Shivaji's portrait (1680s) housed in the British Museum
|1st Sovereign (Chhatrapati) of the Maratha Realm|
|Coronation||6 June 1674|
|Born||c. April 1627 / 19 February 1630
Shivneri Fort (presently in Maharashtra, India)
|Died||3 April 1680
Raigad Fort, Raigad, Maratha Empire (presently in Maharashtra)
Shivaji Bhonsle (Marathi [ʃiʋaˑɟiˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680), also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad.
Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering non-conventional methods which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.
Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time, with different writers praising and criticizing him, but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus. Particularly in Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Conflict with Adilshahi sultanate
- 3 Clash with the Mughals
- 4 Peace with Mughals
- 5 Reconquest
- 6 Coronation
- 7 Conquest in Southern India
- 8 Death and succession
- 9 Governance
- 10 Military
- 11 Legacy
- 11.1 Historiography
- 11.2 Commemorations
- 11.3 Depiction in popular culture
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in Pune district on 6 April 1627 or 19 February 1630.[a] Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji in honour of the goddess Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child. Shivaji was named after this local deity. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general[clarification needed] who served the Deccan Sultanates. His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed (Sindkhed Raja). At the time of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him.
Upbringing and concept of Hindavi Swarajya
Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a great impact on Shivaji, and he carefully studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata; these were to influence his lifelong defence of Hindu values. Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings, and regularly sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints.
Shahaji, meanwhile had married a second wife, Tuka Bai from the Mohite family, and moved to Karnataka to lead a military campaign on behalf of Adilshahi. He left Shivaji and Jijabai in Pune in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo. Dadoji has been credited with overseeing education and training of young Shivaji. Shivaji as a boy was a keen outdoorsman and, though he received little formal education and most likely could neither read nor write, he is said to have possessed considerable erudition. Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from the Maval region,[when?] including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. In the company of his Maval comrades, Shivaji wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range, hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land, which was to later prove applicable to his military endeavours. However, Shivaji's association with the Maval comrades and his independent spirit did not sit well with Dadoji who complained to Shahaji to no avail in making him compliant.
At the age of 12, Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji and his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained. He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640.:60 Around 1645–46, the teenage Shivaji first expressed his concept for Hindavi Swarajya, in a letter to Dadaji Naras Prabhu.
Conflict with Adilshahi sultanate
In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, Inayat Khan, to hand over the possession of the fort to him.:26:61:268 Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort professed his loyalty to Shivaji and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Adilshahi governor.:26 On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Mohammed Adil Shah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. Accounts vary, with some saying Shahaji was conditionally released in 1649 after Shivaji and Sambhaji surrendered the forts of Kondana, Bangalore and Kandarpi, others saying he was imprisoned until 1653 or 1655; during this period Shivaji maintained a low profile. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, and died around 1664–1665 during a hunting accident. Following his father's death, Shivaji resumed raiding, seizing in 1656, the valley of Javali from Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Adilshah.
Combat with Afzal Khan
In 1659, Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, an experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt.
The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by a follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would attack him:47–52 or secretly planning to attack, wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand.:22 Accounts vary on whether Shivaji or Afzal Khan struck the first blow: the Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji. In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji then signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris.
Battle of Pratapgarh
In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate's forces. The agile Maratha infantry and cavalry inflicted rapid strikes on Bijapuri units, attacked the Bijapuri cavalry before it was prepared for battle, and pursued retreating troops toward Wai. More than 3,000 soldiers of the Bijapur army were killed and two sons of Afzal Khan were taken as prisoners.:53
This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire. Soon thereafter Shivaji, Shahaji and Netaji Palkar (the chief of the Maratha cavalry) decided to attack and defeat the Adilshahi kingdom at Bijapur.
Battle of Kolhapur
To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's Abyssinian general Rustam Zaman. With a cavalry force of 5,000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the centre of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. Adilshahi forces lost about 2,000 horses and 12 elephants to the Marathas. This victory alarmed Aurangzeb, who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the "Mountain Rat", and prepared to address this rising Maratha threat.
Siege of Panhala and Battle of Pavan Khind
In 1660, Adilshah sent his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji's southern border, in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort near present-day Kolhapur with his forces. Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid-1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddhi Jahuar had purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English. This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid-1663.
Accounts vary as to the end of the siege, with some accounts stating that Shivaji escaped from the encircled fort and withdrew to Ragna, following which Ali Adil Shah personally came to take charge of the siege, capturing the fort after four months besiegement. Other accounts state that after months of siege, Shivaji negotiated with Siddhi Jahuar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1660, withdrawing to Vishalgad; Shivaji would later re-take Panhala in 1673.
There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad), but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape. Per these accounts, Shivaji withdrew from Panhala by cover of night, and as he was pursued by the enemy cavalry, so his Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande of Bandal Deshmukh, along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind ("horse ravine") to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad fort. In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind, the smaller Maratha force held back the larger enemy to buy time for Shivaji to escape. Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad, signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July 1660. Ghod Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was later renamed Paavan Khind ("sacred pass") in honour of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, and all other soldiers who fought in there.
Clash with the Mughals
Until 1657, Shivaji maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb in conquering Bijapur and in return, he was assured of the formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.:37 Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar. This was followed by raids in Junnar, with Shivaji carrying off 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses.:38 Mughal viceroy for Deccan at that time, Aurangzeb responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan, who defeated the forces of Shivaji at Ahmednagar. However, Aurangzeb's countermeasures against Shivaji were interrupted by the rainy season and his battle of succession with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of the emperor Shah Jahan.:39–40
Attack on Shaista Khan
Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with an army numbering over 150,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan, with his better-equipped and -provisioned army of 300,000 seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan, besieging it for a month and a half until breaching the walls. Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of having a larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory, seizing the city of Pune and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal.
In April 1663, Shivaji launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune; accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination, but there is some agreement that Shivaji and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. They overcame the palace guards, breached the wall, and entered Shaista Khan's quarters, killing those they found there. Shaista Khan escaped, losing his thumb in the melee, but one of his sons and other members of his household were killed. The Khan took refuge with the Moghul forces outside of Pune, and Aurangzeb punished him for this embarrassment with a transfer to Bengal.
An Uzbek general, Kartalab Khan, was sent by Shaista Khan to attack and reduce the number of forts under Shivaji's control in the Konkan region on 3 February 1661. The 30,000 Mughal troops left Pune, marching through the back-country in an attempt to surprise the Marathas. In the Battle of Umberkhind, Shivaji's forces ambushed and enveloped them with infantry and light cavalry in the dense forests of Umberkhind pass near present-day Pen.
Treaty of Purandar
Attack on Shahista khan and Surat, enraged the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. In response he sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering around 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh's forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts, forcing Shivaji to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men.
In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur. One of Shivaji's commander, Netaji Palkar joined the Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji's service in 1676 after ten years with the Mughals, and was accepted back as a Hindu on Shivaji's advice.
Arrest in Agra and escape
In 1666, Aurangzeb invited Shivaji to Agra, along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Kandahar, now in Afghanistan, to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offence and stormed out of court,:78 and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.
Shivaji feigned severe illness and requested to send most of his contingent back to the Deccan, thereby ensuring the safety of his army and deceiving Aurangzeb. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for his health. After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Sambhaji, being a child had no restrictions and was sent out of the prison camp and Shivaji, disguised as labourer carrying sweet basket escaped on 17 August 1666, according to the Mughal documents.[clarification needed] Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). After the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji. Recent research has proposed that Shivaji simply disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds on 22 July 1666, and escaped by mingling within the departing priestly entourage of Pandit Kavindra Paramananda. Sambhaji was removed from Agra and taken to Mathura later by Shivaji's trusted men.
Peace with Mughals
After Shivaji's escape, hostilities with the Mughals ebbed with Mughal sardar Jaswant singh acting as intermediary between Shivaji and Aurangzeb for new peace proposals. During the period between 1668 and 1670, Aurangzeb conferred the title of Raja on Shivaji. Sambhaji was also restored as a Mughal mansabdar with 5000 horses. Shivaji at that time sent Sambhaji with General Prataprao Gujar to serve with Mughal viceroy in Aurangabad, Prince Muazzam. Sambhaji was also granted territory in Berar for revenue collection. Aurangzeb also permitted Shivaji to attack the decaying Adil Shahi. The weakened Sultan Ali Adil Shah II sued for peace and granted the rights of Sardeshmukhi and Chauthai to Shivaji.
The peace between Shivaji and the Moghuls lasted until the end of 1670. At that time Aurangzeb got suspicious of the close ties between Shivaji and Prince Muazzam who he thought might usurp his throne. Also at that time, Aurangzeb greatly reduced his army in the Deccan.The disbanded soldiers quickly joined Maratha service.The Mughals also took away the jagir of Berar from Shivaji to recover the money lent to him a few years earlier. In response to this situation, Shivaji launched an offensive against the Moghuls and recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to them in a span of four months. During this phase, Tanaji Malusare won the fort of Sinhgad in the Battle of Sinhagad on 4 Feb 1670, dying in the process. Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670; while he was returning from Surat, Mughals under Daud Khan tried to intercept him, but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik.
Dealings with the English
In October 1670, Shivaji sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war material, his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties. In September 1671, Shivaji sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking material, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri; the English had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. The English sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji was never to pay the Rajpur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682.
When Shivaji went to Tanjore to fight his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), he met the English at Madras (then known as Madraspatnam) on 3 October 1677 as stated in a plaque in the Kalikambal temple, located on Thambu Chetty Street in George Town. The East India Company officials who looked after the fort at that time have recorded that Shivaji came up to the gates of Fort St. George and had sought the services of the English engineers but the request was politely turned down.
Battle of Nesari
In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the then commander-in chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Adilshahi general, Bahlol Khan. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle, after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake, which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who started preparing for a fresh invasion
Shivaji sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. In the ensuing days, Shivaji learnt of Bahlol Khan having camped with 15,000 force at Nesari near Kolhapur. Not wanting to risk losing his much smaller Maratha force entirely, Prataprao and six of his sardars attacked in a suicide mission, buying time for Anandrao Mohite to withdraw the remainder of the army to safety.[verification needed] The Marathas avenged the death of Prataprao by defeating Bahlol Khan and capturing his jagir (fiefdom) under the leadership of Anaji and Hambirao Mohite. Shivaji was deeply grieved on hearing of Prataprao's death; he arranged for the marriage of his second son, Rajaram, to Prataprao's daughter. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite, the new sarnaubat (commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces). Raigad Fort was newly built[when?] by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom.
Shivaji had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns, but lacking a formal title he was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Adilshahi jagirdar, with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. A kingly title could address this, and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha leaders, to whom he was technically equal[note 1]; it would also provide the Hindu Marathas with a fellow Hindu sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims.:238
Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674. In the Hindu calendar it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596. Pandit Gaga Bhatt officiated, holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna, Indus, Ganges, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri over Shivaji's head, and chanted the coronation mantras. After the ablution, Shivaji bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies. Shivaji was bestowed with the sacred thread jaanva, with the Vedas and was bathed in an abhisheka. Shivaji was entitled Shakakarta ("founder of an era") and Kshatriya Kulavantas ("head of Kshatriyas"), and Chhatrapati ("paramount sovereign"). He also took the title of "Haindava Dharmodhhaarak".
His mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674, within a few days of the coronation. Considering this a bad omen, a second coronation was carried out 24 September 1674, this time according to the Bengali school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.
The state as Shivaji founded it was a Maratha kingdom comprising about 4.1% of the subcontinent at the time he died, but over time it was to increase in size and heterogeneity, and by the time of the Peshwas in the early 18th century the Marathas were dominant across the northern and central regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Conquest in Southern India
Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July). In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira, and in early 1676 Peshwa Pingale, en route to Surat, engaged the Raja of Ramnagar in battle. Shivaji raided Athani in March 1676, and by year's end besieged Belgaum and Vayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka. At the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India, with a massive force of 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. He captured the Adilshahi forts at Vellore and Gingee, in modern-day Tamil Nadu. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that the "Deccan" or Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders., His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda sultanate that covered the eastern Deccan. Shivají's conquests in the south proved quite crucial during future wars; Gingee served as Maratha capital for nine years during the Maratha War of Independence.
Shivaji intended to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), Shahaji's son by his second wife, Tukabai (née Mohite), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful, so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his half-brother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore plateau. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai, whom Shivaji deeply respected, took up new negotiations with Shivaji, and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. In the end Shivaji consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized, with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future Memorial (Samadhi).
Death and succession
The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son Sambhaji, who was irresponsible and "addicted to sensual pleasures." Unable to curb this, Shivaji confined his son to Panhala in 1678, only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala.:551
In late March 1680, Shivaji fell ill with fever and dysentery,:383 dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52,:278 on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti. Putalabai, the childless eldest of the surviving wives of Shivaji committed sati by jumping in his funeral pyre. The other surviving spouse, Sakwarbai, was not allowed to follow suit because she had a young daughter. Rumours followed Shivaji's death, with Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna, and some Marathas whispering that Soyarabai, the youngest of the three wives who survived him, had poisoned him so that his crown might pass to her 10-year-old son Rajaram.:383After Shivaji's death, Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her prodigal stepson Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten-year-old Rajaram was installed on the throne. However, Sambhaji took possession of the Raigad Fort after killing the commander, and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad, and formally ascended the throne on 20 July. Rajaram, his wife Janki Bai, and mother Soyrabai were imprisoned, and Soyrabai executed on charges of conspiracy that October.
The Marathas after Shivaji
Shivaji died in 1680, leaving behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after his death, in 1681, the Mughals under Aurangzeb launched an offensive in the South to capture territories held by the Marathas, the Adil Shahi and Golkonda. He was successful in obliterating the Sultanates but could not subdue the Marathas after spending 27 years in the Deccan. The period saw brutal execution of Sambhaji in 1689, and the Marathas offering strong resistance under the leadership of Sambhaji's successor, Rajaram and then Rajaram's widow Tarabai. Territories changed hands repeated between the Mughals and the Marathas. The conflicted ended in the defeat for the Mughals in 1707.
Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during the 27-year period. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After a brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from 1707 to 1749. During this period, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhat and later his descendants as the Peshwas or the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.The empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the north, and Bengal. In 1761, the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat to Ahmed Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire which halted their imperial expansion in North western India. Ten years after Panipat, young Madhavrao Peshwa reinstated the Maratha authority over North India.
In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Shahu and the Peshwas gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha states. They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, Bhonsales of Nagpur. In 1775, the British East India Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. The Marathas remained the preeminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha wars (1805–1818), which left the British East India Company in control of most of India.
Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit
Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions. The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.
Shivaji was a devout Hindu, but respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect for other contemporary saints, especially Samarth Ramdas, to whom he gave the fort of Parali, later renamed as 'Sajjangad'. Among the various poems written on Shivaji, Ramdas' Shivastuti ("Praise of King Shivaji") is the most famous. Shivaji's son Sambhaji later built a samadhi for Ramdas Swami on Sajjangad upon the latter's death. Samarth Ramdas had also written a letter to Sambhaji guiding him on what to do and what not to do after death of Shivaji.
Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion.[page needed] Shivaji also promulgated other enlightened values, and condemned slavery. He applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[page needed] Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian, and Francois Bernier, a French traveller, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought converts like Netaji Palkar and Bajaji back into Hinduism.
Shivaji's contemporary, the poet Kavi Bhushan stated: Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture, Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised".
Though many of Shivaji's enemy states were Muslim, he treated Muslims under his rule with tolerance for their religion. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:
Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of God. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for God alone.
Shivaji had several noteworthy Muslim soldiers, especially in his Navy. Siddi Sanbal, Noor Khan, Daulat Khan, and Siddi Misri were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim Khan was chief of artillery. Muslim soldiers were known for their superior skills in naval and artillery combat.
It is a general calamity, and much to be deplored, to hear the complaints of the poor people that remain, or are rather compelled to endure the Slavery of Seva Gi: The Desies have Land imposed upon them at double the former Rates, and if they refuse to accept it on these hard Conditions (if Monied Men) they are carried to Prison, there they are famished almost to death; racked and tortured most inhumanly till they confess where it is: They have now in Limbo several Brahmans, whose flesh they tear with Pincers heated red-hot, drub them on the Shoulders to extreme Anguish (though according to their Law it is forbidden to strike a Brahman). This is the accustomed Sauce all India over, the Princes doing the same by the Governors when removed from their Offices, to squeeze their ill-got estates out of them; which when they have done, it may be they may be employ'd again. And after this fashion the Desies deaf with the Combies ; so that the great fish prey on the little, as well by Land as by Sea, bringing not only them but their Families into Eternal Bondage.
Muslim writers at the time also described his country as "the worst possible state" and mentioned Shivaji as a "depredator and destroyer". However, French physician Dellon reports that he was "looked upon as one of the most politic princes in those parts." Modern historian Philip MacDougall argues that local evidence would seem to support the viewpoint of Dellon rather than Fryor, because of the high regard with which Shivaji was held. MacDougall argues that, while his "tax-collecting regime was demanding, it was rarely oppressive."
Plunder and piracy
Shivaji relied on revenue collected through plunder, from raids conducted in territories either outside Maratha occupation or held by declared enemy states. While most of the income generated through plunder came from raids conducted by the Maratha army, the Maratha navy also took on an increasingly important role. In their first expedition in 1665, they were ordered to raid richer coastal ports and to capture merchants operating in the Arabian Sea. They later launched many similar sea raids, such as plunders targeting Mughal pilgrim ships and European trading vessels. European traders described these attacks as piracy, but the Marathas viewed them as legitimate targets because they were trading with, and thus financially supporting, their Mughal and Bijapur enemies. It was only after representatives of various European powers signed agreements with Shivaji or his successors that the threat of Maratha plundering raids against Europeans began to reduce.
Shivaji demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He also built a powerful navy. Maynak Bhandari was one of the first chiefs of the Maratha Navy under Shivaji, and helped in both building the Maratha Navy and safeguarding the coastline of the emerging Maratha Empire. He built new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch. Many Dalit warriors joined Shivaji's Maratha Empire forces as scouts and fort guards. Shivaji was responsible for many significant changes in military organisation:
- A standing army belonging to the state, called paga.
- All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Sovereign.
- Creation of part-time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in their fields and supported four months in war for which they were paid.
- Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry excelling in commando tactics.
- The introduction of a centralised intelligence department; Bahirjee Naik was the foremost spy who provided Shivaji with enemy information in all of Shivaji's campaigns.
- A potent and effective navy.
- Introduction of field craft like commando actions, and swift flanking attacks.
- Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like the tiger claw (vaghnakh) and vita.
- Militarisation of large swathes of society, across all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence.
Shivaji realised the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi's fleet. His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom. He was also concerned about the growing dominance of British Indian naval forces in regional waters and actively sought to resist it. For this reason he is also referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".
Shivaji captured strategically important forts at Murambdev (Rajgad), Torna, Kondhana (Sinhagad) and Purandar and laid the foundation of swaraj or self-rule. Toward the end of his career, he had a control of 360 forts to secure his growing kingdom. Shivaji himself constructed about 15–20 totally new forts (including key sea forts like Sindhudurg), but he also rebuilt or repaired many strategically placed forts to create a chain of 300 or more, stretched over a thousand kilometres across the rugged crest of the Western Ghats. Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers (sabnis, havaldar, sarnobat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance.
Shivaji built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade, to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids, plunder and destruction by Arabs, Portuguese, British, Abyssinians and pirates. Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan, Bhivandi, and Goa for building fighting navy as well as trade. He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair, storage and shelter. Shivaji fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant, support and fighting vessels. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of eight or nine ports in the Deccan. Shivaji's admiral Kanhoji Angre is often said to be the "Father of Indian Navy".
Nineteenth century Hindu revivalist Swami Vivekananda considered Shivaji a hero and paid glowing tributes to his wisdom. When Indian Nationalist leader, Lokmanya Tilak organised a festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji, Vivekananda agreed to preside over the festival in Bengal in 1901. He wrote about Shivaji:
"Shivaji is one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Hindu dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He was a peerless hero, a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future."
Rabindranath Tagore wrote in his famous poem "Shivaji":
In what far-off country, upon what obscure day
I know not now,
Seated in the gloom of some Mahratta mountain-wood
O King Shivaji,
Lighting thy brow, like a lightning flash,
This thought descended,
"Into one virtuous rule, this divided broken distracted India,
I shall bind."
Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery, in his History of Warfare (1983), while generally dismissive of the quality of generalship in the military history of the Indian subcontinent, makes an exception for Shivaji and Bajirao I. He says Shivaji had a "mastery of guerilla tactics" and was a "military genius".
In modern times, Shivaji is considered as a national hero in India, especially in the state of Maharashtra, where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state's history. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people. Further, he is also recognised as a warrior legend, who sowed the seeds of Indian independence. His image adorns literature, propaganda and icons of the Maratha-centric Shiv Sena ("Army of Shivaji") party, the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party and also of the Maratha caste dominated Congress parties (namely, NCP and Indira) in Maharashtra. Past Congress party leaders in the state such as Yashwantrao Chavan were considered political descendants of Shivaji.
Shivaji's role in the research and the popular conception has developed over time and place, ranging from early British and Moghul depiction of him as a bandit or a "mountain mouse", to modern near-deification as a hero of all Indians.
One of the early commentators who challenged the negative British view was M. G. Ranade, whose Rises of the Maratha Power (1900) declared Shivaji's achievements as the beginning of modern nation-building. Ranade criticised earlier British portrayals of Shivaji's state as "a freebooting Power, which thrived by plunder and adventure, and succeeded only because it was the most cunning and adventurous... This is a very common feeling with the readers, who derive their knowledge of these events solely from the works of English historians."
At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the Kshatriya varna.[page needed] While some Brahmins rebutted this identity, defining them as of the lower Shudra varna, other Brahmins recognised the Maratha's role in the Indian independence movement, and endorsed this Kshatriya legacy and the significance of Shivaji..Lokmanya Tilak played the leading role in making Shivaji's birthday and coronation an annual festival
As political tensions rose in India in the early 20th century, some Indian leaders came to re-work their earlier stances on Shivaji's role. Jawaharlal Nehru had in 1934 noted "Some of the Shivaji's deeds, like the treacherous killing of the Bijapur general, lower him greatly in our estimation." Following public outcry from Pune intellectuals, Congress leader Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji, and now endorsed Shivaji as great nationalist.
In 2003, American academic James W. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India, which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest. As a result of this publication, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune where Laine had researched was attacked by a group of Maratha activists calling itself the Sambhaji Brigade. The book was banned in Maharashtra in January 2004, but the ban was lifted by the Bombay High Court in 2007, and in July 2010 the Supreme Court of India upheld the lifting of ban. This lifting was followed by public demonstrations against the author and the decision of the Supreme Court.
- Shivaji's statues and monuments are found almost in every town and city in Maharashtra as well as in different places across India including Goa, Bangalore, Vadodara, Surat, Indore, Agra, Arunachal Pradesh, and Delhi.
- There is a statue of Shivaji inside the premises of the National Defence Academy (NDA), Pune.
- An equestrian statue can be seen inside the Parliament House complex in Delhi.
- A statue of Shivaji was proposed in 2014, to be built on the Mumbai coastline by the Maharashtra government by 2020, with a planned height of 312 feet (95.0976 metre). If built it would be among the tallest statues in the world.
- The Government of India issued postage stamps commemorating Shivaji in 1961, 1974, 1980 and a definitive postage stamp in the "Makers of India" definitive series in 2015.[better source needed]
Airports and railway stations
- Mumbai international airport (then known as Bombay International) was renamed the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in 1996. A statue of Shivaji was also placed within the forecourts of the international terminal, however it was removed in 2011 to make way for the extension of the terminal.
- The Victoria Terminus railway station was similarly renamed as the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.
- The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute was renamed after Shivaji's mother, to the Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute. The renaming retained the acronym, VJTI, by which the institute is popularly known.
- Shivaji University in Kolhapur is named after Shivaji.
Depiction in popular culture
- Me Shivajiraje Bhosale Boltoy (Marathi)
- Chhatrapati Shivaji (Marathi)
- Maratha Tituka Melavava (Marathi)
- Baghtos Kay Mujra Kar (Marathi)
- Siva Chhtrapati, a Bakhar written soon after Shivaji's death by Krshnajl Anant Sabhasad in Marathi
- Grant Duff, James. A History of the Mahrattas. (1826)
- Raja Shivchhatrapati in Marathi by Babasaheb Purandare
- Shivaji and His Times by Jadunath Sarkar
- Shivaji, a biography by Setu Madhavrao Pagdi
- Shriman yogi, a historical novel in Marathi by Ranjit Desai
- Yugavatara in Kannada by H. V. Sheshadri
- Sadhan Chikitsa by Vasudeo Sitaram Bendrey
Poetry and music
- Shivraj Bhushan by Kavi Bhushan (in Hindi)
- Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete (When Raigad Awakens), by Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar
- Jaanta Raja (The Knowing King), by Babasaheb Purandare
- Veer Shivaji, a Hindi television series on Colors TV channel
- Raja ShivChhatrapati, a Marathi television serial by Nitin Chandrakant Desai
- most of the great Maratha Jahagirdar families in the service of Adilshahi strongly opposed Shivaji in his early years.These included families such as the Ghadge, More, Mohite, Ghorpade, Shirke, and Nimbalkar
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