He was born in Wuxing, Zhejiang, China (modern Huzhou). Chen Guofu joined the Tongmenghui in 1911. He participated in both the revolution against the Qing dynasty and the "second revolution" against Yuan Shikai. He restarted his political career in 1924, being nominated as member of the Kuomintang Central Audit, as well as head of the Department of Organization and president of the Central Financial Committee. Together with his younger brother Chen Lifu, he organized the CC Clique or Central Club Clique of the Kuomintang. He was chairman of the government of Jiangsu from 1933 to 1937. It was Chen who suggested to open the dikes of the Yellow River to halt the Japanese advance during the Second Sino-Japanese War; resulting in the 1938 Yellow River flood. He left for Taiwan in December 1948 and died there on August 25, 1951, in Taipei, Taiwan.