Chau Say Tevoda
|Chau Say Tevoda|
Chau Say Tevoda temple
|Locale||Shiva, Vishnu, Devata and Buddha|
|History and governance|
|Date built||12th century|
|Creator||Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII|
Chau Say Tevoda (Khmer: ប្រាសាទចៅសាយទេវតា)is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is located just east of Angkor Thom, directly south of Thommanon across the Victory Way (it pre-dates the former and post-dates the latter). Built in the mid-12th century, it is a Hindu temple in the Angkor Wat period.:119 The temple is dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, and with unique types of female sculptures of devatas enshrined. The temple, was in a dilapidated state with 4,000 of its elements lying scattered on the embankment and in the Siem Reap River.
The Tevoda is located to the northeast of the ancient capital Angkor Thom's east gate. It is on a road which has the Thomannon temple on its opposite side, 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the east gate, and a further away by 200 metres (660 ft) to a bridge built with carved stones from temple ruins in the vicinity; the bridge is without any river flowing beneath it in view of the shifting of the course of the Siem Reap River.
The temple was reconstructed on the basis of several elements of the temple which were randomly lying around at the site. This restoration was done a Chinese team between 2000- 2009 under a restoration project sponsored by the People's Republic of China. Originally this temple was partly built in the 12th century under the reign of when King Suryavarman II. Further supplementation of structures were done under the reign of Jayavarman VII. Though the temples were built under Hindu kings during the 11th and 12 centuries with predominantly Hindu deities, representation of Buddha images is interpreted by Veronique Degroot and Marijke J. Klokke that these were built under the influence of Dharanindravarman, father of Jayavarman VII, who ruled from Preah Khan of Kompong.
The Tevada is built to a cruciform plan and linked to an entrance hall, similar to the Hindu temples built in Indian, particularly in Odisha. The temple has four gopuras or towers on the four cardinal signs with an entrance from the east though a raised bridge. The long hall which links the gopuras and central chamber of the temple has very elegant flower decorations. The temple consists of a central tower with an attached a mandapa, which is achieved through an antarala chamber of small size, and with two libraries on its southern and northern sides. It is enclosed by a compound wall which has four gopuras or towers. To its east, there is raised causeway that leads to the Siem Reap River. Many of the sculptures are in a fairly good condition and of Vishnu. However, the main deity of the temple is Shiva. Some of the sculptures in the temple are also of Buddha but disfigured totally. Nature contributed to further deterioration resulting from the collapse of the ceiling. The defaced Buddhas, which are deified in a lotus posture, flanked by devotees, are in a mandapa behind a pediment from the entrance door which leads to the antarala. The incomplete eastern Gopura I which is oriented in the western direction has a roof which is part of the second "pediment of the lateral southern extension" which is not fully restored. The main figure here is of Buddha in a cross legged posture seated on a high platform and is flanked by disfigured carvings which are interpreted as that of Garuda and the king of Nagas. The top pediment of this Gopura I with figure of Buddha has an umbrella cover of a Bodhi tree. Carvings depicting episodes from the Life of the Buddha is seen on the northern door of the eastern Gopura I. A notable bass-relief here is of Sita (heroine of the epic Ramayana) on seated posture over an altar flanked by rakshasis (female demonesses). Hanuman, in a small monkey form is carved in sitting posture facing Sita and offering her Rama's ring. A laterite wall enclosing the temple which existed in the past has disappeared.
- Higham, C., 2001, The Civilization of Angkor, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 9781842125847
- "Chau Say Tevoda". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Chau Say Tevoda Khmer Devata Temple Reopens". devata.org. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Palmer 2002, p. 187.
- Degroot & Klokke 2013, p. 67.
- Chihara 1996, p. 158.
- Arrowood 2011, p. 133.
- Degroot & Klokke 2013, p. 68.
- Degroot & Klokke 2013, p. 69.
- Udaya. Department of Culture and Monuments, Authority for the Protection and Management of the Region of Angkor / Siem Reap. 2005. p. 126.
- Palmer 2002, p. 186.
- Arrowood, Janet (15 April 2011). Cambodia Travel Adventures. Hunter Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58843-726-6.
- Chihara, Daigorō (1996). Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10512-3.
- Degroot, Veronique; Klokke, Marijke J. (1 May 2013). Materializing Southeast Asia's Past: Selected Papers from the 12th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-655-9.
- Palmer, Beverley (2002). Cambodia. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-837-6.