Charlotte Square is a garden square in Edinburgh, Scotland, part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The square is located at the west end of George Street and was intended to mirror St. Andrew Square in the east. The gardens are private and not publicly accessible.
Initially named St. George's Square in James Craig's original plan, it was renamed in 1786 after King George III's Queen and first daughter, to avoid confusion with George Square, in the south of the city. Charlotte Square was the last part of the initial phase of the New Town to be completed in 1820. Much of it was to the 1791 design of Robert Adam, who died in 1792, just as building began.
In 1939 a very sizable air-raid shelter was created under the south side of the gardens, accessed from the street to the south.
In 2013 the south side was redeveloped in an award-winning scheme, creating major new office floorspace behind a restored series of townhouses.
The garden was originally laid out as a level circular form by William Weir in 1808.
In 1861 a plan was drawn up by Robert Matheson, Clerk of Works for Scotland for a larger, more square garden, centred upon a memorial to the recently deceased Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria.
The commission for the sculpture was granted in 1865 to Sir John Steell. The main statue features an equestrian statue of the prince, in field marshal's uniform, dwarfing the four figures around the base. It was unveiled by Queen Victoria herself in 1876. The stone plinth was designed by the architect David Bryce and the four corner figures are by David Watson Stevenson (Science and Learning/Labour), George Clark Stanton (Army and Navy) and William Brodie (Nobility).
This remodelling featured major new tree-planting which took many years to re-establish.
The central open space is a private garden, available to owners of the surrounding properties. For the last three weeks in August each year Charlotte Square gardens are the site of the Edinburgh International Book Festival.
The railings around the gardens were removed in 1940 as part of the war effort. The current railings date from 1947.
On the north side, No. 5 was the home of John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute (1881–1947), who bought it in 1903 and gave it to the National Trust for Scotland on his death. It was the Trust headquarters from 1949 to 2000. Bute did much to promote the preservation of the Square.
Nos. 6 and 7 are also owned by the National Trust for Scotland. No.6, Bute House is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland. In 1806 it was home to Sir John Sinclair creator of the first Statistical Account of Scotland. No. 7 was internally restored by the Trust in 1975 to its original state, and is open to the public as The Georgian House. The upper floor was formerly the official residence of the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. The building includes one fireplace brought from Hill of Tarvit in Fife in 1975.
West Register House, formerly St. George's Church, forms the centre of the west side. It was designed by the architect Robert Reid in 1811, broadly to Adam's plan. The church opened in 1814 and was converted to its current use in 1964. It is one of the main buildings of the National Records of Scotland
- Sir Alexander Hugh Freeland Barbour lived at no.4 (previously occupied by Rev Dr David Aitken FRSE)
- Sir James Fergusson, 4th baronet (1765-1838) lived at no.5
- No.7 (now The Georgian House, Edinburgh) was occupied by Charles Neaves, Lord Neaves and later by Rev Alexander Whyte.
- Patrick Robertson, Lord Robertson lived at no.9 in the 1830s. James Syme, the surgeon, later lived in the same house, and his son-in-law Joseph Lister, lived there from 1870-1877.
- Aeneas McBean WS lived at no.11
- J J Hope-Vere MP lived at no.12
- No. 13 was home to Sir William Fettes
- No. 14 was the house of Whig lawyer, historian and conservationist Lord Cockburn.
- Charles Alfred Cooper, editor of The Scotsman lived at no.15
- Viscount Haldane was born at No.17. It had been the home of Lord Cringletie in the 1830s.
- Lord Torphichen lived at no.19, as did Thomas Grainger Stewart.
- Prof John Batty Tuke lived at no.20
- Field Marshal Earl Haig, was born at no. 24.
- Adam Duff, Sheriff of Midlothian lived at no.25
- Prof John Chiene, Professor of Surgery at Edinburgh University lived at no. 26
- Sir Alexander Gibson-Maitland of Cliftonhall lived at no.27
- David Boyle, Lord Boyle lived at no.28
- Dr David Berry Hart lived at no.29
- William Adam of Blair Adam lived at no.31 in the 1830s. The house was later occupied by Thomas Annandale.
- Sir Alexander C Gibson-Maitland of Clifton Hall, lived at no.33
- Sir William Cunningham Dalyell RN lived at no.38 in the 1830s
- The Juridicial Society was based in no.40
- Robert Reid redesigned no.44 internally, as his own home.
Pioneer of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in nearby South Charlotte Street.
- Buildings of Scotland: Edinburgh by Gifford, McWilliam and Walker
- Gunnis, Rupert. Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660-1857
- McWilliam, Colin (1984). Edinburgh. The Buildings of Scotland. Yale.
- "Georgian House". National Trust for Scotland.
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