7 million joined demonstrations nationwide in what officials called the largest public rally in France since World War II.[e]
There were also large marches in many other French towns and cities, and marches and vigils in many other cities worldwide.[f]
Arrests of "apologists for terrorism"
This section needs to be updated.(October 2016)
About 54 people in France, who had publicly supported the attack on Charlie Hebdo, were arrested as "apologists for terrorism" and about 12 people were sentenced to several months in jail. Comedian Dieudonné faces the same charges for having written on Facebook "I feel like Charlie Coulibaly".
Planned attacks in Belgium
Following a series of police raids in Belgium, in which two suspected terrorists were killed in a shootout in the city of Verviers, Belgian police stated that documents seized after the raids appear to show that the two were planning to attack sellers of the next edition of Charlie Hebdo released following the attack in Paris. Police named the men killed in the raid as Redouane Hagaoui and Tarik Jadaoun.
Protests following resumed publication
Unrest in Niger following the publication of the post-attack issue of Charlie Hebdo resulted in ten deaths, dozens injured, and at least 45 churches were burned down. The Guardian reported seven churches burned in Niamey alone. Churches were also reported to be on fire in eastern Maradi and Goure. There were violent demonstrations in Karachi in Pakistan, where Asif Hassan, a photographer working for the Agence France-Presse, was seriously injured by a shot to the chest. In Algiers and Jordan, protesters clashed with police, and there were peaceful demonstrations in Khartoum, Sudan, Russia, Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings and grenade-throwing at mosques and other Islamic centres and 33 cases of threats and insults.[g]
RT reported that a million people attended a demonstration in Grozny, the capital city of the Chechen Republic, protesting the depictions of Muhammad in Charlie Hebdo and proclaiming that Islam is a religion of peace. One of the slogans was "Violence is not the method".
On 8 February 2015 the Muslim Action Forum, an Islamic rights organization, orchestrated a mass demonstration outside Downing Street in London. Placards read, "Stand up for the Prophet" and "Be careful with Muhammad".
President François Hollande addressed media outlets at the scene of the shooting and called it "undoubtedly a terrorist attack", adding that "several [other] terrorist attacks were thwarted in recent weeks". He later described the shooting as a "terrorist attack of the most extreme barbarity", called the slain journalists "heroes", and declared a day of national mourning on 8 January.
At a rally in the Place de la République in the wake of the shooting, mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo said, "What we saw today was an attack on the values of our republic; Paris is a peaceful place. These cartoonists, writers and artists used their pens with a lot of humour to address sometimes awkward subjects and as such performed an essential function." She proposed that Charlie Hebdo "be adopted as a citizen of honour" by Paris.
Prime Minister Manuel Valls said that his country was at war with terrorism, but not at war with Islam or Muslims. French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said, "The terrorists' religion is not Islam, which they are betraying. It's barbarity."
The attack received immediate condemnation from dozens of governments worldwide. International leaders including Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin, Stephen Harper, Narendra Modi, Benjamin Netanyahu, Angela Merkel, Matteo Renzi, David Cameron, Mark Rutte and Tony Abbott offered statements of condolence and outrage.
Some English-language media outlets republished the cartoons on their websites in the hours following the shootings. Prominent examples included Bloomberg News, The Huffington Post, The Daily Beast, Gawker, Vox, and The Washington Free Beacon.[h]
Other news organisations covered the shootings without showing the drawings, such as The New York Times, New York Daily News, CNN, Al Jazeera America, Associated Press, NBC, MSNBC, and The Daily Telegraph. Accusations of self-censorship came from the websites Politico and Slate. The BBC, which previously had guidelines against all depictions of Muhammad, showed a depiction of him on a Charlie Hebdo cover and announced that they were reviewing these guidelines.
Other media publications such as Germany's Berliner Kurier and Poland's Gazeta Wyborcza reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo the day after the attack; the former had a cover of Muhammad reading Charlie Hebdo whilst bathing in blood. At least three Danish newspapers featured Charlie Hebdo cartoons, and the tabloid BT used one on its cover depicting Muhammad lamenting being loved by "idiots". The German newspaper Hamburger Morgenpost re-published the cartoons, and their office was fire-bombed. In Russia, LifeNews and Komsomolskaya Pravda suggested that the US had carried out the attack. "We are Charlie Hebdo" appeared on the front page of Novaya Gazeta. Russia's media supervision body, Roskomnadzor, stated that publication of the cartoons could lead to criminal charges.
Russian President Vladimir Putin has sought to harness and direct Muslim anger over the Charlie Hebdo cartoons against the West. Putin is believed to have backed protests by Muslims in Russia against Charlie Hebdo and the West.
In China, the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper, Global Times, said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism.
Media organisations carried out protests against the shootings. Libération, Le Monde, Le Figaro, and other French media outlets used black banners carrying the slogan "Je suis Charlie" across the tops of their websites. The front page of Libération's printed version was a different black banner that stated, "Nous sommes tous Charlie" ("We are all Charlie"), while Paris Normandie renamed itself Charlie Normandie for the day. The French and UK versions of Google displayed a black ribbon of mourning on the day of the attack.
Ian Hislop, editor of the British satirical magazine Private Eye, stated, "I am appalled and shocked by this horrific attack – a murderous attack on free speech in the heart of Europe. ... Very little seems funny today." The editor of Titanic, a German satirical magazine, declared, "[W]e are scared when we hear about such violence. However, as a satirist, we are beholden to the principle that every human being has the right to be parodied. This should not stop just because of some idiots who go around shooting". Many cartoonists from around the world responded to the attack on Charlie Hebdo by posting cartoons relating to the shooting. Among them was Albert Uderzo, who came out of retirement at age 87 to depict his character Astérix supporting Charlie Hebdo. In Australia, what was considered the iconic national cartoonist's reaction was a cartoon by David Pope in the Canberra Times, depicting a masked, black-clad figure with a smoking rifle standing poised over a slumped figure of a cartoonist in a pool of blood, with a speech balloon showing the gunman saying, "He drew first."
In India, Mint ran the photographs of copies of Charlie Hebdo on their cover, but later apologised after receiving complaints from the readers. The Hindu also issued an apology after it printed a photograph of some people holding copies of Charlie Hebdo. The editor of the Urdu newspaper Avadhnama, Shireen Dalvi, which printed the cartoons faced several police complaints. She was arrested and released on bail. She began to wear the burqa for the first time in her life and went into hiding.
Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm featured drawings by young cartoonists signed with "Je suis Charlie" in solidarity with the victims. Al-Masry al-Youm also displayed on their website a slide show of some Charlie Hebdo cartoons, including controversial ones. This was seen by analyst Jonathan Guyer as a "surprising" and maybe "unprecedented" move, due to the pressure Arab artists can be subject to when depicting religious figures.
In Los Angeles, the Jewish Journal weekly changed its masthead that week to Jewish Hebdo and published the offending Muhammad cartoons.
The Guardian reported that many Muslims and Muslim organisations criticised the attack while some Muslims support it and other Muslims stated they would only condemn it if France condemned the killings of Muslims worldwide". Zvi Bar'el argued in Haaretz that believing the attackers represented Muslims was like believing that Ratko Mladić represented Christians. Al Jazeera English editor and executive producer Salah-Aldeen Khadr attacked Charlie Hebdo as the work of solipsists, and sent out a staff-wide e-mail where he argued: "Defending freedom of expression in the face of oppression is one thing; insisting on the right to be obnoxious and offensive just because you can is infantile." The e-mail elicited different responses from within the organisation.[clarification needed]
The Shia Islamic journal Ya lasarat Al-Hussein, founded by Ansar-e Hezbollah, praised the shooting, saying, "[the cartoonists] met their legitimate justice, and congratulations to all Muslims" and "according to fiqh of Islam, punishment of insulting of Muhammad is death penalty".
Reporters Without Borders criticised the presence of leaders from Egypt, Russia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, saying, "On what grounds are representatives of regimes that are predators of press freedom coming to Paris to pay tribute to Charlie Hebdo, a publication that has always defended the most radical concept of freedom of expression?"
Hacktivist group Anonymous released a statement in which they offered condolences to the families of the victims and denounced the attack as an "inhuman assault" on freedom of expression. They addressed the terrorists: "[a] message for al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and other terrorists – we are declaring war against you, the terrorists." As such, Anonymous plans to target jihadist websites and social media accounts linked to supporting Islamic terrorism with the aim of disrupting them and shutting them down.
Condemning the attack
Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Morocco, Algeria, and Qatar all denounced the incident, as did Egypt's Al-Azhar University, the leading Sunni institution of the Muslim world. Islamic organisations, including the French Council of the Muslim Faith, the Muslim Council of Britain and Islamic Forum of Europe, spoke out against the attack. Sheikh Abdul Qayum and Imam Dalil Boubakeur stated, "[We] are horrified by the brutality and the savagery." The Union of Islamic Organisations of France released a statement condemning the attack, and Imam Hassen Chalghoumi stated that those behind the attack "have sold their soul to hell".
The US-based Muslim civil liberties group, the Council on American–Islamic Relations, condemned the attacks and defended the right to freedom of speech, "even speech that mocks faiths and religious figures". The vice president of the US Ahmadiyya Muslim Community condemned the attack, saying, "The culprits behind this atrocity have violated every Islamic tenet of compassion, justice, and peace." The National Council of Canadian Muslims, a Muslim civil liberties organisation, also condemned the attacks.
The League of Arab States released a collective condemnation of the attack. Al-Azhar University released a statement denouncing the attack, stating that violence was never appropriate regardless of "offence committed against sacred Muslim sentiments". The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation condemned the attack, saying that it went against Islam's principles and values.
Both the Palestinian Liberation Organization and the Hamas government of the Gaza Strip stated that "differences of opinion and thought cannot justify murder". The leader of Hezbollah, Hassan Nasrallah declared that "takfiri terrorist groups" had insulted Islam more than "even those who have attacked the Prophet".
Malek Merabet, the brother of Ahmed Merabet, a Muslim police officer killed in the shooting, condemned the terrorists who killed his brother: "My brother was Muslim and he was killed by two terrorists, by two false Muslims". Just hours after the shootings, the mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, a Muslim born in Morocco, condemned Islamist extremists living in the West who "turn against freedom" and told them to "fuck off".
Supporting the attack
Saudi-Australian Islamic preacher Junaid Thorne said: "If you want to enjoy 'freedom of speech' with no limits, expect others to exercise 'freedom of action'." Anjem Choudary, a radical British Islamist, wrote an editorial in USA Today in which he professes justification from the words of Muhammad that those who insult the prophets of Islam should face death, and that Muhammad should be protected to prevent further violence. Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia said that "as a result, it is assumed necessary in all cases to ensure that the pressure does not exceed the red lines, which will then ultimately lead to irreversible problems". Bahujan Samaj Party leader Yaqub Qureishi, a Muslim MLA and former Minister from Uttar Pradesh in India, offered a reward of ₹510 million (US$8 million) to the perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shootings.[i] On 14 January, about 1,500 Filipino Muslims held a rally in Muslim-majority Marawi in support of the attacks.
The massacre was praised by various militant and terrorist groups, including al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula, the Taliban in Afghanistan, Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram, and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Two Islamist newspapers in Turkey ran headlines that were criticised on social media as justifying the attack. The Yeni Akit ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that provoked Muslims", and Türkiye ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that insulted our Prophet". Reuters reported a rally in support of the shootings in southern Afghanistan, where the demonstrators called the gunmen "heroes" who meted out punishment for the disrespectful cartoons. The demonstrators also protested Afghan President Ashraf Ghani's swift condemnation of the shootings. Around 40 to 60 people gathered in Peshawar, Pakistan, to praise the killers, with a local cleric holding a funeral for the killers, lionizing them as "heroes of Islam."
Le Figaro reported that in a Seine-Saint-Denis primary school, up to 80% of the pupils refused to participate in the minute of silence that the French government decreed for schools. A student told a teacher, "I'll drop you with a Kalashnikov, mate." Other teachers were told Charlie Hebdo "had it coming", and "Me, I'm for the killers". One teacher requested to be transferred. They also reported that students from a vocational school in Senlis tried to attack and beat students from a neighbouring school while saying "we will kill more Charlie Hebdos". The incident is being investigated by authorities who are handling 37 proceedings of "terrorism glorification" and 17 proceedings of threats of violence in schools.
La Provence reported that a fight broke out in the l'Arc à Orange high school during the minute of silence, as a result of a student post on a social network welcoming the atrocities. The student was later penalised for posting the message. Le Point reported on the "provocations" at a grade school in Grenoble, and cited a girl who said "Madame, people won't let the insult of a drawing of the prophet pass by, it is normal to take revenge. This is more than a joke, it's an insult!"
Le Monde reported that the majority of students they met at Saint-Denis condemned the attack. For them, life is sacred, but so is religion. Marie-Hélène, age 17, said "I didn't really want to stand for the one minute silence, I didn't think it was right to pay homage to a man who insulted Islam and other religions too". Abdul, age 14, said "of course everyone stood for the one minute silence, and that includes all Muslims... I did it for those who were killed, but not for Charlie. I have no pity for him, he had no respect for us Muslims". It also reported that for most students at the Paul Eluard high school in Saint-Denis, freedom of expression is perceived as being "incompatible with their faith". For Erica, who describes herself as Catholic, "there are wrongs on both sides". A fake bomb was planted in the faculty lounge at the school.
France Télévisions reported that a fourth-grade student told her teacher, "We will not be insulted by a drawing of the prophet, it is normal that we take revenge." It also reported that the fake bomb contained the message "I Am Not Charlie".
Salman Rushdie, who is on the al-Qaeda hit list and received death threats over his novel The Satanic Verses, said, "I stand with Charlie Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and stupidity ... religious totalitarianism has caused a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam and we see the tragic consequences in Paris today."
Swedish artist Lars Vilks, also on the al-Qaeda hit list for publishing his own satirical drawings of Muhammad, condemned the attacks and said that the terrorists "got what they wanted. They've scared people. People were scared before, but with this attack fear will grow even larger" and that the attack "expose[s] the world we live in today".
American journalist David Brooks wrote an article titled "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo" in The New York Times, arguing that the magazine's humor was childish, but necessary as a voice of satire. He also criticised many of those in America who were ostensibly voicing support for free speech, noting that were the cartoons to be published in an American university newspaper, the editors would be accused of "hate speech" and the university would "have cut financing and shut them down." He called on the attacks to be an impetus toward tearing down speech codes.
American linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky views the popularisation of the Je suis Charlie slogan by politicians and media in the West as hypocritical, comparing the situation to the NATO bombing of the Radio Television of Serbia headquarters in 1999, when 16 employees were killed. "There were no demonstrations or cries of outrage, no chants of 'We are RTV'," he noted. Chomsky also mentioned other incidents where US military forces have caused higher civilian death tolls, without leading to intensive reactions such as those that followed the 2015 Paris attacks.
German politician Sahra Wagenknecht, the deputy leader of the party Die Linke in the German Parliament, has compared the US drone attacks in Afghanistan, Pakistan or Yemen with the terrorist attacks in Paris. ″If a drone controlled by the West extinguishes an innocent Arab or Afghan family, which is just a despicable crime as the attacks in Paris, and it should fill us with the same sadness and the same horror". We should not operate a double standard. Through the drone attacks had been "murdered thousands of innocent people", in the concerned countries, this created helplessness, rage and hatred: "Thereby we prepare the ground for the terror, we officially want to fight." The politician stressed that this war is also waged from German ground. Regarding the Afghanistan war with German participation for years, she said: "Even the Bundeswehr is responsible for the deaths of innocent people in Afghanistan." As the most important consequence of the terrorist attacks in Paris, Wagenknecht demanded the end of all military operations of the West in the Middle East.
Cartoonist-journalist Joe Sacco expressed grief for the victims in a comic strip, and wrote
but ... tweaking the noses of Muslims ... has never struck me as anything other than a vapid way to use the pen ... I affirm our right to "take the piss" ... but we can try to think why the world is the way it is ... and [retaliating with violence against Muslims] is going to be far easier than sorting out how we fit in each other's world.
Japanese film director Hayao Miyazaki expressed his opinion about the attack and gave his opinion about the magazine decision to publish the content cited as the trigger for the incident. He said, "I think it's a mistake to caricaturize the figures venerated by another culture. You shouldn't do it." He assert, "Instead of doing something like that, you should first make caricatures of your own country's politicians." Charlie Hebdo had already published numerous caricatures of European public officials in the years prior to the attack.
Political scientist Norman Finkelstein criticized the Western response to the shooting, comparing Charlie Hebdo to Julius Streicher saying "So two despairing and desperate young men act out their despair and desperation against this political pornography no different than [sic] Der Stürmer, who in the midst of all of this death and destruction decide it's somehow noble to degrade, demean, humiliate and insult the people. I'm sorry, maybe it is very politically incorrect. I have no sympathy for [the staff of Charlie Hebdo]. Should they have been killed? Of course not. But of course, Streicher shouldn't have been hung [sic]. I don't hear that from many people."
French Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve declared that by the morning of 9 January 2015, a total of 3,721 messages "condoning the attacks" had already been documented through the French government Pharos system.
In an open letter titled "To the Youth in Europe and North America", Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged young people in Europe and North America not to judge Islam by the attacks, but to seek their own understanding of the religion. Holly Dagres of Al-Monitor wrote that Khamenei's followers "actively spammed Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google+ and even Tumblr with links" to the letter with the aim of garnering the attention of people in the West.
On social media, the hashtag "#JeSuisAhmed" trended, a tribute to the Muslim policeman Ahmed Merabet, along with the quote "I am not Charlie, I am Ahmed the dead cop. Charlie ridiculed my faith and culture and I died defending his right to do so." The Economist compared this to a quote commonly misattributed to Voltaire, "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it".
- 2015 TV5Monde cyber-attack
- 2020 Paris stabbing attack
- Brussels ISIL terror cell
- Censorship in Islamic societies
- Charlie Mensuel
- Everybody Draw Mohammed Day
- Freedom of the press
- Hara-Kiri (magazine)
- Islam and violence
- Islam in France
- List of Islamic terrorist attacks
- List of journalists killed in Europe
- Murder of Samuel Paty
- November 2015 Paris attacks
- Terrorism in the European Union
- Sources for 'Plots against' Jyllands-Posten
- For details of various incidents see: 2006 German train bombing plot, 2008 Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad, Hotel Jørgensen explosion, and 2010 Copenhagen terror plot.
- Information about Chérif and Saïd Kouachi.
- Attacks on mosques
- Sources confirming largest public rally in France since WWII
- Sources for worldwide marches and vigils
- Attacks on mosques
- English-language media outlets that republished cartoons
- Sources confirming reward of 510 million
- "En images: à 11 h 30, des hommes armés ouvrent le feu rue Nicolas-Appert". Le Monde. 7 January 2015.
- Woolf, Christopher (15 January 2015). "Where did the Paris attackers get their guns?". PRI The World. Minneapolis, US: Public Radio International. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
The weapons seen in various images of the attackers include Zastava M70 assault rifle; vz. 61 submachine gun; several Russian-designed Tokarev TT pistols and a grenade or rocket launcher – probably the Yugoslav M80 Zolja.
- Withnall, Adam; Lichfield, John (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo shooting: At least 12 killed as shots fired at satirical magazine's Paris office". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Al Qaeda claims French attack, derides Paris rally". Reuters. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Salaün, Tangi (16 December 2020). "French court finds accomplices to Charlie Hebdo attackers guilty". Reuters. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- Charb (20 November 2013). "Non, "Charlie Hebdo" n'est pas raciste!" [No, Charlie Hebdo is not racist!]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Cabu, Jean; Val, Philippe (5 September 2008). "Cabu et Val écrivent à l'Obs". Nouvel Observateur. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Leveque, Thierry (22 March 2007). "French court clears weekly in Mohammad cartoon row". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "Charlie Hebdo: Major manhunt for Paris gunmen". BBC News. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Saul, Heather (9 January 2015). "Google pays tribute to Charlie Hebdo attack victims with black ribbon on homepage". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "BBC News: Attack on French satirical paper Charlie Hebdo (2 November 2011)". BBC. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Boxel, James (2 November 2011). "Firebomb attack on satirical French magazine". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Charlie Hebdo (3 November 2011). "Les SDF du net". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo publie des caricatures de Mahomet" [Charlie Hebdo publishes some caricatures of Mohammed]. BFM TV (in French). 18 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Vinocur, Nicholas (19 September 2012). "Magazine's nude Mohammad cartoons prompt France to shut embassies, schools in 20 countries". National Post. Reuters. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Samuel, Henry (19 September 2012). "France to close schools and embassies fearing Mohammed cartoon reaction". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- Khazan, Olga (19 September 2012). "Charlie Hebdo cartoons spark debate over free speech and Islamophobia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Dashiell Bennet (1 March 2013). "Look Who's on Al Qaeda's Most-Wanted List". The Wire. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Murray, Don (8 January 2015). "France even more fractured after the Charlie Hebdo rampage". CBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Conal Urquhart (7 January 2015). "Paris Police Say 12 Dead After Shooting at Charlie Hebdo". Time. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Ward, Victoria (7 January 2015). "Murdered Charlie Hebdo cartoonist was on al Qaeda wanted list". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Delesalle, Nicolas (16 January 2015). "Antonio Fischetti: "Bien sûr, on s'engueulait, à 'Charlie'"". Telerama.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Jeannette Bougrab: " Charb avait un couteau au-dessus de son lit " - Gala". June 2015.
- Reimann, Anna (12 February 2008). "Interview with Jyllands-Posten Editor: 'I Don't Fear for My Life'". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Gebauer, Matthias; Musharbash, Yassin (5 May 2006). "Selbstmord nach versuchtem Angriff auf Chefredakteur der "Welt"". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Christoffersen, John (8 September 2009). "Yale Criticized for Nixing Muslim Cartoons in Book". USA Today. AP. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Brix, Knud (20 October 2008). "Taleban truer Danmark". Ekstra Bladet (in Danish). Retrieved 25 October 2008.
- "Charlie Hebdo Paris shooting: How criticisms, satires of Islam have sparked violence". CBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Danish police shoot intruder at cartoonist's home". BBC News. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- "Denmark cartoon trial: Kurt Westergaard attacker jailed". BBC News. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- Wienberg, Christian (29 December 2010). "Police Arrest 'Militant Islamists' Planning Attack in Denmark". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Mockery and the Prophet: European media's history of satire sparking retribution". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- Bye Skille, Øyvind; Døvik, Olav (5 May 2013). "Nederlag for terrorplanleggere i Høyesterett" (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Sweeney, Annie (17 January 2013). "Former Chicago businessman gets 14 years in terror case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack echoes David Headley's Danish plot". Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- Peter Bergen (8 January 2015). "Americans have plotted to kill cartoonists who lampooned Islam – CNN". CNN. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Eglises et de l'Etat. Version consolidée au 08 avril 2015". Legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Bulletin Officiel du Ministère de l'Education Nationale du 27 mai 2004. RESPECT DE LA LAÏCITÉ Port de signes ou de tenues manifestant une appartenance religieuse dans les écoles, collèges et lycées publics". Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Laïcité, la France en plein doute". La Croix. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Secularism in Turkey, France, and the United States". September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.
- "The Koran Does Not Forbid Images of the Prophet", Newsweek, 9 January 2015
- Burke, Daniel (9 January 2015). "Why Islam forbids images of Mohammed". BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "The issue of depicting the Prophet Muhammad". BBC. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "FOCUS – Praying for a pardon: Christian sentenced to death for 'blaspheming against Islam'". France 24. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Paris attack highlights Europe's struggle with Islamism". BBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Jolly, David (2 November 2011). "Charlie Hebdo, French Magazine, Firebombed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- "Attentat à "Charlie Hebdo": "Vous allez payer car vous avez insulté le Prophète"". Le Monde. 8 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo: Le témoignage de la dessinatrice Coco". L'Humanité (in French). 7 January 2015.
- "'Vignettes: More about the 17 killed in French terror attacks". CNN. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo shootings: 'It's carnage, a bloodbath. Everyone is dead'". The Guardian. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Alexander, Harriet (9 January 2015). "Inside Charlie Hebdo attack: 'We all thought it was a joke'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Paris shooting: Manhunt after gunmen attack office of Charlie Hebdo, French satirical magazine". CBS News. 7 January 2015.
- "Gunmen in Charlie Hebdo Attack Identified". ABC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "'I hid under a desk': How the Charlie Hebdo attack unfolded". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Journalist Sigolene Vinson says she was spared by gunmen because of her gender". news.com.au. 10 January 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo shooting | Facts, Victims, & Response". 28 April 2023.
- "Sole Woman Killed in Charlie Hebdo Massacre Targeted Because 'She Was Jewish', Cousin Says". Algemeiner. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "The Globe in Paris: Police identify three suspects". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Journalist Sigolene Vinson says she was spared by gunmen because of her gender".
- "The defenders of freedom" (PDF).
- "The defenders of freedom".
- Watt, Holly (7 January 2015). "Terrorists shouted they were from Al Qaeda in the Yemen before Charlie Hebdo attack". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- S.L (7 January 2015). "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: le scénario de la tuerie". MYTF1NEWS. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "What Videos Tell Us About Charlie Hebdo Paris Attack Gunmen". YouTube. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "En direct: Des coups de feu au siège de Charlie Hebdo". Le Monde (in French).
see comments at 13h09 and 13h47: "LeMonde.fr: @Antoine Tout ce que nous savons est qu'ils parlent un français sans accent." and "LeMonde.fr: Sur la même vidéo, on peut entendre les agresseurs. D'après ce qu'on peut percevoir, les hommes semblent parler français sans accent."
- "Deadly attack on office of French magazine Charlie Hebdo". BBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "12 dead in 'terrorist' attack at Paris paper". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Le Courrier picard (8 January 2015). "AISNE Les frères Kouachi localisés près de Villers-Cotterêts". Le Courrier picard.
- "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: Les deux suspects auraient braqué une station-essence à Villers-Cotterêts". 20 Minutes. 8 January 2015.
- ""Charlie Hebdo": minute par minute, les événements de jeudi matin". Le Point.fr. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Attaque à "Charlie Hebdo": Drapeaux djihadistes et cocktails Molotov dans la voiture abandonnée... Les deux suspects repérés à Villers-Côtterets..." 20 Minutes. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Bilefsky, Dan (7 January 2015). "Terrorists Strike Charlie Hebdo Newspaper in Paris, Leaving 12 Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Has al-Qaeda Struck Back? Part One". 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Lucy Cormack (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo editor Stephane Charbonnier crossed off chilling al-Qaeda hitlist". The Age. Melbourne.
- "Al-Qaeda Group Claims Responsibility for Paris Terror Attack". Time. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Par Florence Saugues (8 January 2015). "Attentat contre 'Charlie Hebdo' – Elsa Cayat, la psy de "Charlie" assassinée". Paris Match. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "She was definitely killed because she was Jewish". CNN. 9 January 2015.
Also on MSN
- "Charlie Hebdo attack: Victim obituaries". BBC News. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "En Direct. Massacre chez "Charlie Hebdo": 12 morts, dont Charb et Cabu". Le Point (in French). 7 January 2015.
- "Les dessinateurs Charb et Cabu seraient morts". L'Essentiel (in French). 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Saul, Heather (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: All 12 victims are named". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo victims". BBC. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Fearless: Murdered French cartoonists welcomed controversy". Fox News Channel. 7 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "Attentat de Charlie Hebdo, l'un des policiers tués demeurait en Normandie". tendanceouest.com (in French). 7 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015. Google "translated"
- Polly Mosendz. "Police Officer Ahmed Merabet Shot During Charlie Hebdo Massacre". Newsweek.
- Manuel Armand (8 January 2015). "Michel Renaud, insatiable voyageur". Le Monde.
- Toner, Eneida. "Philippe Lançon, PLAS Visting [sic] Fellow for AY15, Injured in the Paris Terrorist Attack," Program in Latin American Studies blog (8 January 2015).
- "Attentat contre Charlie Hebdo. Témoignage de l'oncle de Riss, directeur de la rédaction Charlie Hebdo". Le Telegramme. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.[dead link]
- ""Charlie Hebdo": la traque des suspects se poursuit". Le Point (in French). 8 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015. Translated text
- "En Direct. Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: 12 morts, les terroristes en fuite". Le Parisien (in French). France. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo attacks: 'Have no fear, we don't kill women,' gunman told massacre survivor. The Independent. 14 January 2015.
- "The Globe in Paris: Police identify three suspects". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015.
- "Exclusive Interview with 'Charlie Hebdo' Cartoonist Luz". Vice News (Youtube). 31 January 2015.
- Candea, Stefan (18 March 2016). "Route of weapons used in Paris terror attacks leads to Slovak online gun shop". UN Project Linx. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- Higgins, Andrew; De La Baume, Maia (8 January 2015). "Two Brothers Suspected in Killings Were Known to French Intelligence Services". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Ce que l'on sait sur la radicalisation des frères Kouachi". Le Monde (in French). 10 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Sabin, Lamiat (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: What do we know about suspects Said and Cherif Kouachi who allegedly shot 12 people dead". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "French terror suspect linked to al-Qaeda in Yemen". USA Today. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- John Lichfield (19 January 2015). "The trauma that helped create Charlie Hebdo killers". The New Zealand Herald.
- "Un commando organisé". Libération. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Callimachi, Rukmini; Yardley, Jim (17 January 2015). "Chérif and Saïd Kouachi's Path to Paris Attack at Charlie Hebdo". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Witte, Griff (8 January 2015). "Suspect in Paris attack had 'long-term obsession' carrying out terror attack". The Washington Post.
- Samuel, Henry (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: the Kouachi brothers and the network of French Islamists with links to Islamic State". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack: Suspects' profiles". BBC News. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Angelique Chrisafis (12 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attackers: born, raised and radicalised in Paris". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Religiösa hatpredikanter styr islamistisk terror i Europa". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- "Who are suspects in two violent French standoffs?". CNN. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "Paris Magazine Attack". NBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "French Muslims flock to, from Iraq's Battlefields". NBC News. 30 March 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "French Probe Terror Suspect Links; New Attacks May Be Ahead". The New York Times. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Neighbour says suspects in Paris shooting had 'cache of arms'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Coker, Margaret; Almasmari, Hakim (11 January 2015). "Paris Attacker Said Kouachi Knew Convicted Nigerian Airline Bomber". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Said Kouachi, Suspect in Charlie Hebdo Attack, Trained in Yemen: Reports". The Huffington Post. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Exclusive: Paris attack suspect met prominent al Qaeda preacher in Yemen – intelligence source". Reuters. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Akkoc, Raziye (10 January 2015). "Paris Charlie Hebdo attack: live". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- Julian E. Barnes; Adam Entous; Devlin Barrett (9 January 2015). "U.S. Shared Intelligence With French About Paris Brothers' Yemen Trip". The Wall Street Journal.
- Belgian arms dealer confesses to supplying Paris attackers Haaretz. 14 January 2015
- Saliba, Emmanuelle (9 January 2015). "Paris Killer Cherif Kouachi Gave Interview to TV Channel Before He Died". NBC News.
- Dearden, Lizzie; Lichfield, John; Milmo, Cahal (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: Paris police name three suspects in manhunt as Kouachi brothers and surrendered 18-year-old 'accomplice'". The Independent. London.
- "Police Identify Suspects in Paris Shooting That Killed 12". Time. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Le Point, magazine (7 January 2015). ""Charlie Hebdo": perquisitions à Reims, Strasbourg, Pantin et Gennevilliers". Le Point.fr.
- "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo". Le Parisien. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Willsher, Kim; Topping, Alexandra (8 January 2015). "Police converge on area north-east of Paris in hunt for Charlie Hebdo gunmen". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack: Hunt for killers focuses on northern France". CNN. 8 January 2015.
- "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: la traque se concentre près de Villers-Cotterêts". Le Parisien. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- John Lichfield; Rose Troup Buchanan; Cahal Milmo (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: Hundreds of elite armed police comb woodland in hunt for two suspects". The Independent. London.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack: Manhunt – live reporting". BBC News. 9 January 2015.
- ""J'ai vécu un moment incroyable": le récit du gérant de l'imprimerie, otage des frères Kouachi". Figaro.fr. 10 January 2015.
- "Frenchman says he came face to face with Charlie Hebdo attacker: 'I shook his hand'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- Charlie Hebdo hunt: Charlie Hebdo shooting: Printing company worker's encounter with suspects Said and Cherif Kouachi, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Print works hostage Michel Catalano: I was freed after helping wounded gunman, The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "Paris hostages survived hidden in fridges and beneath sinks". Agence France-Presse. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Création Tendance découverte: prise d'otages à Dammartin en Goële". linternaute.com. 9 January 2015.
- "De l'attaque contre "Charlie" aux assauts de vendredi, le récit du procureur de Paris". Liberation.fr (in French). 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Dearden, Lizzie (9 January 2015). "Paris shootings: How the sieges with Charlie Hebdo killers at Dammartin-en-Goele print works and Jewish grocer ended". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Cornered French suspects vow to die as martyrs, wusa9.com. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo attack: 3 suspects, 4 hostages killed in separate attacks near Paris, CBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo attack: Kouachi brothers killed, BBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Stacy Meichtry; Noémie Bisserbe; Benoît Faucon (14 January 2015). "Paris Attacker Amedy Coulibaly's Path to Terror". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Paris shooting: Armed man takes hostages in Paris kosher store". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Paris gunman Amedy Coulibaly declared allegiance to Isis, The Guardian
- Witte, Griff (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo suspect said to surrender; two others at large after Paris terror attack". The Washington Post.
- ""Charlie Hebdo": Mourad Hamyd, accusé à tort ?". Le Point. 8 January 2015.
-  Charlie Hebdo shooting: Hamyd Mourad 'in shock' after wrongly linked to attack on newspaper Australian Broadcasting Corporation 10 January 2015 – Retrieved 11 January 2015
- Willsher, Kim (21 December 2018). "Charlie Hebdo suspect arrested in Djibouti". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- "Suspect tied to Charlie Hebdo attack sent to France, charged". Associated Press. 23 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack: suspected accomplices go on trial in Paris". the Guardian. 2 September 2020.
- "Charlie Hebdo: 14 suspects face trial over Paris massacre". BBC News. 2 September 2020.
- "Charlie Hebdo: Magazine republishes controversial Mohammed cartoons". BBC News. 1 September 2020.
- "Charlie Hebdo terror attack accomplices' trial starts in Paris". France 24. 2 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- "Charlie hebdo: près de 8 millions d'exemplaires". Le Figaro (in French). Agence France-Presse. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "" Charlie Hebdo " tiré à 7 millions d'exemplaires". Le Monde.fr. Le Monde.fr avec AFP et Reuters. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Weaver, Matthew (14 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo print run raised to 5m as copies in France sell out". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo 'survivor's issue' to sell outside France". Business Insider. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- Russell Brandom (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo will publish one million copies next week with help from Google-backed fund". The Verge.
- Jon Stone (8 January 2015). "French media raises €500,000 to keep satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo open". The Independent. London.
- McPhate, Mike; MacKey, Robert (8 January 2015). "Updates on the 2nd Day of Search for Suspects in Charlie Hebdo Shooting". The New York Times.
- "EUROPEAN UNION TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT (TE-SAT) 2016". Europol. 2016. p. 41.
- "French magazine attack set to deepen Europe's 'culture war'". Reuters. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Don't let extremists curtail European democracy". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Patrick Donahue (8 January 2015). "Paris Killings Seen Fueling Europe's Anti-Islam Movements". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Oren Dorell, USA TODAY (8 January 2015). "Paris attack heightens European tensions with Muslims". USA Today. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Mosques Attacked in Wake of Charlie Hebdo Shooting". The Huffington Post. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Attacks Reported at French Mosques in Wake of Charlie Hebdo Massacre". NBC News. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo anniversary: Paris police shoot man dead". BBC News. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- "Les images après l'attaque du commissariat à Paris". Le HuffPost (in French). 7 January 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
un an jour pour jour après Charlie, le quartier de la Goutte-d'Or, dans le nord de Paris, a retenu son souffle après l'attaque d'un commissariat par un homme armé d'un couteau et d'un dispositif explosif factice.
- Breeden, Aurelein (7 January 2016). "Man With Fake Explosives Killed in Paris on Charlie Hebdo Anniversary". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Litchfield, John (10 January 2016). "Paris shooting: Man killed by police had lived in German refugee camp". The Independent. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Pearce, Matt (3 May 2015). "Outside Muhammad cartoon contest in Texas, 2 gunmen are killed and guard is shot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "Here's How Paris Police Are Responding to the Terrorist Attack on Charlie Hebdo". Time. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Madi, Mohamed; Ryder, Sherie (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack – latest". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Andrew O'Reilly (8 January 2015). "In wake of Paris shooting, Spain worries about terror attacks on its home soil". Fox News Latino. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Paul Wright. "Armed police step up patrols at St Pancras in wake of Charlie Hebdo Paris massacre". Hampstead Highgate Express. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Andrew O'Reilly (8 January 2015). "Politiebescherming voor redactie P-Magazine". nieuwsblad.be (in Dutch). Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Fabian Federl (7 January 2015). ""Je suis Charlie": Hitzige Debatten auf Twitter". Tages Spiegel.
- "Charlie Hebdo: 10.000 personnes rassemblées à Toulouse". Le Figaro. 7 January 2015.
- "Muhammad holds 'Je suis Charlie' sign on Charlie Hebdo front page". Japan Times. 13 January 2015.
- "#JeSuisCharlie: Signs of solidarity after Paris terror attack". CBS News. 7 January 2015.
- Attentat à Charlie Hebdo. Près de 15 000 personnes réunies à Lyon, eprogres.fr (in French), 7 January 2015
- "Demonstrations Follow Charlie Hebdo Massacre". ABC News. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo": plus de 100.000 personnes rassemblées en hommage, nouvelobs.com (in French), 7 January 2015
- Ruim 100.000 mensen betogen voor persvrijheid na aanslag Parijs, NU.nl, 8 January 2015 (in Dutch)
- 'Je Suis Charlie' in Photos, CityLab.com, 7 January 2015
- "24ur". 8 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo attack vigils – in pictures, The Guardian, 7 January 2015
- "Charlie Hebdo attack – latest". BBC News. 7 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo magazine attack: vigils held as gunmen remain at large – live". The Guardian. 7 January 2015.
- "Brussels in mourning after Paris killings". euractiv.com. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Grand Duchess Joins Anti-Terror Rally in Luxembourg: Spontaneous anti-terror rally in Luxembourg City". Luxemburger Wort. 11 January 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "New Yorkers and Expats Band Together for Charlie Hebdo Vigil". The New York Observer. 8 January 2015.
- "Hundreds Gather in San Francisco Vigil for Terror Attack Victims at French Magazine". NBCBayArea.com. 7 January 2015.
- "Seattle's French community holds vigil for those killed in an attack in Paris". q13fox. 7 January 2015.
- Grupo Octubre. "Diario Z – Noticias de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires". Diario Z. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Toronto's French community gathers for Charlie Hebdo vigil, Toronto Star, 7 January 2015
- Calgarians attend vigil for victims of deadly attack at French newspaper Archived 13 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, CalgaryHerald.com, 7 January 2015
- "Crowds brave frigid temperatures to attend Montreal vigils for victims of Paris shooting". The Gazette. Montreal. 7 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo vigils held in Canada after deadly attack in Paris". CBC News. 7 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo: Thousands turn out for Melbourne, Sydney vigil". SBS.com.au. 8 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo shooting: Crowds gather for vigils in Melbourne, Sydney, Perth". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 8 January 2015.
- Live meekijken: de Charlie Hebdo-demonstraties NRC.nl 8 January 2014 (in Dutch)
- Nederland staat stil bij aanslag Charlie Hebdo NOS 8 January 2014 (in Dutch)
- "Plus de 700 000 personnes défilent contre le terrorisme en France" [More than 700,000 people marched against terrorism in France]. Le Monde.fr (in French). Agence France-Presse. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Hinnant, Lori; Adamson, Thomas (11 January 2015). "Officials: Paris Unity Rally Largest in French History". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Paris attacks: Millions rally for unity in France". BBC News. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Paris unity rally largest in French history". The Portland Press Herald / Maine Sunday Telegram. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo attacks: Vast Paris rally to take place". BBC News. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "1.5m join 'unprecedented' Paris march against terror". RTÉ News. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "PHOTOS: At least 3.7 million people march around France for unity – Boston News, Weather, Sports – FOX 25 – MyFoxBoston". myfoxboston.com. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Attentats: des peines de prison ferme pour apologie du terrorisme". Le Parisien. 12 January 2015.
- "Attentats: 54 interpellations pour apologie du terrorisme". Le Figaro. 14 January 2015.
- "Dieudonné sera jugé en correctionnelle pour apologie du terrorisme". 20 Minutes. 14 January 2015.
- Bruno Waterfield (16 January 2015). "Belgian terrorist cell 'linked to targeting of newsagents selling Charlie Hebdo'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- "Five killed in second day of Charlie Hebdo protests in Niger". Reuters. 17 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo: Niger protesters torched 45 churches – police". BBC. 19 January 2015.
- Emma Graham-Harrison (17 January 2015). "Niger rioters torch churches and attack French firms in Charlie Hebdo protest". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "'Charlie Hebdo' Protest Rally in Chechnya Draws Huge Crowd". finance.yahoo.com. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- Christopher Hope (8 February 2015). "Huge crowd of Muslim protesters picket Downing Street to protest at Charlie Hebdo cartoon". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Live: Manhunt under way after deadly shooting at Charlie Hebdo". France 24. 7 January 2015. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "1 of 3 Suspects in Paris Shootings Surrenders". Voice of America. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "France – French, world leaders condemn attack at Charlie Hebdo". France 24. 7 January 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Thousands rally in Paris after Charlie Hebdo shooting: 'No words can express our anger'". Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "We are at war with terrorism not Islam, says French PM". Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Mosques fire bombed and pelted with pig heads in aftermath of Paris terror attacks". 13 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo: world leaders' reactions to terror attack, The Daily Telegraph, 7 January 2015
- Bloomberg Photos (7 January 2015). "The Bold Charlie Hebdo Covers the Satirical Magazine Was Not Afraid to Run". Bloomberg.
- Catherine Taibi (7 January 2015). "These Are The Charlie Hebdo Cartoons That Terrorists Thought Were Worth Killing Over". The Huffington Post.
- "The 16 most 'shocking' Charlie Hebdo covers". Daily Beast. 2 November 2011.
- Max Read (7 January 2015). "What Is Charlie Hebdo? The Cartoons that Made the French Paper Infamous". Gawker. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015.
- Amanda Taub (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo and its biting satire, explained in 9 of its most iconic covers". Vox.
- Lachlan Markey (7 January 2015). "A Tribute to Charlie Hebdo". Washington Free Beacon.
- Ben Mathis-Lilley (7 January 2015). "News Outlets Are Censoring Images of Cartoons That May Have Incited Charlie Hebdo Attack". Slate.
- Hadas Gold (7 January 2015) News orgs censor Charlie Hebdo cartoons after attack Politico.
- Plunkett, John (9 January 2015). "BBC revises Muhammad ban as BBC1 news bulletin features Charlie Hebdo cover". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Colchester, Max (8 January 2015). "European Newspapers Show Support for Charlie Hebdo". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- Grieshaber, Kirsten (11 January 2015). "Arsonists attack German paper that published French cartoons". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
- "Arson attack on Hamburg newspaper that printed Charlie Hebdo cartoons". Reuters. 11 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Fisher, Max (8 January 2015). "Major Russian TV network says US intelligence carried out the Charlie Hebdo attack". Vox.
- Oliphant, Roland (12 January 2015). "'Did the Americans plan the Paris terror attacks?' asks leading Russian tabloid". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- "Media Watchdog Warns Charlie Hebdo-Style Cartoons Constitute Crime in Russia". The Moscow Times. 16 January 2015.
- "Putin Points Muslim Rage at Cold War Foes". www.bloomberg.com. 17 February 2015.
- "Chechnya declares public holiday to support huge anti-Charlie Hebdo rally". The Independent. 20 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo Attack Shows Need for Press Limits, Xinhua Says". The Wall Street Journal. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Beijing jumps onto Paris attack to feed state propaganda machine". Japan Times. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "17:59 French papers carry black banners". BBC. 7 January 2015.
- Matthew Champion (7 January 2015). "This is what Ian Hislop has to say about the Charlie Hebdo attack". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015.
- "'Satire is a human right,' says Titanic editor after Charlie Hebdo attack". Deutsche Welle. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- Meghan Keneally (7 January 2015). "Cartoonists React to Charlie Hebdo Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Eleftheriou-Smith, Loulla-Mae (9 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Asterix creator Albert Uderzo comes out of retirement to draw 'Je suis Charlie' cartoon". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Charlie Hebdo shootings: Cartoonists determined to stand their ground in the wake of Paris attacks, ABC News Online, updated Sunday 11 January 2015
- He drew first Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, David Pope, The Canberra Times, 8 January 2015
- "Terrorist attack on Paris magazine 'Charlie Hebdo' kills 12; France on alert". Live Mint. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Apology". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "No one took my side of the story: Shireen Dalvi". The Times of India. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Case over Paris cartoon forces Mumbai editor to go behind a veil". The Indian Express. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Gehad, Reem (8 January 2015). "Egypt's cartoonists pen their condemnation against Charlie Hebdo attack". Al-Ahram. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Cartoonists speak out after slayings of colleagues in Paris". PRI. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Nous Sommes Charlie: This week we are Jewish Hebdo". Jewish Journal. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Black, Ian (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo killings condemned by Arab states – but hailed online by extremists". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Bar'el, Zvi (9 January 2015). "How Arab world media responded to Charlie Hebdo attack". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "'I AM NOT CHARLIE': Leaked Newsroom Emails Reveal Al Jazeera Fury over Global Support for Charlie Hebdo". National Review. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
- "انصار حزبالله ایران از کشتار شارلیابدو استقبال کرد". BBC Persian. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Tehran condemns new Prophet cartoons as Shiite group hails Paris". Rudaw. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Ya lasarat Al-Hussein Iranian Weekly Praised the Latest Terror in France". خبرگزاری صدای مسیحیان ایران. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Ya lasarat Al-Hussein Weekly Praised the Latest Terror in France". iranian.com. August 2002. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "یالثارات الحسین: حمله به دفتر "شارلی ابدو" پدیده مبارکی است". رادیو فردا. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "پشتیبانی انصار حزبالله از حمله به دفتر "شارلی ابدو"". radiozamaneh.com. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "RWB condemns presence of "predators" in Paris march, calls for solidarity with "all Charlies"". Reporters Without Borders. 11 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Lockhart, Keely (9 January 2015). "'Hacktivist' group Anonymous says it will avenge Charlie Hebdo attacks by shutting down jihadist websites". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Frazer Nelson (7 January 2015). "Not in our name – Muslims respond in revulsion to Charlie Hebdo massacre". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Kuruvilla, Carol; Blumberg, Antonia (7 January 2015). "Muslims Around The World Condemn Charlie Hebdo Attack". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "U.S. Muslims Condemn Paris Terror Attack, Defend Free Speech". Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Paris attack live updates: Charlie Hebdo victims named as police search for 3 gunmen". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Matthew Coutts. "Canadian Muslim leaders condemn attack on France's Charlie Hebdo".
- "Arab League and top Muslim body condemn Paris attack". Agence France-Presse. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo Paris shooting: Man linked to attacks turns himself in". CBC News. 7 January 2015.
- "Hamas condemns Charlie Hebdo attack", Ma'an News Agency 10 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo, Hezbollah: 'Terroristi offendono l'Islam più delle vignette'", il Fatto Quotidiano 9 January 2015. "How can these infidels claim to represent Islam if they behead, disembowel and massacre people and, in Yemen murder people while they commemorate the birth of the Prophet."
- "Hezbollah chief Nasrallah says terrorists damage Islam more than cartoons". The Jerusalem Post.
- "Paris policeman's brother: 'Islam is a religion of love. My brother was killed by terrorists, by false Muslims'". The Guardian. 15 January 2015.
- Gander, Kashmira (13 January 2015). "Muslim mayor of Rotterdam Ahmed Aboutaleb tells extremists who 'don't like freedom' to 'f*** off'". The Independent. London.
- Dowling, James (8 January 2015). "Paris terror at Charlie Hebdo newspaper: Aussies justify attack". The Herald-Sun. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Choudary, Anjem (7 January 2015). "People know the consequences: Opposing view". USA Today. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Chambers, Geoff (10 October 2014). "Sheikh Ismail al-Wahwah: A sinister player in a world of radicals". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Auerbach, Taylor (11 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks a 'cure', says leader of Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia Ismail Alwahwah". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Sobieski, Jan (9 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo tragedy: Former India UP State Minister offers Rs 51 crores ($8MM) to attackers". News Nation Bureau. News Nation Bureau. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo attack:Ready to pay Rs. 51cr reward to attackers, says BSP leader Yakub Qureshi". 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Raju, S (8 January 2015). "Ready to pay Rs. 51cr reward to Charlie Hebdo attackers: Yakoob Qureshi". Hindustan Times. Meerut. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- VERMA, AMITA (9 January 2015). "BSP leader Haji Yakub Qureshi offers Rs 51 Crore to Charlie Hebdo attackers". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Muslims in Philippines march against Charlie Hebdo". The Malaysian Insider. Agence France-Presse. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- Stephanie March (15 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Afghan Taliban condemns cartoons depicting prophet, hails Paris gunmen". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Mangala Dilip (15 January 2015). "Afghan Taliban Calls Paris Gunmen 'Heroes', Charlie Hebdo Cartoons 'Inhumane'". International Business Times.
- Le Point, magazine (9 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo": les islamistes somaliens shebab saluent une attaque "héroïque". Le Point.fr. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Boko Haram 'very happy' after Charlie Hebdo attack". ITV News. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "'More will follow': ISIS fighter praises Paris massacre". New York Post. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "L'Etat islamique qualifie de "héros" les auteurs de la tuerie contre Charlie Hebdo". Le Figaro. 8 January 2015.
- "Islamist Turkish dailies draw ire after Charlie Hebdo attack". Hürriyet Daily News. 8 January 2015.
- "Afghanistan rally hails Charlie Hebdo attackers as 'heroes'". Reuters. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Pakistan rally celebrates Charlie Hebdo attackers". The Economic Times. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015.
- Mushtaq Yusufzai (13 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo Attack: Pakistan Cleric Holds Funerals for Kouachi Brothers". NBC News.
- "Pakistan cleric offers prayers for Charlie Hebdo attackers". The Washington Post. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo: ces minutes de silence qui ont dérapé dans les écoles". Le Figaro. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Charlie Hebdo : La minute de silence dans les écoles embarrasse des parents". Linfo.re. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Wiegel, Michaela (16 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Hass in Frankreichs Klassenzimmern" ["Charlie Hebdo: Hate in France's Schools"]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- La Provence (10 January 2015). "Un lycéen condamné pour apologie des attentats". LaProvence.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Laureline Dupont (9 January 2015). "Le désarroi d'une prof qui parle de "Charlie" à ses élèves". Le Point.fr. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Mattea Battaglia et Benoit Floc'h (10 January 2015). "A Saint-Denis, collégiens et lycéens ne sont pas tous " Charlie "". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Francetv info (9 January 2015). "On ne va pas se laisser insulter par un dessin du prophète, c'est normal qu'on se venge". francetv info. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Quinn, Allison (12 January 2015). "There's No Line Kadyrov Can't Cross, Analysts Say". The Moscow Times.
- Time. 7 January 2015. salman rushdie response
- Sveriges Radio (7 January 2015). "Säpo: Även Sverige kan drabbas av något allvarligt". Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Lars Vilks skakad av terrorattentatet". Dagens Nyheter. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Brooks, David (8 January 2015). "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Chomsky, Noam (19 January 2015). "Chomsky: Paris attacks show hypocrisy of West's outrage". CNN. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Drohnenangriffe wie Pariser Anschläge", Tagesschau, 17 January 2015
- Blumio – Rap da News! – Episode 110 Archived 31 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Yahoo!!, 19 January 2015
- On Satire – a response to the Charlie Hebdo attacks (9 January 2015), cartoon by Joe Sacco, The Guardian. "Graphic artist and journalist Joe Sacco on the limits of satire – and what it means if Muslims don't find it funny."
- Hawkes, Rebecca (17 February 2015). "Hayao Miyazaki: Charlie Hebdo Mohammed cartoons were 'a mistake'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Casey Baseel (17 February 2015). "Hayao Miyazaki on Charlie Hebdo attacks: Drawings of Muhammad were "a mistake"". RocketNews24. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Mustafa Caglayan (1 January 2015). "Norman Finkelstein: Charlie Hebdo is sadism, not satire". Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- Lebleu, Mikael (9 January 2015). "Les gens qui appuient le terrorisme sur les réseaux sociaux pourraient faire face à des peines de 7 ans de prison". Le Journal de Montréal (in French). Canada. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Quinault Maupoil, Tristan (10 January 2015). "Il sera jugé pour avoir fait l'apologie de l'attentat contre Charlie Hebdo". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Adamczyk, Ed (22 January 2015). "Khamenei urges young in West to discover Islam for themselves". UPI. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Dagres, Holly (3 February 2015). "Khamenei's fans take to Instagram". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Amanda Taub. "#JeSuisAhmed: a crucial message that everyone should hear". Vox.
- "#JeSuisAhmed honours police officer murdered in Charlie Hebdo shooting".
- "#JeSuisAhmed: The Muslim Victim in the Paris Massacre". The Atlantic.
- "Could Voltaire be Muslim?". The Economist. 9 January 2015.
- Zarka, Yves Charles [in French]; Taussig, Sylvie; Fleury, Cynthia [in French] (2004). "Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation". L'Islam en France (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053723-6.
- Matthias Waechter, Are the French still "Charlie"? Reflections after the terrorist attacks in Paris, CIFE Policy Paper No 10, 2015. PDF