Cheng Han

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Cheng Han (成漢)

成 (304-338),
漢 (338-347)
304–347
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
CapitalChengdu
Common languagesBa-Shu Chinese
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 304-334
Li Xiong
• 334
Li Ban
• 334-338
Li Qi
• 338-343
Li Shou
• 343-347
Li Shi
History 
• Li Te's change of Jin Dynasty era name
303
• Li Xiong's claim of princely title
304
• Li Xiong's claim of imperial title
306
• Name change to Han
338
• Disestablished
347
• Li Shi's death
361
CurrencyChinese cash coins
(Ancient Chinese coinage)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Today part ofChina

The Cheng Han (simplified Chinese: 成汉; traditional Chinese: 成漢; pinyin: Chénghàn; 303 or 304-347) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420), situated in what is modern-day Sichuan Province in China.

It represented two states, the Cheng state (成, pinyin Chéng) proclaimed in 304 by Li Xiong and the Han state (汉, pinyin Hàn) in 338 by Li Shou. Since they were both ruled by the Li family of the Ba ethnicity,[1] scholars with Chinese backgrounds often combined them into a single Cheng Han state. (The Li family has also been described as being of Ba-Di ethnicity, they were originally Ba from modern Sichuan who had settled among the Di in modern Gansu.)[2] Western texts frequently referred to the two states separately. Whether the treatment is correct is debatable—when Li Shou claimed the throne in 338, he did not acknowledge his throne as having been inherited from Li Xiong's line, and indeed, while continuing the worship of Li Xiong, maintained it in a separate temple. Li Shou's son Li Shi, however, acknowledged the prior emperors as his predecessors. Cheng Han's was the earliest establishment of the Sixteen Kingdoms.

All rulers of the Cheng Han declared themselves "emperors".

The commonly accepted founding year of Cheng has been 304. Nevertheless, Li Te declared a new era name in 303 and self-declaration of era name has been considered by some Chinese scholars to be a symbol of a new government. At that time, however, Li Te claimed no imperial or other special titles for himself.

Rulers of the Cheng Han[edit]

Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Durations of reign Era names
Cheng 303 or 304-338
Shizu Jing Li Te 303 Jianchu (建初) or Jingchu (景初) 303
Li Liu 303
Taizong Wu Li Xiong 303-334 Jianxing (建興) 304-306
Yanping (晏平) 306-311
Yuheng (玉衡) 311-334
Li Ban 334 Yuheng (玉衡) 334
Li Qi 334-338 Yuheng (玉恆) 335-338
Han 338-347
Zhongzong Zhaowen Li Shou 338-343 Hanxing (漢興) 338-343
Li Shi 343-347 Taihe (太和) 343-346
Jianing (嘉寧) 346-347

Emperors' family tree[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Kleeman, 2.
  2. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8248-2465-2.

Sources[edit]

  • Kleeman, Terry F., Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom, ISBN 0-8248-1800-8.