Chauri Chaura is situated at State Highway between Gorakhpur and Deoria, 30.5 kilometres (19.0 mi). from Gorakhpur. It has a railway station which is 25 km. south-east of the Gorakhpur railway junction. Prior to abolition of zamindari the village was held by Sikh zamindars of Dumri (Gagaha), who established a bazar near the railway station and made the place a local commercial centre of hide trade. Adjoining Chauri Chaura on the north is Murear (Mundera) Bazar, another flourishing market.
Chauri Chaura came into prominence in 1922 when its inhabitants whole-heartedly participated in the Non-co-operation movement started by Gandhi and was scene of the infamous Chauri Chaura incident, when, after the police had shot and killed several demonstrators, a police chowki (station) was set on fire by a mob of angry citizens, killing 22 policemen inside.