Cheese Board Collective
|Cheese Board Collective|
Exterior of Cheeseboard Pizza
|Current owner(s)||Collectively owned|
|Food type||Cheese shop/bakery and pizzeria|
The Cheese Board Collective in Berkeley, California, comprises two worker-owned and -operated businesses: a cheese shop/bakery commonly referred to as "The Cheese Board", and a pizzeria known as "Cheese Board Pizza". Along with Peet's Coffee, the Cheese Board is known for its role in starting the North Shattuck neighborhood of Berkeley on its way to becoming famous as a culinary destination: the "Gourmet Ghetto". The Cheese Board brought a European focus on cheeses but also emphasized locally grown cheeses, a novel concept in the 1970s. The Cheese Board was closely connected with the restaurant Chez Panisse, helping to supply ingredients for the birth of California cuisine. The bakery brought the French baguette into vogue for Berkeley consumers, and helped spark a revolution in artisan bread.
The Cheese Board is located at 1504 Shattuck Avenue and Cheese Board Pizza is located two doors down the street at 1512 Shattuck Avenue. In 2003, the Cheese Board Collective put together a cookbook, The Cheese Board: Collective Works.
Founding and collectivization
The Cheese Board was founded as a privately owned cheese shop in 1967 by Elizabeth and Sahag Avedisian (1930–2007). In 1971, the owners and their six employees converted their business from a conventional privately owned firm to an egalitarian worker-owned collective by distributing shares in the business equally between themselves and their employees and equalizing the wages of all of the new worker/owners. The semi-autonomous Pizza operation was started in 1990. The combined operation currently has over 55 workers.
When founded, the shop primarily sold cheese, but by 1975 the Cheese Board began to experiment with baking bread. Bread was originally produced in small quantities as an informal, impromptu sideline. Although bread sales were initially minor they marked a shift from a purely mercantile business model of buying and selling cheese to a mixed model that combines on-site, artisanal hand-production with domestic and import retail. The sale of baked goods grew rapidly, the baguette in particular. The Cheese Board popularized the baguette for U.S. customers. Bread now accounts for a significant portion of the store's business. As the sale of bakery products grew so did the variety of breads, pastries and other baked goods offered. The Cheese Board: Collective Works reports that, "The varying bread schedule is complex enough that even the workers have difficulty remembering it."
In 1990, a second semi-independent operation (which the members call an empowered committee), Cheese Board Pizza, was formed to produce pizza (originally sold as an occasional lunch and Friday night offering by the Cheese Board bakery) full-time. The pizzeria has thrived since then and often has a line out the door during lunch and dinner. Cheese Board Pizza is unusual in that only one type of pizza (always vegetarian) is made each day and no substitutions are allowed. Because the same product is continually being produced, customers always receive their pizza fresh from the oven without pre-ordering. Once a new pizza is ready, any remaining slices from the previous pizza are cut into slivers and given out as lagniappes. The Cheese Board staff tend to favor unconventional pizza toppings and use only fresh, seasonal produce. In 2007, Cheese Board Pizza renovated their shop and expanded into the space at 1512 Shattuck formerly occupied by University Plumbing and Hardware. The enlarged dining area seats significantly more people and allows faster service. The restaurant still has a piano and reserves floor space for the small jazz groups that often perform during peak hours. They often have special pizzas to celebrate occasions such as Bastille Day and Indian Independence Day.
The Cheese Board and the "Gourmet Ghetto"
The Cheese Board was one of the first gourmet establishments in north Berkeley (along with Peet's Coffee) and its success contributed greatly to the development of the area into the "Gourmet Ghetto" it has become. Alice Waters, the founder of Chez Panisse—one of the most famous restaurants in the United States—stated that she chose to locate her restaurant in North Berkeley "so the Cheese Board would be nearby, because I knew I would be among friends".
Contribution to the Cooperative Movement
The Cheese Board has helped launch other cooperatives throughout its history. In 1971 it bid and won the contract to operative the Swallow Collective Cafe in the Berkeley Art Museum, an entity initially staffed by Cheese Board members but eventually became its own cooperative business with as many as 30 members. In 1975 it funded and launched the Juice Bar Collective before similarly spinning off this operation. In 1976 the Cheese Board helped a member begin a cheese store on Donner Pass. In the 1980s, the Cheese Board contributed money and labor to a Bay Area cooperative network known as the Intercollective, a precursor to the present-day Network of Bay Area Worker Cooperatives. Through the Intercollective it funded the printing of a directory, map, and essays about local collectives, as well as a 1981 conference.
In the mid-1990s, after creating the Cheese Board Pizza, the collective continued its pattern of incubating new businesses, rather than expanding, by helping to create the Arizmendi Association of Cooperatives. This Association has replicated and refined three bakeries using the Cheese Board's recipes and organizational structure (in Oakland (1997), San Francisco (2000 and 2010), Emeryville (2003), and San Rafael (2010)). All six collectives are independently owned and operated, but share a technical support staff who provide financial, legal, and organizational services, and who are paid to continue replicating the model. All of the Arizmendi Bakeries have won "Best Bakery" award in local newspapers during their lifetime.
- Goldstein, Joyce (2013). Inside the California Food Revolution: Thirty Years That Changed Our Culinary Consciousness. California studies in food and culture. 44. University of California Press. p. 41. ISBN 0520956702.
- A note on the name: although townspeople, newspapers and even the Cheese Board website frequently spell the name of the business as a single word—"Cheeseboard"—the members of the collective chose to consistently refer to their business with two words in The Cheese Board: Collective Works, their cookbook/history published in 2003.
- Parker, Susan. Tasting the Cheese Board’s Collective Works.[permanent dead link] The Berkeley Daily Planet. 17 Oct. 2003.
- Cheese, Bread, and Thou. YES! Magazine. 16 July 2004.
- Fairfax, Sally K.; Guthey, Greig Tor; Dyble, Louise Nelson; Gwin, Lauren; Moore, Monica; Sokolove, Jennifer (2012). Robert Gottlieb, ed. California Cuisine and Just Food. Food, health, and the environment. MIT Press. p. 121. ISBN 0262517868.
- Kahn, Alice (1997). "Berkeley Explained". In Danielle LaFrance. Berkeley!: A literary tribute. Heyday Books. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0930588940.
- May, Patrick. Berkeley's renaissance: Culture, cuisine and more. San Jose Mercury News. 29 Nov. 2009.
- Bhattacharjee, Riya. The Cheese Board at 40 is a Vibrant Collective.[permanent dead link] The Berkeley Daily Planet. 21 Aug. 2007.
- Burress, Charles. Coffee Heavyweight Rattles Berkeley's `Gourmet Ghetto'. San Francisco Chronicle. 1 June 1999.
- Iravantchi, Sheirin. Cooperatives Look to More Than Just Profits. The Daily Californian. 7 Dec. 2000.
- Collective Directory Group. The Cheeseboard. Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Bay Area Directory of Collectives. 1980.
- What They Are Saying About Us. Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- The Cheese Board Collective website describes the history of the Cheese Board, lists the bakery offerings and provides directions to the shop.
- The Cheese Board Collective published The Cheese Board: Collective Works: Bread, Pastry, Cheese, Pizza that describes the history of the business and includes many recipes. The above quote from Alice Waters was taken from the foreword to this book.
- An article from the San Francisco Chronicle about the Cheese Board: Sweet Profits: Co-op bakeries raise the dough
- Janet Fletcher (2003-10-08). "A cheese shop grows in Berkeley:After 36 years, a venerable workers' collective is still going strong". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "Cheese Board" in Bay Area Directory of Collectives: Listings, Map, and Articles, New Moon Press, 1980.
- The official Cheese Board website
- Cheeseboard's sourdough starter
- An overlook of The Cheese Board Collective by The San Francisco Chronicle (2003)