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Charlotte von Mahlsdorf
|Born||18 March 1928|
|Died||30 April 2002 (aged 74)|
When a local mansion was due for demolition, von Mahlsdorf was allowed to live there, and its contents became the basis for her collection of everyday household items from the Gründerzeit period (c. 1870s). The museum became a popular meeting-point for East Berlin’s gay community, to the disapproval of the East German regime (Stasi).
Von Mahlsdorf was born to parents Max Berfelde and Gretchen Gaupp in Berlin-Mahlsdorf, Germany. At a very young age she felt more like a girl, and expressed more interest in the clothing and articles of little girls. She helped a second-hand goods dealer clear out the apartments of deported Jews and sometimes kept items.
Von Mahlsdorf's collection evolved into the Gründerzeit Museum. She had become engaged in the preservation of the von Mahlsdorf estate, which was threatened with demolition, and was awarded the manor house rent-free. In 1960, Von Mahlsdorf opened the museum of everyday articles from the Gründerzeit (the time of the founding of the German Empire) in the only partially-reconstructed Mahlsdorf manor house. The museum became well known in cinematic, artistic and gay circles. From 1970 on, the East Berlin homosexual scene often had meetings and celebrations in the museum.
In 1974 the East German authorities announced that they wanted to bring the museum and its exhibits under state control. In protest, von Mahlsdorf began giving away the exhibits to visitors. Thanks to the committed involvement of the actress Annekathrin Bürger and the attorney Friedrich Karl Kaul—and possibly also thanks to her enlistment as an inoffizieller Mitarbeiter (an unofficial collaborator) for Stasi, the secret East German police—the authorities' attempt was stopped in 1976 and she was able to keep the museum.
Her decision to leave Germany meant that she guided her last visitor through the museum in 1995, and in 1997 she moved to Porla Brunn, an old spa near Hasselfors, Sweden, where she opened (with moderate success) a new museum dedicated to the turn of the 19th century. The city of Berlin bought the Gründerzeit Museum, and by 1997 it had been opened again by the "Förderverein Gutshaus Mahlsdorf e. V.".
Her life could be described as that of an outsider who survived, no matter the ruling ideology, during the Nazi period, Communist-controlled East Germany, or, once the wall fell, modern Germany, as described in the article "The Sexual and Political Chameleon of Berlin: The Ambiguities of Charlotte von Mahlsdorf's Life in I Am My Own Wife.”
Von Mahlsdorf died from heart failure during a visit to Berlin on 30 April 2002.
People still honour her memory, be it for her work as the founder of the Gründerzeit Museum, or for her public role as a transgender woman and her foregrounding of the persecution of homosexuals in both the Third Reich and East Germany. The appeal for a memorial to von Mahlsdorf, organized by the "Förderverein Gutshaus Mahlsdorf e. V." and the "Interessengemeinschaft Historische Friedhöfe Berlin" (Alliance of Historical Cemeteries in Berlin) was therefore a success.
The intention of the organizers was to erect a memorial with the inscription "Ich bin meine eigene Frau (I am my own woman) – Charlotte von Mahlsdorf – 18. März 1928 – 30. April 2002" on the first anniversary of Charlotte's death. Although Charlotte von Mahlsdorf had been known almost exclusively by her "stage name" in recent years, her relatives pushed through the inscription "Lothar Berfelde, 1928 – 2002, genannt Charlotte von Mahlsdorf. Dem Museumsgründer zur Erinnerung" (Lothar Berfelde, 1928 – 2002, known as Charlotte von Mahlsdorf. In memory of the [male] founder of the museum).
In 1992, German filmmaker Rosa von Praunheim made a film about von Mahlsdorf called I Am My Own Woman (Original title: Ich bin meine eigene Frau) with von Mahlsdorf appearing in the film.
- Charlotte in Schweden by filmmaker Rosa von Praunheim. In 2002, von Praunheim made a film about Charlotte's new life in Porla Brunn, Sweden.
- Charlotte by John Edward Heys, 2009. Screened at the 56th Internationale Kurzfilmtage Oberhausen, 2010.
American playwright Doug Wright wrote the character play, I Am My Own Wife based on von Mahlsdorf's life from his own research of her biography. Since its initial run on- and off-Broadway the play has garnered every major American theatre award including the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, Tony Award, the Drama Desk Award, Drama League Award, the Lucille Lortel Award, and the Lambda Literary Award for Drama.
Larry Moss and Josef Ludwig Pfitzer made an adaptation of the Doug Wright play called Ich mach ja doch, was ich will (I still do what I want), that was shown at Teamtheater in May 2012 in Munich, Germany.
- Mahlsdorf, Charlotte von (1992). Süß, Peter (ed.). Ich bin meine eigene Frau (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Edition Diá. ISBN 3-86034-109-X.
- Mahlsdorf, Charlotte von; Hollander, Jean (translation) (1995). I Am My Own Woman: The Outlaw Life of Charlotte Von Mahlsdorf, Berlin's Most Distinguished Transvestite (translated 1st ed.). San Francisco: Cleis Press. ISBN 1573440108.
- Mahlsdorf, Charlotte von; Hollander, Jean (translation) (2004). I Am My Own Wife: The True Story of Charlotte von Mahlsdorf (new ed.). San Francisco: Cleis Press. ISBN 1573442003.
- Mahlsdorf, Charlotte von (1997). Ab durch die Mitte (in German) (1st ed.). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag (DTV). ISBN 3-423-20041-3.
- Eger, Henrik (12 July 2010). "Behind The Mask". The Jewish Daily Forward.
- Eger, Henrik (5 August 2018). "The Sexual and Political Chameleon of Berlin: The Ambiguities of Charlotte von Mahlsdorf's Life in "I Am My Own Wife"". Drama Around the Globe. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Baer, Brian James (2016). "Translation, Transition, Transgender". TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 3 (3–4): 506–523. doi:10.1215/23289252-3545191.
Media related to Charlotte von Mahlsdorf at Wikimedia Commons
- Literature by and about Charlotte von Mahlsdorf in the catalogue of Die Deutsche Bibliothek
- Gründerzeitmuseum – Official Website (in German)
- Article in Die Berliner Zeitung on questions about Charlotte von Mahlsdorf's biography (in German)
- cleispress.com: The book: I Am My Own Wife by Charlotte von Mahlsdorf (initially published as I Am My Own Woman)
- Ich bin meine eigene Frau (film) at IMDb
- I Am My Own Wife (play by Doug Wright) at the Internet Broadway Database
- I Am My Own Wife – Inside Look with Doug Wright and Charlotte on YouTube
- Naming a street in Berlin after Charlotte von Mahlsdorf. Straßenbennung zu Ehren Charlotte von Mahlsdorf on YouTube.