Chefchaouen

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Shafshawen

شفشاون
ⴰⵛⵛⴰⵡⵏ
Old medina of morocco.jpg
Chefchaouen from above.jpg
MoroccoChefchaouen downtown.jpg
Chaouen Morocco - panoramio (12).jpg
Chaouen Morocco - panoramio (1).jpg
Chefchaouen (23319645151).jpg
Nicknames: 
The Blue Pearl
الجوهرة الزرقاء
Shafshawen is located in Morocco
Shafshawen
Shafshawen
Location of Chefchaouen within Morocco
Coordinates: 35°10′17″N 5°16′11″W / 35.17139°N 5.26972°W / 35.17139; -5.26972
Country Morocco
ProvinceChefchaouen
Founded1471
Government
 • GovernorMhamed Haddan
 • MayorMohamed Said al-Alami
Elevation
564 m (1,850 ft)
Population
 (2014)
 • Total42,786
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)

Chefchaouen (Arabic: شفشاونShafshāwan (pronounced IPA: ʃəfˈʃɑˑwən); Berber languages: ⴰⵛⵛⴰⵡⵏ Ashawen), also known as Chaouen, is a city in northwest Morocco. It is the chief town of the province of the same name, and is noted for its buildings in shades of blue. Chefchaouen is situated just inland from Tangier and Tétouan.

History[edit]

The city was founded in 1471[1] as a small kasbah (fortress) by Moulay Ali ibn Rashid al-Alami, a descendant of Abd as-Salam al-Alami and Idris I, and through them, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Al-Alami founded the city to fight the Portuguese invasions of northern Morocco.[2] Along with the Ghomara tribes of the region, many Moriscos and Jews settled here after the Spanish Reconquista in medieval times.[3] In 1920, the Spanish seized Chaouen to form part of Spanish Morocco. Spanish troops imprisoned Abd el-Krim el-Khattabi in the kasbah from 1916 to 1917, after he talked with the German consul Dr. Walter Zechlin (1879–1962).

In September 1925, in the middle of the Rif War, a rogue squadron of American volunteer pilots, including veterans of World War I, bombarded civilians in Chaouen.[4] Colonel Charles Michael Sweeney had proposed the idea to French Prime Minister Paul Painlevé, who "warmly welcomed the Colonel’s request."[5]

After al-Khattabi was defeated with the help of the French, he was deported to Réunion in 1926. Spain returned the city after the independence of Morocco in 1956.

Background[edit]

A typically blue-rinsed hamam in Chefchaouen

Chefchaouen – or Chaouen, as it is often called by Moroccans – is a popular tourist destination because of its proximity to Tangier and the Spanish enclave of Ceuta. There are approximately two hundred hotels catering to the summer influx of European tourists. One distinction possessed by Chefchaouen is its blue-rinsed houses and buildings.

Chefchaouen is a popular shopping destination as well, as it offers many native handicrafts that are not available elsewhere in Morocco, such as wool garments and woven blankets. The goat cheese native to the area is also popular with tourists.

The countryside around it has a reputation for being a prolific source of kief. The Chefchaouen region is one of the main producers of cannabis in Morocco. A nearby attraction is the Kef Toghobeit Cave, one of the deepest caves in Africa.[6]

Chefchaouen's blue walls are a popular subject of interest. There are several theories as to why the walls were painted blue. One popular theory is that the blue keeps mosquitos away, another is that Jews introduced the blue when they took refuge from Hitler in the 1930s. The blue is said to symbolize the sky and heaven, and serve as a reminder to lead a spiritual life.[7] However, according to some locals, the walls were mandated to be painted blue simply to attract tourists at some point in the 1970s.

The growing tourist industry is geared especially towards Spanish tourists, who are numerous during great Catholic feasts like Semana Santa and Christmas.

Places of worship[edit]

There are a number of blue distinct mosques in the town. Aside from the mosque at Place Uta Hammam in the medina, there is also a mosque dedicated to the patron saint of northern Morocco's Jebalah region, Moulay Abdeslam Ben Mchich Alami. His tomb and the village surrounding it is by the way an hour's drive or so from Chefchaouen on the old road to Larache. There is also a ruined mosque built by the Spanish, with stairs still in the tower.

Tourism[edit]

A souvenir from Chaouen

The beauty of Chefchaouen's mountainous surroundings are enhanced by the contrast of the brightly painted medina (old town). It is this beauty and the relaxed atmosphere of the town that makes Chefchaouen very attractive to visitors.

The main square in the medina is lined with cafes and filled to the brim with locals and tourist mingling easily. Another reason why backpackers love Chefchaouen is the easy availability of drugs. Tourism in Chaouen is driven by its reputation as center of the marijuana plantations region in north Morocco. During the summer approximately 200 hotels cater to the influx of European tourists.[8]

Demography[edit]

[9]

Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=jdlKbZ46YYkC&pg=PA208#v=onepage&q=morocco&f=false%7C A history of the Maghreb in the Islamic period
  2. ^ Fiche technique de la Grande Mosquée de Chefchaouen Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (in French), شفشاون Archived 2007-02-08 at the Wayback Machine (in Arabic)
  3. ^ España y Marruecos, ejemplos de Interculturalidad a través de la lengua - by Francisco Moscoso García
  4. ^ Yabiladi.com. "History : When an American squadron violated US neutrality laws, bombing Chefchaouen". en.yabiladi.com. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  5. ^ Roberts, Charley, 1948- author. (2017-09-08). Charles Sweeny, the man who inspired Hemingway. ISBN 1476669945. OCLC 1011663811.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ McWhirter, ed.: Norris (1977). Guinness book of records (24th ed.). Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Superlatioes Ltd. p. 62. ISBN 090042480X.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "Chefchaouen: Walking the blue streets of Morocco". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
  8. ^ "The Blue City: Chefchaouen - Morocco". I Love Traveling. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  9. ^ The equivalent Spanish Wikipedia (42.914 inhabitants at the 1994 census)
    The equivalent French Wikipedia found here
  10. ^ A resolution of the city council of Issaquah, Washington, establishing Chefchaouen, Morocco as Issaquah's newest sister city. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2007-04-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Chaouen está hermanada con Vejer de la Frontera (Cádiz), que a su vez estuvo bajo el dominio musulmán durante cinco siglos.
  12. ^ viendo Chaouen desde lejos podríamos pensar que se trata de uno de los pueblos blancos de la Serranía de Ronda. De hecho esta ciudad está hermanada con Ronda.[1] Archived 2007-05-03 at the Wayback Machine

Coordinates: 35°10′17″N 5°16′11″W / 35.17139°N 5.26972°W / 35.17139; -5.26972