# Chebyshev rational functions

Plot of the Chebyshev rational functions for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 for 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 100, log scale.

In mathematics, the Chebyshev rational functions are a sequence of functions which are both rational and orthogonal. They are named after Pafnuty Chebyshev. A rational Chebyshev function of degree n is defined as:

${\displaystyle R_{n}(x)\ {\stackrel {\mathrm {def} }{=}}\ T_{n}\left({\frac {x-1}{x+1}}\right)}$

where Tn(x) is a Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind.

## Properties

Many properties can be derived from the properties of the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. Other properties are unique to the functions themselves.

### Recursion

${\displaystyle R_{n+1}(x)=2\,{\frac {x-1}{x+1}}R_{n}(x)-R_{n-1}(x)\quad {\text{for }}n\geq 1}$

### Differential equations

${\displaystyle (x+1)^{2}R_{n}(x)={\frac {1}{n+1}}{\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} x}}R_{n+1}(x)-{\frac {1}{n-1}}{\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} x}}R_{n-1}(x)\quad {\text{for }}n\geq 2}$
${\displaystyle (x+1)^{2}x{\frac {\mathrm {d} ^{2}}{\mathrm {d} x^{2}}}R_{n}(x)+{\frac {(3x+1)(x+1)}{2}}{\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} x}}R_{n}(x)+n^{2}R_{n}(x)=0}$

### Orthogonality

Plot of the absolute value of the seventh-order (n = 7) Chebyshev rational function for 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 100. Note that there are n zeroes arranged symmetrically about x = 1 and if x0 is a zero, then 1/x0 is a zero as well. The maximum value between the zeros is unity. These properties hold for all orders.

Defining:

${\displaystyle \omega (x)\ {\stackrel {\mathrm {def} }{=}}\ {\frac {1}{(x+1){\sqrt {x}}}}}$

The orthogonality of the Chebyshev rational functions may be written:

${\displaystyle \int _{0}^{\infty }R_{m}(x)\,R_{n}(x)\,\omega (x)\,\mathrm {d} x={\frac {\pi c_{n}}{2}}\delta _{nm}}$

where cn = 2 for n = 0 and cn = 1 for n ≥ 1; δnm is the Kronecker delta function.

### Expansion of an arbitrary function

For an arbitrary function f(x) ∈ L2
ω
the orthogonality relationship can be used to expand f(x):

${\displaystyle f(x)=\sum _{n=0}^{\infty }F_{n}R_{n}(x)}$

where

${\displaystyle F_{n}={\frac {2}{c_{n}\pi }}\int _{0}^{\infty }f(x)R_{n}(x)\omega (x)\,\mathrm {d} x.}$

## Particular values

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}R_{0}(x)&=1\\R_{1}(x)&={\frac {x-1}{x+1}}\\R_{2}(x)&={\frac {x^{2}-6x+1}{(x+1)^{2}}}\\R_{3}(x)&={\frac {x^{3}-15x^{2}+15x-1}{(x+1)^{3}}}\\R_{4}(x)&={\frac {x^{4}-28x^{3}+70x^{2}-28x+1}{(x+1)^{4}}}\\R_{n}(x)&=(x+1)^{-n}\sum _{m=0}^{n}(-1)^{m}{\binom {2n}{2m}}x^{n-m}\end{aligned}}}

## Partial fraction expansion

${\displaystyle R_{n}(x)=\sum _{m=0}^{n}{\frac {(m!)^{2}}{(2m)!}}{\binom {n+m-1}{m}}{\binom {n}{m}}{\frac {(-4)^{m}}{(x+1)^{m}}}}$

## References

• Guo, Ben-Yu; Shen, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Qing (2002). "Chebyshev rational spectral and pseudospectral methods on a semi-infinite interval" (PDF). Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 53: 65–84. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.121.6069. doi:10.1002/nme.392. Retrieved 2006-07-25.