Chekiang Province, Republic of China

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Chekiang Province (1912–55)

浙江省
Former province
Map of Chekiang Province
Map of Chekiang Province
Coordinates: 29°00′N 120°00′E / 29.000°N 120.000°E / 29.000; 120.000Coordinates: 29°00′N 120°00′E / 29.000°N 120.000°E / 29.000; 120.000
Capital
County
Area
 • Total17 km2 (7 sq mi)
Population
 (1954)
 • Total1,700
Chekiang Province of the Republic of China, between 1949 and 1955.

Chekiang Province, Republic of China (1912–1955) was a former province in the Republic of China that abolished after the ROC Forces, ROC government officials and local residents were evacuated from Dachen to Taiwan in 1955 following the military defeat of ROC by People's Republic of China's People's Liberation Army forces during the Battle of Dachen Archipelago.[2]

After the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government lost its control in Mainland China and only held several east coast islands off Mainland Chekiang Province, including Dachen, Yijiangshan, Pishan, Toumenshan, Yushan Island and Nanji.[3] After losing the mainland, the Nationalists used the islands to stage commando raids into Zhejiang, occasionally penetrating as far as the area around Shanghai.[4] The county governments withdrawn to the islands from the mainland included seven counties, namely Wenling, Linhai, Huangyan, Pinyang, Sanmen, Leqing and Yuhuan. Chiang Kai-shek, the late President of the Republic of China, appointed Hu Zongnan, the general of the ROC Armed Forces, to establish the "Government of Chekiang Province" on the Dachen Islands on September 1951. Its purpose was to fight against the mainland which was controlled by the Communist Party of China.

In 1952, the Chekiang Government reorganized the seven counties into four counties, which were Wenling, Linhai, Pinyang and Yuhuan. Sanmen county was reorganised as "Yushan Administrative Bureau", and "Zhuyu Administrative Bureau" was also established. These administrative bureaus were originally intended to be used as the "special region" for direct economic trading with Mainland China, however they were abolished one year later. In 1953, the Chekiang Government office moved to Taiwan. In 1955, the People's Liberation Army conquered Yijiangshan Island during the Battle of Yijiangshan Islands. The Republic of China evacuated the military garrison and civil residents from Dachen and Nanji to the island of Taiwan with the assistance of the United States Seventh Fleet. The Chekiang Government in Taiwan was abolished soon afterwards, and the People's Republic of China successfully occupied the offshore islands, establishing control over the whole of Zhejiang Province.[5][6]

List of Governors[edit]

  Non-partisan/ unknown   Unity Party   Republican Party   Military/ Warlords   Kuomintang/ National Revolutionary Army

Military Governors[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
1 Tang Shouqian.jpg Tang Shouqian
湯壽潛

(1856–1917)
4 November 1911 (nominated on 4 November 1911)[7] 1 January 1912[7]
Served as provincial military governor (dudu 都督)[7]
2 Jiang Zungui2.jpg Jiang Zungui
蔣尊簋

(1882–1931)
12 July 1912 (nominated on 16 January 1912)[7] 23 July 1912[7] Unity Party
Also served as head of the civil government during his tenure as military governor.[7]
3 朱介人.jpg Zhu Rui
朱瑞

(1883–1916)
23 July 1912[7] 11 April 1916[7] Republican Party
Served as provincial general (jiangjun 將軍) from 30 June 1914; also served as head of the civil government 23 July 1912–10 September 1913. Eventually fled the province.[7]
4 Qu Yingguang
屈映光

(1881–1973)
14 April 1916 (nominated on 12 April 1916)[7] 5 May 1916[7]
Acting military governor. Also served as de facto head of the civil government from 10 September 1913 to 6 July 1916, and as "pacification commissioner" (xun'anshi 巡按使) from 25 May 1914[7]
5 吕公望.jpg Lü Gongwang
呂公望

(1879–1954)
6 July 1916 (nominated on 5 May 1916)[7] 1 January 1917[7]
Also served as de facto head of the civil government, namely "provincial head" (shengzhang 省長) during his tenure.[7]
6 杨善德.jpg Yang Shande
楊善德

(1873–1919)
1 January 1917[7] 13 August 1919[7] Anhui Clique
Died in office.[7]
7 Lu Yongxiang1.jpg Lu Yongxiang
盧永祥
Lú Yǒngxiáng
(1867–1933)
14 August 1919[7] 20 September 1924[7] Anhui Clique
Served as "provincial superintendant" (duban 督辦) from 20 June 1922.[7]
8 Sun Chuanfang.jpg Sun Chuanfang
孫傳芳
Sūn Chuánfāng
(1885–1935)
20ß September 1924[7] 19 December 1926[7] Zhili Clique
Sun initially served as "provincial supervisor" (duli 督理), and as "provincial superintendant" (duban 督辦) from 16 January 1925.[7] He mostly ruled through subordinates, most notably appointing Lu Xiangting as "military commander-in-chief" (de facto military governor) in January 1926.[8]
(9) Lu Xiangting 25 January 1926[8] ? Zhili Clique
Served as "military commander-in-chief" of the province.[8]
10 Jiang Zungui 19 December 1926[7] 29 December 1926[7] Zhili Clique
11 Meng Zhaoyue 29 December 1926[7] 17 February 1927[7] Zhili Clique

Civil Governors[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
1 吕公望.jpg Lü Gongwang
呂公望

(1879–1954)
1916 January 1917
2 Qi Yaoshan.jpg Qi Yaoshan
齊耀珊

(1865–1954)
January 1917 24 June 1920
3 Shen Jinjiani
沈金鑒

(1875–1924)
24 June 1920 29 October 1922
4 Zhang Zaiyang
張載揚

29 October 1922 ?
5 Xia Chao.jpg Xia Chao
夏超

(1882-1926)
1924 23 October 1926 Zhili Clique
NRA
6 Chen Yi.jpg Chen Yi
陳儀
Chén Yí
(1883-1950)
October 1925 July 1927 Zhili Clique
NRA

Chairperson of the Provincial Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
1 Chang Jen-chieh.jpg Zhang Renjie
張靜江

(1877–1950)
27 July 1927 5 October 1927 Kuomintang
2 He Yingqin
何應欽
Hé Yìngqīn
(1890–1987)
5 October 1927 7 November 1928 Kuomintang
(1) Chang Jen-chieh.jpg Zhang Renjie
張靜江

(1877–1950)
7 November 1928 4 December 1930 Kuomintang
3 Zhang Nanxian
張難先

(1873–1968)
4 December 1930 15 December 1931 Kuomintang
4 Lu Diping2.jpg Lu Diping
魯滌平

(1887–1935)
15 December 1931 12 December 1934 Kuomintang
5 Huang Shaohong.jpg Huang Shaohong
黃紹竑

(1895–1966)
12 December 1934 25 July 1936 Kuomintang
6 Minister1.jpg Bai Chongxi
白崇禧

(1893–1966)
25 July 1936 6 September 1936 Kuomintang
Refused to take office; Director of Civil Affairs Department Xu Qingfu acted as Chairperson.
(5) Huang Shaohong.jpg Huang Shaohong
黃紹竑

(1895–1966)
6 September 1936 2 December 1936 Kuomintang
7 Zhu Jiahua3.jpg Zhu Jiahua
朱家驊
Zhū Jiāhuá
(1893–1963)
12 December 1934 26 November 1937 Kuomintang
(5) Huang Shaohong.jpg Huang Shaohong
黃紹竑

(1895–1966)
26 November 1937 26 March 1946 Kuomintang
8 Shen Honglie.jpg Shen Honglie
沈鴻烈

(1882–1969)
26 March 1946 22 June 1948 Kuomintang
9 Chen Yi.jpg Chen Yi
陳儀
Chén Yí
(1883-1950)
22 June 1948 21 February 1949 Kuomintang
10 Zhou Yan
周喦
21 February 1949 6 December 1949 Kuomintang
11 Shi Jue
石覺
(1908-1986)
7 December 1949 13 May 1950 Kuomintang
12 Hu Zongnan.jpg Hu Zongnan
胡宗南
(1896-1962)
19 October 1950 23 July 1953 Kuomintang
Evacuated to Taiwan 23 July 1953.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 蔣經國巡視大陳島 (Chinese Version)
  2. ^ 國民政府的浙江省政府 (Chinese Version)
  3. ^ 三軍渡海攻占一江山島 (Chinese Version)
  4. ^ Domes, Jurgen. Peng Te-huai: The Man and the Image, London: C. Hurst & Company. 1985. ISBN 0-905838-99-8. p.66
  5. ^ 1955: US evacuates Pacific islands
  6. ^ Tachen Island Evacuation History
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Military and Civilian Governors of Zhejiang 1911-1949". Chinaknowledge. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Jordan (1976), p. 132.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

"Cheh-kiang" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 23.