Rhinella crucifer is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It endemic to Brazil and known from the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil between the states of Ceará in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south. Common name striped toad has been coined for it. "Rhinella pombali" is a hybrid between Rhinella ornata and this species.
Adult males measure 56–104 mm (2.2–4.1 in) and adult females 78–114 mm (3.1–4.5 in) in snout–vent length. The head is wide and the snout is rounded to mucronate in dorsal view and rounded in lateral view. The tympanum is distinct. The body is robust. The parotoid glands are elliptical to triangular and overhanging the lateral edges of body. The forelimbs are long and comparatively more robust than the hind limbs. The fingers have no webbing but are slightly fringed. The toes are long and webbed. Dorsal coloration is uniformly ochre, olive, brownish, or silvery. A thin, light vertebral line may be present.
Habitat and conservation
This species occurs in rainforests and disturbed habitats at elevations up to 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level. Reproduction takes place in backwaters of rapidly flowing streams and in temporary pools. It is a locally abundant species, but habitat loss caused by agricultural crops and timber extraction threaten its habitats. It is present in several protected areas.
- Lucy Aquino; Axel Kwet; Magno Vicente Segalla & Diego Baldo (2004). "Rhinella crucifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54621A11176078. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54621A11176078.en. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- Thomé, Maria Tereza C.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Alexandrino, João (2012). "Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (1): 242. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-242. PMC . PMID 23228224.
- Baldissera, F. A., Jr.; Caramaschi, U. & Haddad, C. F. B. (2004). "Review of the Bufo crucifer species group, with descriptions of two new related species (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)". Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 62: 255–282.
Data related to Rhinella crucifer at Wikispecies
- Rhinella crucifer in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley