Chenango was named after a town in the State of New York. It was centered on Chenango Plantation a 1,300 acres plantation during the 19th-century. Along with the acreage that belong to S. Richarson and Joshua Abbot added about 3,000 acres to the plantation. In 1835 (circa) Benjamin Fort Smith bought a portion of the 3,000 acres, along with Monroe Edwards and Christopher Dart converted the cotton production of the plantation to sugarcane. Monroe Edwards and Christopher Dart also used the plantation for slave smuggling to Texas from Cuba. The Eighth Texas Cavalry Terry's Texas Rangers owned the plantation during the 1860s.
A post office was opened in Chenango in 1869 and closed in 1871, reopened in 1877 and closed after 1930.
In 1906 Chenango had a white school with two teachers and twenty pupils. It also had a black school with 180 pupils and five teachers. By 1947 the white children attended school in the Angleton Independent School District while the black children continued to attend school in Chenango.
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