Charlotte's web (cannabis)
|Origin||Colorado, United States|
|Part of a series on|
Charlotte's Web is a high-cannabidiol (CBD), low-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis strain marketed as a dietary supplement under federal law of the United States. It is produced by the Stanley brothers in Colorado. It does not induce the psychoactive "high" typically associated with recreational marijuana strains that are high in THC. In September 2014, the Stanleys announced that they would ensure that the product consistently contained less than 0.3% THC.
Charlotte's Web is named after Charlotte Figi, born  Her parents and physicians say she experienced a reduction of her epileptic seizures brought on by Dravet syndrome after her first dose of medical marijuana at five years of age. Her usage of Charlotte's Web was first featured in the 2013 CNN documentary "Weed". Media coverage increased demand for Charlotte's Web and similar products high in CBD, which has been used to treat epilepsy in toddlers and children. It was originally called "Hippie's Disappointment" as it was a strain that had high CBD and could not induce a "high".October 18, 2006 , whose story has led to her being described as "the girl who is changing medical marijuana laws across America."
While anecdotal reports have sparked interest in treatment with cannabinoids, there is not enough evidence to draw conclusions about their safety or efficacy. Physicians worry that some parents are willing to try treatments before proper research has been conducted, and that they may be disappointed. They are "alarmed by parallels to past miracle-cure manias later proved false..." and "...wary of the heightened placebo effect in treatments involving children, when reports of progress depend on the view of parents."
In 2014, there was little evidence about the safety or efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. A 2014 Cochrane review did not find enough evidence to draw conclusions about its use. A 2014 review by the American Academy of Neurology similarly concluded that "data are insufficient to support or refute the efficacy of cannabinoids for reducing seizure frequency."
The Cochrane review suggests cannabinoids be reserved for people with symptoms that are not controllable by other means, who have been evaluated by EEG-video monitoring to confirm diagnosis, and are not eligible for better established treatments such as surgery and neurostimulation. A second review described four placebo-controlled trials of cannabadiol including 48 people with a disease that was not manageable by other means. Three out of four trials reported some reduction in seizures, but no comparison with placebo was possible due to the small number of people in the trials. The drugs were well tolerated. A third review found that no reliable conclusions about the effect of cannabis on epilepsy could be drawn due to the poor quality of available data, but further research may be warranted because of the good safety profile observed in small clinical trials.
A 2017 study in children with drug-resistant Dravet syndrome, using a comparatively high dose of 20 mg/kg, found cannabidiol reduced convulsive seizures (but not non-convulsive seizures), and resulted in more side effects compared with placebo.
Three phase 3 clinical trials completed in 2017 demonstrated the efficacy of cannabidiol in reducing convulsive seizure activity at doses of 10–20 mg/kg per day in children with treatment-resistant Dravet Syndrome and treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.
Due to the anecdotal nature of the health claims being made medical bodies have published statements of concern.
A position statement by the American Epilepsy Society states:
The recent anecdotal reports of positive effects of the marijuana derivative cannabidiol for some individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy give reason for hope. However, we must remember that these are only anecdotal reports, and robust scientific evidence for the use of marijuana is lacking... at present, the epilepsy community does not know if marijuana is a safe and effective treatment, nor do they know the long-term effects that marijuana will have on learning, memory and behavior, especially in infants and young children.
Charlotte's Web was developed in 2011 by the Stanley brothers (Joel, Jesse, Jon, Jordan, Jared and Josh) through crossbreeding a strain of marijuana with industrial hemp. This process created a variety with less tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and more cannabidiol (CBD) than typical varieties of marijuana. The variety shows potential for medical usage, especially for those who do not wish to experience the typical high of recreational marijuana use. As it is so low in THC, the variety was originally called "Hippie's Disappointment", and also has been labeled "boring". It is a less profitable plant with "close to no value to traditional marijuana consumers."
The Stanley brothers grow the plants at their farm and greenhouses. A CBD rich oil is extracted from the harvested plants and concentrated through rotary evaporation. To make it easier to perform clinical trials, they are planning to move the Charlotte's Web part of their operation to Uruguay. By doing so, they will also be able to import it into any U.S. state as hemp.
The Realm of Caring Foundation (RoC), a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, was set up by the Stanley brothers to help patients "who can't afford the treatment." They have also started "Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, Inc.", which has registered the trademark "Charlotte's Web Hemp Products". Some products are marketed through CW Hemp (formerly CW Botanicals).
Society and culture
With the main ingredient being classified as "industrial hemp", (Farm Bill) Charlotte's Web Oil and other CBD products are legal in all 50 states; (as long as the THC content is <0.3%) as they are dietary supplements.
The publicity associated with Charlotte's Web has inspired a number of legislative bills, some of which are in the planning stages, and others which have been proposed or actually passed. Children, as "uniquely powerful advocates for medicinal pot across the country," have inspired "the movement to legalize medicinal marijuana," a movement which "has a face like Charlotte’s–and it’s a young one that’s hard to ignore. Lawmakers across the country are pushing legislation to legalize marijuana oil as a treatment for children with epilepsy."
Colorado law permits the use of medical cannabis for eight conditions: cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and dramatic weight loss, and muscle atrophy. The publicity surrounding anecdotal reports of successful treatment of intractable epilepsy with cannabinoids is likely to lead to a surge in interest.
In 2013, the parents of a two-year-old with Dravet syndrome confronted New Jersey governor Chris Christie, who signed a bill allowing access for sick children to medical marijuana in a controversy dubbed "pot for tots".
In 2014, legislative proposals in Utah, Arizona, New York, Washington state, Minnesota, and Florida were considered, where "even some staunch opponents of medical marijuana now are willing to make an exception" to allow the marijuana extract for medical treatment.
In Utah, Rep. Gage Froerer, R-Huntsville, said in October 2013: "Nothing in federal or state law prohibits the sale or use of hemp products." He pledged to consult with the Utah Substance Abuse Authority, saying: "We need to take a strong look at this and make sure that we as a legislature and we as citizens understand really what this is and what it's not." In November 2013, he said he would address "three components in sponsoring legislation: access, quality control and research. He said the Utah Department of Health would probably be involved in quality-control efforts..." Annette Maughan, President of the Epilepsy Association of Utah, said: "The current Utah law doesn't exclude its use but also doesn't allow for its use. We are in limbo until Utah lawmakers decide what to call it." On March 21, 2014, Gary Herbert, the governor of Utah, signed a bill giving "families access to the marijuana extract for treating epilepsy." The state bill, HB0105, allows import of Charlotte's Web extract across state lines from Colorado to Utah, and covers only use for intractable epilepsy with the consent of a neurologist. Also on March 21, 2014, an Arizona court found "that Arizona's medical marijuana law allows consumption of the plant in extract form."
On March 20, 2014, the Florida House of Representatives Budget Committee passed the "so-called Charlotte's Web measure (CS/HB 843)" designed to limit prosecutors' ability to prosecute those in possession of low THC/high CBD marijuana ("0.5 percent or less of tetrahydrocannabinol and more than 15 percent of cannabidiol") used for treating seizures. The law took effect July 1, 2014. Since then, Florida legislators have passed a bill with bipartisan support legalizing the use of Charlotte's Web, and Governor Rick Scott signed the "Compassionate Medical Cannabis Act of 2014" (SB 1030) into law on June 6, 2014. The law is also referred to as the "Charlotte's Web" law. The law specifies the number of distribution centers, which types of nurseries can grow the plants, requires various other controls, and provides funding for research.
- Federal legislation was introduced in 2014 (U.S. 113th Congress 2013-2014) but was never brought to a vote and died in committee.
- Rep. Perry, Scott (R-PA-4) introduced to the U.S. 114th Congress (2015-2016) H.R.1635 - Charlotte's Web Medical Access Act of 2015 with 62 bipartisan co-sponsors. It has not been voted on yet, but it has made progress and been referred to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, the House Committee on the Judiciary, the Subcommittee on Health and the United States House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations.
- The Therapeutic Hemp Medical Access Act of 2015 (Senate 1333) was introduced (not passed yet) with 11 co-sponsors to amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich plants from the definition of marijuana. It was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary.
On October 31, 2017, the FDA sent warning letters to four CBD marketers, including Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, LLC (d/b/a CW Hemp), the producer of Charlotte's Web. They were warned "against making medical claims about cannabidiol (CBD). The agency also took issue with the businesses marketing CBD products as dietary supplements".
Reactions to CBD-only laws
The federal Schedule 1 drug classification blocks broad scientific research on cannabis. However, in late 2015, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) eased some regulatory requirements imposed by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) for those who are conducting FDA-approved clinical trials on cannabidiol (CBD). These modifications will streamline the research process regarding CBD’s possible medicinal value and help foster ongoing scientific studies.
But the Marijuana Policy Project has expressed frustration over the fact that many legislative efforts inspired by Charlotte's Web are aimed at only legalizing low or no THC, high CBD medical marijuana products. They believe that such legislation is too restrictive and ignores claimed benefits of THC, leaving "behind around 98% of the individuals who can benefit from it." Referring to the "Charlotte’s Web Medical Hemp Act of 2014", an editorial in Ladybud Magazine expressed concern that the law "leaves thousands of patients out in the cold without safe, legal access to medical cannabis. It also ignores science that seems to indicate that whole plant medicine is optimal."
Charlotte's Web is named after an American girl, Charlotte Figi. She developed Dravet syndrome (also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy or SMEI) as a baby. By age three, Figi was severely disabled and having 300 grand mal seizures a week despite treatment. Her parents learned about another child with Dravet Syndrome, who had been using a different type of medical marijuana since June 2011, and decided to try marijuana. Her parents and physicians said that she improved immediately. She now follows a regular regimen that uses a solution of the high-CBD marijuana extract in olive oil. She is given the oil under her tongue or in her food. Her parents said in 2013 that her epilepsy had improved so that she had only about four seizures per month, and she was able to engage in normal childhood activities.
The type now named after Figi was not the first type her parents tried. As their original supply, a type called R4 that is also high in CBD and low in THC, was running out, they contacted the Stanley brothers. From the Stanleys' stock, they chose the high-CBD variety that has since been renamed to Charlotte's Web.
Charlotte's story has been featured on two CNN documentaries, The Doctors TV show, 60 Minutes Australia, and Dateline NBC, among many other sources. An article in the National Journal detailing the role of several children as "uniquely powerful advocates for medicinal pot across the country" described Charlotte as the "first poster child for the issue...." Her story has led to her being described as "the girl who is changing medical marijuana laws across America," as well as the "most famous example of medicinal hemp use".
Publicity and demand
When Charlotte was five years old, her story was featured in the August 11, 2013 CNN documentary "Weed", hosted by Sanjay Gupta. On November 24, 2013, Paige Figi was a guest on The Doctors TV show, where Charlotte's story was told. She was also featured in Gupta's March 11, 2014 CNN documentary "Weed 2: Cannabis Madness". The extract received more publicity on October 6, 2014, when The Doctors TV show again featured a story about usage of Charlotte's Web. The physicians called for a change of the Federal classification. Sanjay Gupta has also expressed his support for Charlotte's Web on The Doctors TV show. On the October 17, 2014 episode of the ABC TV series The View, Paige Figi and Joel Stanley were interviewed by Whoopi Goldberg and Nicolle Wallace.
The CNN documentaries received widespread publicity and popularized Charlotte's Web as a possible treatment for epilepsy and other conditions. Colorado has legalized both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana, and many parents have flocked there with their suffering children in search of Charlotte's Web and other forms of medical marijuana. In November 2013, CBS Denver reported that "[t]here is now a growing community of 93 families with epileptic children using marijuana daily. Hundreds are on a waiting list and thousands are calling." In October 2014, Time noted the Stanley brothers had a waiting list of "more than 12,000 families." They have been termed "marijuana refugees", "part of a migration of families uprooting their lives and moving to Colorado, where the medicinal use of marijuana is permitted...forced to flee states where cannabis is off limits." In November 2014, David Nutt mentioned Charlotte's Web in the Royal Pharmaceutical Society's Pharmaceutical Journal, where he appealed for "the UK government [to] acts on evidence, allowing the use of medicinal cannabis and reducing barriers to its research."
Families who say they have run out of pharmaceutical options have moved to Colorado to access Charlotte's Web. The demand has spurred calls for more research to determine whether these products actually do what is claimed. Amy Brooks-Kayal, vice president of the American Epilepsy Society, stated that epileptic seizures may come and go without any obvious explanation, and that Charlotte's web could cause developmental harm. She recommended that parents relocate so that their affected children could have access to one of the nation's top pediatric epilepsy centers rather than move to Colorado.
In November 2013, Josh Stanley said that Charlotte's web was 0.5% THC and 17% CBD, and that it "is as legal as other hemp products already sold in stores across Utah, including other oils, clothing and hand creams, but is illegal, federally, to take across state lines." The legalities of selling the product to people who transport it across state lines is complicated, with difficulties for both the sellers and transporters. Regardless of state laws in Colorado and Utah which would allow the practice, it is still a Federal offense to transport hemp products across state lines. In September 2014, the content was measured at 0.3% THC.
Initial IPO offering in 2018
On August 30, 2018, Charlotte's Web Holdings, Inc. (formerly Stanley Brothers Holdings Inc.) began its launch into the stock market with an initial public offering in Canada: "The offering included a treasury issuance by the company of common shares…moreover, a secondary offering of Common Shares…for total gross proceeds of C$115,115,000 (USD 87,598,872)."
The relationship between the Schedule I status of cannabis in the United States and the lack of scientific research on cannabis has been claimed by some to be directly related. The situation has been described as a "catch-22" paradox: "Marijuana is restricted in large part because there is little research to support medical uses; research is difficult to conduct because of tight restrictions." Sanjay Gupta has described the complex interaction between restrictive laws and lack of scientific research:
Gupta repeated throughout the evening that the "policy has outpaced the science." The states, he said, "are moving forward without waiting for the science, and the issue is only compounded by the fact that the 'policies and the laws we have in [the US] make it challenging for the science to get done."
Even though the Florida "Compassionate Medical Cannabis Act of 2014" (SB 1030) provides funding for research, the status of all cannabis products as illegal Schedule I drugs has limited the amount of research, with the University of Florida refusing to do such research for fear of losing federal funding.
The interest created by the documentary highlighted a need for increased scientific research, as well as caution against "bad medicine" and raising false hopes: Ed Maa, a specialist in epilepsy, stated: "This is not going away. ...I think it needs to be studied vigorously and very quickly." He hopes to "launch a clinical trial to study the pot and its potential." Physicians have called for more research to better understand the potential benefits of controlled use of medical marijuana; Sharon Levy, director of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Program at Children's Hospital Boston said:
"The AAP strongly supports more cannabinoid research to better understand both how these substances can be used therapeutically as well as their potential side effects—which we may well be underestimating...[But] the AAP does not support 'medical marijuana' laws as they circumvent regulations put in place to protect patients, and children are a particularly vulnerable population."
Physicians have expressed both positive interest and worry about the sudden explosion of interest in the legalization of medical marijuana and its research, admitting legalization is both "a scientist's dream or a doctor's nightmare." They fear that some parents are too open to trying anything before proper research has been conducted, and that they may be disappointed. They are "alarmed by parallels to past miracle-cure manias later proved false..." and "...wary of the heightened placebo effect in treatments involving children, when reports of progress depend on the view of parents." There is also danger that "the [legalization] movement also opens the way for bad medicine...through treatments at best giving hope to the hysterical and at worst delivering damaging side effects." According to Alan Shackelford, Charlotte Figi's physician: "We really don't know how it works... The cannabidiol seems to act as a neuro-stabilizer, but how? The research is minuscule on this."
Orrin Devinsky, a neurologist at New York University's Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, where he will conduct clinical trials on Epidiolex, a high-CBD drug from GW Pharmaceuticals, expressed his sympathy for those who do not want to wait for research results:
I had a child who had failed 15 medications and drug treatments and there was nothing else to do, and they were having many seizures a day that were terribly disabling, I think it would be a very reasonable thing to do to try a high-CBD cannabis product.
He also expressed concern that the number of parents using the Charlotte's Web extract will make it harder to find children for the clinical trials, and that:
There are many more unknowns than knowns...the focus of the community—lay and scientific and governmental—should be on getting good information. That should be the real focus of what we need right now.
The Epilepsy Foundation and Devinsky issued a joint statement calling for increased research and immediate access to medical marijuana, specifically naming Charlotte Figi's case. Devinsky said:
We need to make a balanced decision about compassionate use. If I were Charlotte Figi's parents and lived in Colorado I would have done exactly what they did. And as a doctor, I would gladly prescribe marijuana products for many of my patients who failed existing therapies if it were legal in my state. ... Until we have the scientific data, we should make medical marijuana available to physicians who care for people with treatment-resistant epilepsy and their patients.
Due to reports that some people with Dravet syndrome seem to benefit from treatment with Charlotte's Web, an observational clinical trial was launched in September 2014 at the University of Colorado. The study will run until February 2016, will focus on genetic differences between people who respond and do not respond, and attempt to determine if such genetic factors may be related to the success or failure of treatment.
In January 2018, it was reported that trials with Epidiolex, a high-CBD pharmaceutical, had been successful enough that it might be "available as soon as the second half of 2018 in the United States, pending Food and Drug Administration approval."
- Realm of Caring Foundation (2014), Realm of Caring: About Us, retrieved May 31, 2014
- Martinez, Tracy (March 7, 2014), Touring the marijuana facility growing plants to save children's lives, Al Jazeera America, retrieved March 7, 2014
- Cordell, Kasey (May 1, 2014), Tangled Web, 5280 [The Denver Magazine], retrieved April 19, 2015
- Allen, Greg (January 16, 2014), Florida Bill Would Allow Marijuana Extract For Child Seizures, National Public Radio, retrieved January 16, 2014
- Waltz, Vanessa (September 18, 2014), Realm of Caring Announces Charlotte’s Web to be Shipped to All 50 US States, Ladybud Magazine, archived from the original on October 20, 2014, retrieved September 19, 2014
- Osborne, Hannah (June 20, 2014), Charlotte Figi: The Girl Who is Changing Medical Marijuana Laws Across America, International Business Times, retrieved June 22, 2014
- Producers, TechKnow (August 25, 2015). "The chemical brothers: Colorado family makes good in medical pot business". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- CBS Denver (November 18, 2013), Epilepsy Patients Flock To Colorado After Medical Pot Gives Them Hope, CBS Denver, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Melville, Nancy A. (August 14, 2013), Seizure Disorders Enter Medical Marijuana Debate, Medscape Medical News, retrieved January 14, 2014
- Gloss, D; Vickrey, B (March 5, 2014). "Cannabinoids for epilepsy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD009270. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009270.pub3. PMID 24595491.
- Booth, Michael (December 15, 2013), Legalization's opening of medical pot research is dream and nightmare, The Denver Post, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Tedesco, Laura (December 8, 2014), Why Parents of Children with Epilepsy Are Increasingly Turning to Marijuana, yahoo.com, retrieved February 9, 2016,
'Charlotte’s Web is high in CBD and low in THC,' ... Similar varieties of CBD-rich marijuana available in California include ACDC, Harlequin, and Cannatonic. To many in the medical community, these parents are relying, at best, on shaky science. A 2013 Cochrane review of studies examining CBD as a treatment for epilepsy concluded that, due to the dearth of large, high-quality studies, 'the safety of long-term cannabidiol treatment cannot be reliably assessed.'
- Koppel, Barbara (April 29, 2014), Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders, Neurology, retrieved May 16, 2015
- Benbadis SR, Sanchez-Ramos J, Bozorg A, Giarratano M, Kalidas K, Katzin L, Robertson D, Vu T, Smith A, Zesiewicz T (2014). "Medical marijuana in neurology". Expert Rev Neurother. 14 (12): 1453–65. doi:10.1586/14737175.2014.985209. PMID 25427150.
- Robson PJ (2014). "Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines". Drug Test Anal. 6 (1–2): 24–30. doi:10.1002/dta.1529. PMID 24006213.
- Szaflarski JP, Bebin EM (2014). "Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response". Epilepsy Behav. 41: 277–82. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.08.135. PMID 25282526.
- Devinsky, Orrin; Cross, J. Helen; Laux, Linda; Marsh, Eric; Miller, Ian; Nabbout, Rima; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Wright, Stephen (25 May 2017). "Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome". New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (21): 2011–2020. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1611618. PMID 28538134.
- O'Connell, Brooke (May 1, 2017), "Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review.", Epilepsy Behav, Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 6, 341-348, 70: 341–348, doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.012, PMID 28188044
- AES (2014), AES Position on Medical Marijuana, American Epilepsy Society, retrieved January 31, 2014
- NICE Clinical Guideline 20: The Epilepsies, NICE, January 1, 2012, retrieved May 16, 2015
- Ferner, Matt (November 13, 2013), Weed Pioneers Look To Save Epileptic Kids With New Medical Marijuana Strain, The Huffington Post, retrieved January 16, 2014
- Honan, Mat (April 2014), High Tech: How Silicon Valley entrepreneurs are rushing to cash in on cannabis, Wired, retrieved April 18, 2014
- Young, Saundra (August 7, 2013), Marijuana stops child's severe seizures, CNN, retrieved January 1, 2014
- CNN (August 11, 2013), Weed: Dr. Sanjay Gupta Reports (full transcript), CNN, retrieved January 1, 2014
See full CNN video.
- Cush, Andy (June 18, 2014), Florida Legalizes Boring Medical Weed That Doesn't Even Get You High, Gawker, archived from the original on June 19, 2014, retrieved June 20, 2014
- CNN (March 11, 2014), Weed 2: Cannabis Madness, Dr. Sanjay Gupta Reports (full transcript), CNN, retrieved March 15, 2014
CNN's main page. See full CNN video.
- Honan, Edith (January 8, 2014), New York's medical marijuana law excludes some who seek the drug, Reuters, retrieved January 20, 2014
- Stewart, Kirsten (October 12, 2013), Utah lawmaker will help moms import cannabis extract, The Salt Lake Tribune, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Internal Revenue Service (May 31, 2014), Exempt Organizations Select Check, Internal Revenue Service, retrieved May 31, 2014. Tax exempt status as a Public Charity under the name "Realm of Caring Foundation Inc" in Colorado Springs. They have a "Deductibility Limitation" of 50%.
- Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, Inc., Justia Trademarks, retrieved April 19, 2015
- Leasca, Stacey (April 19, 2015), Charlotte’s Web: Meet the Little Girl Leading the Fight for Cannabis Oil, RYOT, retrieved April 19, 2015
- Charlotte's Web Hemp Products, Justia Trademarks, retrieved April 19, 2015
- The Associated Press (July 23, 2016). "Boulder producing one of the top hemp strains in the world". The Denver Post. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Roller, Emma (March 17, 2014), How Kids Are Bringing Medical Marijuana to the States, National Journal, retrieved March 19, 2014
- Crivelli, Lisa (May 14, 2014), The new faces of marijuana, MSNBC, Hardball with Chris Matthews, retrieved May 15, 2014
- Mother Investigated After Opting For Marijuana Over Chemotherapy, CBS Denver, September 27, 2013, retrieved January 16, 2014
- Jones, David (September 11, 2013), New Jersey Governor Christie signs 'pot-for-tots' bill, Reuters, retrieved January 20, 2014
- Utah Gov. Signs Pot Extract For Epilepsy Bill, Associated Press, March 21, 2014, retrieved March 24, 2014
- HB0105: Plant Extract Amendments, Utah State Legislature, March 21, 2014, retrieved March 24, 2014
- Flatow, Nicole (March 24, 2014), Prosecutors Can't Go After Family Treating Child's Seizures With Marijuana Extract, Judge Rules, Think Progress, retrieved March 24, 2014
- Botelho, Kristina and Greg (January 9, 2014), New York governor announces plan for medical marijuana at hospitals, CNN, retrieved January 16, 2014
- Seavert, Lindsey (January 31, 2014), Minnesota family makes painful decision to move to Colorado for medical marijuana, KARE, retrieved January 31, 2014
- Cotterell, Bill (June 16, 2014), UPDATE 2-Florida governor signs law allowing limited medical marijuana use, Reuters, retrieved June 21, 2014
- HB 843 – Medical Marijuana (PDF), Florida House of Representatives, 2014, retrieved March 20, 2014 PDF download. "The term [cannabis] does not include any plant of the genus Cannabis that contains 0.5 percent or less of tetrahydrocannabinol and more than 15 percent of cannabidiol; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; or any compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant or its seeds or resin."
- Adams, Andrew (October 11, 2013), Lawmaker joins fight in legalizing cannabis extract for medicinal use, KSL TV, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Clark, Antone (November 20, 2013), Rep. Gage Froerer predicts cannabis bill will pass, Standard-Examiner, retrieved January 17, 2014
- Kennedy, John (March 20, 2014), Charlotte's Web marijuana bill advances in House, despite questions, Post on Politics, retrieved March 20, 2014
- Smith, Nancy (March 20, 2014), $1 Million for Medical Marijuana Research Sails Through House Appropriations, Sunshine State News, retrieved March 20, 2014
- Perez, Andrew (May 1, 2014), Florida Gov. Rick Scott Says He'll Sign 'Charlotte's Web' Medical Marijuana Bill, The Huffington Post, retrieved May 4, 2014
- CS/CS/SB 1030: Cannabis, MyFloridaHouse.gov, June 16, 2014, retrieved June 21, 2014
- Call, James (July 29, 2014), University of Florida says it won’t risk federal funding to participate in marijuana research, SaintPetersBlog, retrieved July 31, 2014
- Sweeney, Dan (June 21, 2014), Charlotte's Web 101: Medical marijuana and you, Sun-Sentinel, retrieved July 31, 2014
- Larrabee, Brandon (June 16, 2014), Governor Scott Signs Medical Marijuana Bill, CBS Miami, retrieved June 17, 2014
- H.R.5226 - Charlotte's Web Medical Hemp Act of 2014, House of Representatives, July 28, 2014, retrieved August 11, 2014 "Official Title as Introduced: To amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude therapeutic hemp and cannabidiol from the definition of marihuana, and for other purposes."
- "Text - H.R.5226 - 113th Congress (2013-2014): Charlotte's Web Medical Hemp Act of 2014".
- H.R.525 - Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2013, House of Representatives, February 6, 2013, retrieved September 28, 2014
- "H.R.525 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2015".
- "H.R.1635 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Charlotte's Web Medical Access Act of 2015".
- "Cosponsors - H.R.1635 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Charlotte's Web Medical Access Act of 2015".
- "Text - S.1333 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Therapeutic Hemp Medical Access Act of 2015".
- Zhang, Mona (October 1, 2017). "FDA Targets Country's Largest Cannabidiol Producer In Warning Over Cancer Claims". Forbes. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- "DEA / Drug Scheduling".
- "DEA.gov / Headquarters News Releases, 12/23/15".
- Low or No THC, High CBD Medical Marijuana Bills: Leaving Most Patients Behind, Marijuana Policy Project, 2014, retrieved April 6, 2014
- Admin, Ladybud (August 29, 2014), National CBD-Only Law Proposed: Is Charlotte’s Web Choking out Legalization?, Ladybud Magazine, retrieved August 29, 2014
- The View (October 17, 2014), Medical Marijuana Charlotte's Web. Paige Figi and Joel Stanley discuss medical marijuana, Charlotte's Web., The View, ABC, retrieved October 18, 2014
- Waltz, Vanessa (July 29, 2014), A Limited Amount of "Caring": Parents and Advocates React to Realm of Caring’s Federal CBD-Only Bill, Ladybud Magazine, retrieved October 14, 2014
- Cotter, Barb (June 10, 2013), Medicinal marijuana stops seizures, brings hope to a little Black Forest girl, The Gazette, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Tyrrell, Kelly (December 16, 2013), Seeking Charlotte's Web, The Philadelphia Inquirer, retrieved January 1, 2014
- The Doctors TV Show (November 24, 2013), November 24, 2013 – Unbelievable Nose Makeover; Medical Marijuana For Kids, The Doctors TV series, retrieved March 9, 2014
Other videos from this episode available on the website:
- Usher, Michael (July 31, 2014), Green Rush: The push to legalise medical marijuana for Aussie children, 60 Minutes Australia, retrieved June 7, 2015
- Garcia, Mario (June 7, 2015), Growing Hope: The Fight for Medical Marijuana for Epileptic Kids, Dateline NBC, retrieved June 7, 2015
See full Dateline video.
- Schaaf, Melissa (September 25, 2014), Hemp Industry Overview, Boulder Weekly, retrieved September 26, 2014
- The Doctors TV Show (October 6, 2014), New Mosquito-Borne Virus; Medicinal Marijuana to Treat Seizures, The Doctors TV series, retrieved October 6, 2014
Other videos from this episode available on the website:
- "Medical Marijuana to Treat Seizures"
- "Searching for Treatment for Seizures"
- "Finding Hope in Medical Marijuana"
- "Changing Minds on Medical Marijuana"
- Gupta, Sanjay, Sanjay Gupta's Marijuana Stance, The Doctors TV series, retrieved October 6, 2014
- Healy, Jack (December 5, 2013), Families See Colorado as New Frontier on Medical Marijuana, The New York Times, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Pickert, Kate (October 22, 2014), Pot Kids: Inside the quasi-legal, science-free world of medical marijuana for children, Time, retrieved October 23, 2014
- Stewart, Kirsten (November 11, 2013), Families migrate to Colorado for marijuana miracle, Delaware County Daily Times, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Phillips, Dave (October 27, 2013), Colorado's new pot laws draw marijuana refugees, The Denver Post, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Nutt, David (November 19, 2014), Medicinal cannabis: time for a comeback?, The Pharmaceutical Journal, Royal Pharmaceutical Society, archived from the original on November 29, 2014, retrieved November 20, 2014
- "Charlotte's Web" marijuana supposed cure for kids' seizures but doctors skeptical, CBS News, February 18, 2014, retrieved May 16, 2015
- Abcarian, Robin (April 2, 2017). "Could the extraordinary compound in cannabis that helps kids with epilepsy make you feel better?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Davidson, Sara (April 20, 2017). "Why Microdosing Is Taking Over Medical Marijuana". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Borchardt, Debra (August 23, 2017). "Hemp Cannabis Product Sales Projected To Hit $1 Billion In 3 Years". Forbes. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- Leonard, Wendy (November 12, 2013), Utah parents look to Colorado for 'life-improving therapy' found in cannabis extract, Deseret News, retrieved January 1, 2014
- Stewart, Kirsten (March 25, 2014), How will marijuana grower decide who gets cannabis oil?, The Salt Lake Tribune, retrieved March 26, 2014
- Price, Michelle (March 25, 2014), Utah to welcome marijuana for limited medical use, Associated Press, retrieved March 26, 2014
- Somerset, Sara Brittany (September 9, 2018). "CBD Company Charlotte's Web Debuts IPO". Forbes. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Schroeder, Luca (October 8, 2014), Sanjay Gupta Discusses Possibilities, Challenges of Medical Marijuana, The Harvard Crimson, retrieved October 9, 2014
- Hellerman, Caleb (July 28, 2014), Federal marijuana bill would legalize some cannabis strains, CNN, retrieved July 29, 2014
- Curry, Christopher (August 5, 2014), UF to say no to pot, even if marijuana amendment passes, The Gainesville Sun, retrieved August 7, 2014
- Phillips, Dave (October 30, 2013), 'This is the only option left', The Oklahoman, retrieved January 1, 2014 Full article
- GW Pharmaceuticals (November 14, 2013), GW Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on Orphan Program in Childhood Epilepsy for Epidiolex®, GW Pharmaceuticals, retrieved January 26, 2014
- Gattone, Philip (February 20, 2014), Epilepsy Foundation Calls for Increased Medical Marijuana Access and Research, Epilepsy Foundation, retrieved March 20, 2014
- Genetic Analysis Between Charlotte's Web Responders Versus Non- Responders in a Dravet Population. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02229032), ClinicalTrials.gov, September 2014, retrieved October 2, 2014
- Pickert, Kate (September 3, 2014), Finally, Some Hard Science on Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy Patients, Time, retrieved October 2, 2014
- Cha, Ariana Eunjung (January 24, 2018). "Marijuana-based anti-seizure drug could hit U.S. market in 2018 after strong study results". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2018.