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15 June 1844
Ripple, Kent, England
|Died||10 November 1939
|Spouse(s)||Maximilian Carden Despard|
Charlotte French was born in Ripple, Kent, the daughter of Commander John Tracy William French of the Royal Navy (who died in 1855) and Margaret French, née Eccles (who died suffering from insanity in 1867). Her father was born in Woodbridge, Suffolk. Her brother John French became both a leading military commander during World War I and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, putting them on opposing political sides in later life.
She regretted her lack of education, although she did attend a finishing school in London. In 1870, she married businessman Maximilian Carden Despard, who died at sea in 1890; they had no children.
Charlotte published seven novels and has three unpublished novels. Her first novel was Chaste as Ice, Pure as Snow.
Following her husband's death when she was 46, Despard was encouraged by friends to take up charitable work. She was shocked and radicalised by the levels of poverty in London and devoted her time and money to helping poor people in Battersea. She lived above one of her welfare shops in one of poorest areas of Nine Elms during the week and converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1894 she stood and was elected as a Poor Law Guardian for Lambeth poor law union. She retired from the board in 1903.
She became good friends with Eleanor Marx and was a delegate to the Second International. She campaigned against the Boer War as a "wicked war of this Capitalistic government" and she toured the United Kingdom speaking against the use of conscription in the First World War, forming a pacifist organisation called the Women's Peace Crusade to oppose all war.
Despard was a vocal supporter of the Social Democratic Federation and the Independent Labour Party. In 1906 she joined the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies and was imprisoned twice in Holloway gaol. She became frustrated with the lack of progress the organisation was making she joined the more radical Women's Social and Political Union (WPSU).
In 1907, Despard was one of three women who formed the Women's Freedom League after disagreements over the autocratic way in which the WSPU was run. She was joined by Teresa Billington-Greig and Edith How-Martyn. She was closely identified with new passive resistance strategies including women chaining themselves to the gate of the Ladies' Gallery in the Palace of Westminster; and also a "No taxation without representation" campaign, during which her household furniture was repeatedly seized in lieu of fines.
Unlike other suffragists, Despard refused as a pacifist to become involved in the British Army's recruitment campaign during World War I, a stance different to her family's – her brother, Field Marshal John French, was Chief of the Imperial General Staff of the British Army and commander of the British Expeditionary Force sent to Europe in August 1914, and their sister Catherine Harley served in the Scottish Women's Hospital in France.
Despard was a very active member of the Battersea Labour Party during the early decades of the 20th century. She was selected as the Labour candidate for Battersea North in the 1918 General Election receiving 33% of the vote.
She remained actively political well into her 90s, addressing several anti-fascist rallies in the 1930s.
Despard spent a lot of time in Frenchpark, County Roscommon, where her father was born. In 1908 she joined with Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, Margaret Cousins and other feminists to form the Irish Women's Franchise League. She urged members to boycott the 1911 Census and withhold taxes and provided financial support to workers during the Dublin labour disputes. In 1909 Despard met Mahatma Gandhi and was influenced by his theory of passive resistance.
During the Irish War of Independence, together with Maud Gonne and others, she formed the Women's Prisoners' Defence League to support republican prisoners. As a member of Cumann na mBan she opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, and was imprisoned by the Irish Free State government during the Irish Civil War.
In 1930 Despard toured the Soviet Union. Impressed with what she saw she joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and became secretary of the Friends of Soviet Russia organisation. In 1933 her house in Dublin was burned down by an anti-communist mob.
In London, two streets are named after her, one in Battersea SW11, and another in Archway, Islington. At the end of the latter is the Charlotte Despard pub, named in her honour.
- Leneman, Leah (1997). "The awakened instinct: vegetarianism and the women's suffrage movement in Britain", Women's History Review, Volume 6, Issue 2.
- 'Obituary: Mrs. Despard', The Manchester Guardian, 11 November 1939
- Linklater, Andro (1980). An unhusbanded life. London: Hutchinson. pp. 45–7. ISBN 0-09-138310-2.
- Mulvihill, Margaret (1994). Charlotte Despard : biography (New ed.). London: Pandora. p. 51. ISBN 0-86358-213-3.
- Norris, Jill Liddington, Jill (1985). One hand tied behind us : the rise of the women's suffrage movement. London: Virago. p. 209. ISBN 0-86068-007-X.
- The Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women
- Spartacus Educational Archived 18 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 15. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 905. ISBN 0-19-861365-2.Article by Margaret Mulvihill.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 15. p. 906.
- An Unhusbanded Life: Charlotte Despard: suffragette, socialist, and Sinn Feiner by Andro Linklater, Hutchinson, London, 1980.
- Charlotte Despard: A Biography by Margaret Mulvihill, Pandora, London, 1989. ISBN 978-0-04-440446-0
- To End All Wars: a story of loyalty and rebellion 1914–1918 by Adam Hochschild, Mariner Books, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston New York 2011. ISBN 978-0-547-75031-6
- The archives of Charlotte Despard are held at The Women's Library at the Library of the London School of Economics, ref 7CFD
- Her entry on the Orlando Project of Cambridge University Press