Chashtana

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Chashtana
Mahakshatrapa Bhadramukha Swami[1]
Coin of Chastana.jpg
Silver coin of Chashtana, with ruler profile and pseudo-Greek legend. British Museum.
Reign 78-130 CE
Dynasty Kardamaka (Western Satrap)
Coin of the Western Satrap Chashtana. The obverse legend typically reads "ΡΑΝΝΙΩ ΙΑΤΡΑΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Chashtana: "King and Satrap Chashtana".
Coin of the Western Satrap Chashtana. The obverse legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Chashtana: "King and Satrap Chashtana".

Chashtana (IAST: Caṣṭana, or Chastana) was a ruler of the Saka Western Satraps in northwestern India during 78-130 CE.[2] He was satrap of Ujjain during that period. Among the modern scholars, the beginning of the Saka era is widely equated to the ascension of Chashtana (possibly to Mahakshatrapa) in 78 CE.[3]

A statue found in Mathura together with statues of the Kushan king Kanishka and Vima Taktu, and bearing the name "Shastana" is often attributed to Chashtana himself. Chashtana is called Tisman by the bards, a spelling that matches the Greek rendition of his name more closely.

Chashtana was mentioned by Ptolemy as "Tiasthenes" or "Testenes", ruling a large area of Western India into the 2nd century CE, especially the area of Ujjain ("Ozene"), during the reign of the Satavahana king Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi. According to Ptolemy, Chashtana directly ruled Ujjain, while Paithan (Pratisthana) continued to be ruled by Siristolemaios (identified with Sri Pulumayi, son of Gautamiputra Satakarni).[4] Ptolemy in his "Geographia", where he qualifies the Western Satraps as "Indo-Scythians", describes Chashtana's territory as starting from Patalene in the West, to his capital Ujjain in the east ("Ozena-Regia Tiastani", "Ozene, capital of king Chashtana"), and beyond Barigaza in the south:

Moreover the region which is next to the western part of India, is called Indoscythia. A part of this region around the (Indus) river mouth is Patalena, above which is Abiria. That which is about the mouth of the Indus and the Canthicolpus bay is called Syrastrena. (...) In the island formed by this river are the cities Pantala, Barbaria. (...) The Larica region of Indoscythia is located eastward from the swamp near the sea, in which on the west of the Namadus river is the interior city of Barygaza emporium. On the east side of the river (...) Ozena-Regia Tiastani (...) Minagara".

— Ptolemy Geographia, Book Seven, Chapter I

Chashtana was the grandfather of the great Western Satrap conqueror Rudradaman I. Chashtana was founder of one of the two major Saka Satrap dynasties in north-western India, the Bhadramukhas; the other, short-lived dynasty, the Kshaharatas ("Satraps"), included Bhumaka and Nahapana.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burgess 1880, p. 189.
  2. ^ Elizabeth Errington, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, ed. (2007). From Persepolis to the Punjab. British Museum Press. ISBN 9780714111650. 
  3. ^ Shailendra Bhandare (2006). "Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta interlude in the Gangetic Plains". In Patrick Olivelle. Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780199775071. 
  4. ^ Alain Danielou, A Brief History of India (Inner Traditions, 2003), mentioned here
  5. ^ Students' Britannica India. 4. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2000. p. 375. 

Bibliography[edit]

Preceded by
Western Satrap
130 CE
Succeeded by
Jayadaman
Indo-Scythian kings, territories and chronology
Territories/
dates
Western India Western Pakistan
Balochistan
Paropamisadae
Arachosia
Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura
INDO-GREEK KINGDOM
90–85 BCE Nicias Menander II Artemidoros
90–70 BCE Hermaeus Archebius
85-60 BCE INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM
Maues
75–70 BCE Vonones
Spalahores
Telephos Apollodotus II
65–55 BCE Spalirises
Spalagadames
Hippostratos Dionysios
55–35 BCE Azes I Zoilos II
55–35 BCE Azilises
Azes II
Apollophanes Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
NORTHERN SATRAPS
Hagamasha
25 BCE – 10 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
APRACHARAJAS
Vijayamitra
(ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[1]
Liaka Kusulaka
Patika Kusulaka
Zeionises
Kharahostes
(ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[2]
Mujatria
Strato II and Strato III Hagana
10-20CE INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM
Gondophares
Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM
Gondophares
Rajuvula
20-30 CE Ubouzanes
Pakores
Vispavarma
(ruled c.0-20 CE)[3]
Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa
30-40 CE KUSHAN EMPIRE
Kujula Kadphises
Indravarma Abdagases ... ...
40-45 CE Aspavarma Gadana ... ...
45-50 CE Sasan Sases ... ...
50-75 CE ... ...
75-100 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
WESTERN SATRAPS
Chastana
Vima Takto ... ...
100-120 CE Abhiraka Vima Kadphises ... ...
120 CE Bhumaka
Nahapana
PARATARAJAS
Yolamira
Kanishka I Great Satrap Kharapallana
and Satrap Vanaspara
for
Kanishka I
130-230 CE

Jayadaman
Rudradaman I
Damajadasri I
Jivadaman
Rudrasimha I
Isvaradatta
Rudrasimha I
Jivadaman
Rudrasena I


Bagamira
Arjuna
Hvaramira
Mirahvara


Vāsishka (c. 140 – c. 160)
Huvishka (c. 160 – c. 190)
Vasudeva I (c. 190 – to at least 230)


230-280 CE

Samghadaman
Damasena
Damajadasri II
Viradaman
Yasodaman I
Vijayasena
Damajadasri III
Rudrasena II
Visvasimha

Miratakhma
Kozana
Bhimarjuna
Koziya
Datarvharna
Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS
Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250)
Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265)
Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Kanishka II (c. 230 – 240)
Vashishka (c. 240 – 250)
Kanishka III (c. 250 – 275)


280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II (c. 275 – 310)
300-320 CE

Visvasena
Rudrasimha II
Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Chhu (c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II
Rudradaman II
Rudrasena III
Simhasena
Rudrasena IV

Shapur II Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325)
Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III "Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350)
Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360)
HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka I (c. 325 – 345)
Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE
Chandragupta I Samudragupta


388-396 CE Rudrasimha III Chandragupta II
  1. ^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary
  2. ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [1]
  3. ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published online: 09 Aug 2010 [2]