1968 theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Ralph Nelson|
|Produced by||Ralph Nelson|
|Screenplay by||Stirling Silliphant|
|Based on||Flowers for Algernon|
by Daniel Keyes
Dick Van Patten
|Music by||Ravi Shankar|
|Edited by||Fredric Steinkamp|
ABC Motion Pictures
Robertson and Associates
|Distributed by||Cinerama Releasing Corporation|
|Box office||$8,500,000 (rentals)|
Charly (marketed and stylized as CHAЯLY) is a 1968 American drama film, directed and produced by Ralph Nelson, and written by Stirling Silliphant. It was based on Flowers for Algernon, a science fiction short story (1958) and subsequent novel (1966) by Daniel Keyes.
The film stars Cliff Robertson as Charly Gordon, an intellectually disabled adult who is selected by two doctors to undergo a surgical procedure that triples his IQ as it did for Algernon, a laboratory mouse who also underwent the same procedure; additional roles are co-played by Claire Bloom, Lilia Skala, Leon Janney, and Dick Van Patten. Robertson was reprising his previous portrayal of the same role in a 1961 television adaptation, "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon", an episode of the anthology series The United States Steel Hour.
The film received positive reviews, and was a success at the box office and, a generation later, in home media sales.
Charly Gordon (Cliff Robertson), is a mentally handicapped man with a strong desire to make himself smarter. For the past two years, he has attended night school where he is taught to read and write by Alice Kinnian (Claire Bloom). However, his spelling remains poor, and he is unable to spell his own name.
Alice takes Charly to see Dr. Richard Nemur and Dr. Anna Straus. Nemur and Straus have increased the intelligence of laboratory mice with a new surgical procedure. They are now looking for a human test subject. To help assess Charly's suitability for the procedure, he is made to race Algernon, a laboratory mouse. Algernon physically runs through a maze while Charly uses a pencil to trace his way through a diagram of the same maze. Charly consistently loses the races, but is nevertheless given the experimental surgery.
After the surgery, Charly is initially angered at not immediately becoming smarter and still loses to Algernon. Eventually, he beats Algernon and his intelligence increases rapidly. Alice continues teaching him, but he soon surpasses her. Charly's co-workers try to tease him by making him use a machine that they think he is unable to operate. When Charly shows he can work the machine, his co-workers are displeased that he is now intelligent and cannot be teased anymore. They sign a petition causing him to lose his bakery job. Charly starts noticing Alice's body, drawing and painting abstract nude figures of her. He also questions whether Alice loves her fiancé. One night, Charly follows Alice to her apartment, before both flee from one another upon noticing the other.
The film then uses a montage sequence to show Charly – having escaped into the counterculture – riding a motorcycle, kissing a series of different women, smoking and dancing. At the end of the sequence, Charly has returned home. Alice visits him, and both realize they want to be together and consider marriage.
Straus and Nemur present their research to a panel of scientists, including a question-and-answer session with Charly. Charly is aggressive during the session. It is revealed that Algernon has died shortly after regressing to his original state, causing Charly to believe that his increased intelligence is temporary. Charly works with Nemur and Straus in the hope that his intelligence can be saved, but nothing can be done. Alice visits Charly and asks him to marry her, but he refuses and tells her to leave.
In the film's final scene, Alice watches Charly playing with children in a playground, having reverted to his former self.
- Cliff Robertson – Charly Gordon
- Claire Bloom – Dr. Alice Kinnian Ph.D. (Charly's teacher)
- Lilia Skala – Dr. Anna Straus
- Leon Janney – Dr. Richard Nemur
- Ruth White – Mrs. Apple
- Dick Van Patten – Bert (as Richard Van Patten)
- Edward McNally – Gimpy (as Skipper McNally)
- Barney Martin – Hank
- William Dwyer – Joey
- Dan Morgan – Paddy
The short story Flowers for Algernon had previously been the basis of "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon", a 1961 television adaptation in which Robertson had also starred for CBS's U. S. Steel Hour. Robertson had starred in a number of TV shows which were turned into films with other actors playing his role, such as Days of Wine and Roses. He bought the rights to the story, hoping to star in the film version as well.
He originally hired William Goldman to write the screenplay on the strength of Goldman's novel No Way to Treat a Lady, paying him $30,000 out of his own pocket. Robertson was unhappy with Goldman's work and then hired Stirling Silliphant to do a draft.
Robertson did the role for only $25,000.
The film was a hit, earning $7.25 million in theatrical rentals during its release in North America, and it earned an additional $1.25 million in theatrical rentals overseas, making it the 16th-highest-grossing film of 1968. After all costs were deducted (including $1,325,000 paid to profit share), the film reported a profit of $1,390,000, making it one of the most successful movies ever made by ABC Motion Pictures.
Vincent Canby called the film a "self-conscious contemporary drama, the first ever to exploit mental retardation for... the bittersweet romance of it"; he called Robertson's performance "earnest" but points out that "we [the audience] are forced into the vaguely unpleasant position of being voyeurs, congratulating ourselves for not being Charly as often as we feel a distant pity for him." Canby calls Nelson's direction "neo-Expo 67", referring to the use of split screen to "show simultaneously the reactions of two people facing each other and conversing" and the use of "little postage stamp-sized inserts of images within the larger screen frame." Time magazine called Charly an "odd little movie about mental retardation and the dangers of all-conquering science, done with a dash of whimsy." While "the historic sights in and around Charly's Boston setting have never been more lovingly filmed", "The impact of [Robertson's] performance...is lessened by Producer-Director Ralph Nelson's determination to prove that he learned how to be new and now at Expo '67: almost every other sequence is done in split screens, multiple images, still shots or slow motion." Screenwriter (and Hollywood blacklist target) Maurice Rapf called Robertson's performance "extraordinary" and called "astonishing" his on-screen "transformation from one end of the intellectual spectrum to the other"; Rapf took issue with what he called the "pyrotechnics of the camera" and the "flashy opticals", calling the effects "jarringly out of place" and better suited for a "no-story mod film like The Knack."
Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, saying "The relationship between Charly (Cliff Robertson) and the girl (Claire Bloom) is handled delicately and well. She cares for him, but inadequately understands the problems he's facing. These become more serious when he passes normal IQ and moves into the genius category; his emotional development falls behind. It is this story, involving a personal crisis, which makes Charly a warm and rewarding film." By contrast, Ebert pointed out "the whole scientific hocus-pocus, which causes his crisis, is irrelevant and weakens the movie by distracting us."
At the 41st Academy Awards, Robertson won the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, under some controversy: less than two weeks after the ceremony, Time magazine mentioned the Academy's generalized concerns over "excessive and vulgar solicitation of votes" and said "many members agreed that Robertson's award was based more on promotion than on performance. " The film was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, losing to 2001: A Space Odyssey.
In the late 1970s, following a period of extended unemployment that followed an act of whistle-blowing against David Begelman, the then-president of Columbia Pictures, Robertson wrote and attempted to produce Charly II, to no avail.
Home video release
- List of American films of 1968
- Charlie and Algernon, a musical based upon the original story, Flowers for Algernon.
- Flowers for Algernon (film), a 2000 television film and remake starring Matthew Modine as "Charly".
- "Charly (1968): Original Print Information". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "ABC's 5 Years of Film Production Profits & Losses", Variety, May 31, 1973, pg 3.
- "Charly (1968): Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- Karen, Zraick (September 11, 2011). "Oscar-winner Cliff Robertson dies in US at 88". Associated Press. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- Dennis Brown, Shoptalk, Newmarket Press, 1992 p 63
- William Goldman, Adventures in the Screen Trade, 1982 p 164-176
- No Flap Over Oscar Absence--Robertson Loynd, Ray. Los Angeles Times (1923-1995); Los Angeles, Calif. [Los Angeles, Calif]25 Apr 1969: i10.
- "Top Grossing Films of 1968". Listal.com.
- Vincent Canby (September 24, 1968). "The Screen: Cliff Robertson in Title Role of Charly". The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "Cinema: Medical Menace". Time. October 18, 1968. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "Maurice Rapf, 88, Screenwriter and Film Professor". The New York Times. April 18, 2003.
- Maurice Rapf (November 1, 1968). Is Charly Cuter Than Necessary?. Life. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- Roger Ebert (December 31, 1968). "Charly". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "25 Best Movie Tearjerkers Ever". Entertainment Weekly. June 26, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "Awards for 1968". National Board of Review. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "The Trade: Grand Illusion". Time. April 25, 1969. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "1969 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- Michelle Green (December 5, 1983). "Hollywood's Mr. Clean Shot Down David Begelman; Now the Actor Has Pulled His Career Out of a Nose Dive". People. Time Inc. 20 (23). Retrieved March 25, 2011.
Hoping to capitalize on his 1968 Oscar-winning role in Charly, playing a mentally retarded man who becomes, briefly, a genius, he wrote and began peddling Charly II, only to have the film's backers pull out.