14 May 1899|
|Died||17 March 1994(aged 94)|
|Citizenship||Germany, United Kingdom|
|Awards||Darwin Medal 1976|
Charlotte "Lotte" Auerbach FRS FRSE (14 May 1899 – 17 March 1994) was a German-Jewish geneticist who contributed to founding the science of mutagenesis. She became well known after 1942 when she discovered with A. J. Clark and J. M. Robson that mustard gas could cause mutations in fruit flies. She wrote 91 scientific papers, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Society of London.
In 1976, she was awarded the Royal Society's Darwin Medal. Aside her scientific contributions and love of science, she was remarkable in many other ways, including her wide interests, independence, modesty, and transparent honesty.
Early life and education
Charlotte Auerbach was born in Krefeld in Germany, the daughter of Selma Sachs and Friedrich Auerbach. She may have been influenced by the scientists in her family: her father Friedrich Auerbach (1870-1925) was a chemist, her uncle a physicist, and her grandfather, the anatomist Leopold Auerbach.
She studied biology and chemistry at the universities of Würzburg, Freiburg and Berlin. She was taught and inspired by Karl Haider and Max Hartmann in Berlin, and later in Würzburg by Hans Kniep. After very good examinations in biology, chemistry, and physics, she initially decided to become a secondary-school teacher of science, passing the exams for that, with distinction in 1924.
She taught in Heidelberg (1924-1925) and briefly at the University of Frankfurt, from which she was dismissed - probably because she was Jewish. In 1928 she started postgraduate research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology (Berlin-Dahlem) in Developmental Physiology under Otto Mangold. In 1929 she abandoned her work with Mangold: he would later join the Nazi party, and Auerbach found his dictatorial manner unpleasant. In reply to her suggestion to change direction of her project, he replied "You are my student, you do as I say. What you think is of no consequence!".
She again taught biology in several schools in Berlin - until the Nazi party ended this by law as she was Jewish. Following her mother's advice, she left the country in 1933 and fled to Edinburgh where she got her PhD in 1935 at the Institute of Animal Genetics in the University of Edinburgh. She would stay affiliated to this Institute throughout her whole career.
Research career: Edinburgh
Auerbach's PhD dissertation was on the development of legs in Drosophila. After her dissertation she became a personal assistant to Francis Albert Eley Crew, who connected her to the lively group of scientists he had assembled, and to invited scientists including Julian Huxley, J.B.S. Haldane, and most importantly to Lotte, to Hermann Joseph Muller. The famous geneticist and mutation researcher stayed in Edinburgh 1938-1940 and introduced her to mutation research.
Initially, she refused to work with Muller when Crew told her to do so. Muller, however, who was present when she opposed her boss, assured her that he would only want to work with people who are interested in the projects. But since she was interested in how genes operate, Muller noted that to understand this it would be important to understand what happens if the genes are mutated - this convinced her. She said herself "His enthusiasm for mutation research was infectious and from that day on I switched to mutation research. I have never regretted it."
After being an assistant instructor in animal genetics, Auerbach became a lecturer in 1947, Professor of Genetics in 1967 and ended her professional career as a Professor Emeritus in 1969.
While she found teaching at the schools sometimes difficult, she enjoyed teaching at the University and her lectures were models of clarity, usually delivered without any notes. She spoke with authority, but she did not mind questions, and allowed time for discussions.
She wrote several books to teach genetics, several of them were translated in other languages. Her book, Genetics in the Atomic Age (1956) was praised by The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists for her excellent explanations of "an inherently technical matter."
She supported the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), was a fierce opponent of apartheid, and a confirmed liberal. In 1947, she published a book of fairy stories titled Adventures with Rosalind under the pen-name of Charlotte Austen.
Charlotte was an only child, born into a third-generation Jewish family who had lived for several generations in Breslau. Having fled Nazi Germany in 1933, she became a naturalised British citizen in 1939.
Auerbach never married and had no children of her own. She unofficially 'adopted' two boys. One, Michael Avern, was the child of a German-speaking companion to her own elderly mother, who had escaped to Britain as well. She helped to raise Michael. The other, Angelo Alecci, came from a poor Sicilian family and the Save the Children Fund connected Charlotte with him.
Later life and death
In 1989, aged 90, she gave her house in Edinburgh to Michael Avern and moved into the Abbeyfield Home in Polwarth Terrace, Edinburgh, which was operated by the church. She died there five years later, in 1994. She was cremated at Mortonhall Crematorium.
Awards, honors, and distinctions
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- Keith Prize, Royal Society of Edinburgh (1947)
- Fellow of Royal Society of Edinburgh (1949)
- Fellow of the Royal Society (1957)
- Foreign Member, Danish Academy of Science (1968)
- Foreign Member, National Academy of Sciences (1970)
- Honorary degrees, Leiden University (1975), Trinity College, Dublin (1976), University of Cambridge (1976), Indiana University (1984)
- Darwin Medal, Royal Society (1976)
- Fellow, United Kingdom Environmental Mutagen Society (1978)
- Prix de d'Institut de la Vie (Fond, Electricité de France) (1982)
- Gregor Mendel Preis, German Genetical Society (1984)
The greatest reward for herself however was the telegram her hero Hermann Joseph Muller sent after their first striking mutant results in June 1941, which read: "We are thrilled by your major discovery opening great theoretical and practical field. Congratulations."
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- Auerbach C., 1961, 1964. The Science of Genetics. New Yoerk, Harper & Row.
- Auerbach C., 1965. Notes for Introductory Courses in Genetics. Edinburgh: Kallman.
- Auerbach C, 1976. Mutation Research: Problems, Results and Perspectives. London: Chapman & Hall.
- Auerbach, C.; Robson, J. M.; Carr, J. G. (1947). "Chemical Production of Mutations". Science. 105: 243–247. doi:10.1126/science.105.2723.243.
- Auerbach, C (1960). "Hazards of Radiation". Nature. 189: 169.
- Auerbach C., 1961. Chemicals and their effects. In: Symposium on Mutation and Plant Breeding, National Research Council Publication 891, 120-144. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences.
- Auerbach C., 1962. Mutation: An introduction to research on Mutagenesis. Part I. Methods. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
- Auerbach, C (1962). "The production of visible mutations in Drosophila by clorethylmethanesulfonate". Genetical Research. 3: 461–466. doi:10.1017/s001667230000330x.
- Auerbach, C.; Falconer, D.S.; Isaacson, J.A. (1962). "Test for sex-linked lethals in irradiated mice". Genetical Research. 3: 444–447. doi:10.1017/s0016672300003281.
- Auerbach C., 1963. Stages in the cell cycle and germ cell development. In: Radiation effects in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, edited by Ebert, M. & A. Howard, 152-168. Chicago Year Book Medical.
- Auerbach, C (1966). "Chemical induction of recessive lethals in Neurospora crassa". Microbial Genetics Bulletin. 17: 5.
- Auerbach, C (1966). "Drosophila tests in pharmacology". Nature. 210: 104. doi:10.1038/210104a0.
- Auerbach, C (1967). "The chemical production of mutations". Science. 158: 1141–1147. doi:10.1126/science.158.3805.1141.
- Auerbach, C.; Ramsey, D. (1967). "Differential effect of incubation temperature on nitrous acid-induced reversion frequencies at two loci in Neurospora". Mutation Research. 4: 508–510. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(67)90014-0.
- Auerbach, C (1970). "Remark on the 'Tables for determining statistical significance of mutation frequencies'". Mutation Research. 10: 256. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(70)90124-7.
- Auerbach, C.; Ramsey, D. (1970). "Analysis of a case of mutagen specificity in Neurospora crassa. II Interaction between treatments with diepoxybutane (DEB) and ultraviolet light". Molecular and General Genetics. 109: 1–17. doi:10.1007/bf00334042.
- Auerbach, C (1970). "Analysis of a Case of mutagen specificity in Neurosopra crassa III. Fractionated treatment with diepoxybutane (DEB)". Molecular and General Genetics. 109: 285–291. doi:10.1007/bf00267697.
- Auerbach, C.; Kilbey, B.J. (1971). "Mutation in eukaryotes". Annual Review of Genetics. 5: 163–218. doi:10.1146/annurev.ge.05.120171.001115.
- Auerbach, C.; Ramsay, D. (1971). "The problem of viability estimates in tests for reverse mutations". Mutation Research. 11: 353–360. PMID 5111491.
- Auerbach, C (1973). "Analysis of the storage effect of diepoxybutane (DEB)". Mutation Research. 18: 129–141. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(73)90029-8.
- Auerbach, C.; Moutschen-Dahmen, M.; Moutschen, J. (1977). "Genetic and cytogenetic effects of formaldehyde and related compounds". Mutation Research. 39: 317–362. doi:10.1016/0165-1110(77)90011-2.
- Auerbach, C (1978). "A pilgrim's progress through mutation research". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 21: 319–334. doi:10.1353/pbm.1978.0000.
- Kilbey, B.J. (1995). "In memoriam Charlotte Auerbach, FRS (1899-1994)". Mutation Research. 327 (1–2): 1–4. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(94)00187-a. PMID 7870080.
- Beale, G.H. (1995). "Charlotte Auerbach. 14 May 1899-17 March 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 41: 20–42. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0002.
- "Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. p. 48. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
- "Profile of geneticist Charlotte Auerbach". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Beale, Geoffrey. "Charlotte Auerbach". Jewish Women's Archive.
- Swaby, Rachel (2015). Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science - And the World. New York: Broadway Books. pp. 91–94. ISBN 9780553446791.
- Auerbach, Charlotte (1935). "Development of the legs, wings and halteres in wild type and certain mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster".
- Institute of Animal Genetics website; accessed 16 March 2016.
- Auerbach 1978, pp. 319-20.
- Langsdorf Jr., Alexander (November 1956). "Genetics in the Atomic Age". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 12 (9): 349. Retrieved 23 August 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Beale, Geoffrey (20 March 1994). "Obituary: Professor Charlotte Auerbach". The Independent.
- Haines, Catharine (2001). International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 1-57607-090-5.
- Waterston, C.D.; Shearer, A. Macmillan (2006). Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-2002 (PDF). 1. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh. p. 40. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Swaby, Rachel (2015-04-07). Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science-and the World. Crown/Archetype. p. 98. ISBN 9780553446807.
- Holden, John-Paul (16 September 2014). "New streets honour Edinburgh thinkers". The Evening News (Edinburgh). Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Edinburgh, A-Z street gazetteer
- Beale, G. H. (1995). "Charlotte Auerbach. 14 May 1899 – 17 March 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 41: 20–42. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0002.
- Kilbey, B. J. (1995). "Charlotte Auerbach (1899-1994)". Genetics. 141 (1): 1–5. PMC . PMID 8536959.
- Kilbey, B. J. (1995). "In memoriam Charlotte Auerbach, FRS (1899-1994)". Mutation Research. 327 (1–2): 1–4. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(94)00187-a. PMID 7870080.
- "Antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis mechanisms. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanisms of Antimutagenesis and Anticarcinogenesis. October 6-10, 1985, Lawrence, Kansas. Dedicated to Dr. Charlotte Auerbach and Dr. Takashi Sugimura". Basic life sciences. 39: 1–605. 1986. PMID 3533038.
- Sobels, F. H. (1975). "Charlotte Auerbach and chemical mutagenesis". Mutation Research. 29 (2): 171–180. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(75)90111-6. PMID 1102963.
- "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/54719.
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- BBC Radio 4 In Our Time - GENETIC MUTATION - Steve Jones mentions Auerbach - streaming audio
- Seltene Karriere einer Emigrantin, Die Wissenschaftlerin Charlotte Auerbach (1899–1994)
- Geoffrey Beale, an entry about Charlotte Auerbach, Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia