Cheng Han

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Cheng Han (成漢)

成 (304-338),
漢 (338-347)
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
Common languagesBa-Shu Chinese
• 304-334
Li Xiong
• 334
Li Ban
• 334-338
Li Qi
• 338-343
Li Shou
• 343-347
Li Shi
• Li Te's change of Jin Dynasty era name
• Li Xiong's claim of princely title
304 304
• Li Xiong's claim of imperial title
• Name change to Han
• Disestablished
• Li Shi's death
CurrencyChinese cash coins
(Ancient Chinese coinage)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Jin Dynasty (265-420)

The Cheng Han (simplified Chinese: 成汉; traditional Chinese: 成漢; pinyin: Chénghàn; 303 or 304-347) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. It represented two states, the Cheng state (成, pinyin Chéng) proclaimed in 304 by Li Xiong and the Han state (汉, pinyin Hàn) in 338 by Li Shou. Since they were both ruled by the Li family of the Ba ethnicity,[1] scholars with Chinese backgrounds often combined them into a single Cheng Han state. (The Li family has also been described as being of Ba-Di ethnicity, they were originally Ba from modern Sichuan who had settled among the Di in modern Gansu.)[2] Western texts frequently referred to the two states separately. Whether the treatment is correct is debatable—when Li Shou claimed the throne in 338, he did not acknowledge his throne as having been inherited from Li Xiong's line, and indeed, while continuing the worship of Li Xiong, maintained it in a separate temple. Li Shou's son Li Shi, however, acknowledged the prior emperors as his predecessors. Cheng Han's was the earliest establishment of the Sixteen Kingdoms.

All rulers of the Cheng Han declared themselves "emperors".

The commonly accepted founding year of Cheng has been 304. Nevertheless, Li Te declared a new era name in 303 and self-declaration of era name has been considered by some Chinese scholars to be a symbol of a new government. At that time, however, Li Te claimed no imperial or other special titles for himself.

Rulers of the Cheng Han[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Cheng 303 or 304-338
Shizu (始祖 pinyin Shǐzǔ) or Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Jing (景 Jǐng) Li Te (李特 Lǐ Tè) 303 Jianchu (建初 Jiànchū) or Jingchu (景初 Jǐngchū) 303
Did not exist Did not exist Li Liu (李流 Lǐ Liú) several months in 303 Did not exist
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Wu (武 Wǔ) Li Xiong (李雄 Lǐ Xióng) 303-334 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 304-306
Yanping (晏平 Yànpíng) 306-311
Yuheng (玉衡 Yùhéng) 311-334
Did not exist Ai (哀 āi) Li Ban (李班 Lǐ Bān) 7 months in 334 Yuheng (玉衡 Yùhéng) 7 months in 334
Did not exist Yougong (幽公 Yōugōng) Li Qi (李期 Lǐ Qī) 334-338 Yuheng (玉恆 Yùhéng) 335-338
Han 338-347
Zhongzong (中宗 zhōngzōng) Zhaowen (昭文 Zhāowén) Li Shou (李壽 Lǐ Shòu) 338-343 Hanxing (漢興 Hànxīng) 338-343
Did not exist Guiyihou (歸義侯 Guīyìhóu) Li Shi (李勢 Lǐ Shì) 343-347 Taihe (太和 Tàihé) 343-346
Jianing (嘉寧 Jiàníng) 346-347

Emperors' family tree[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kleeman, 2.
  2. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8248-2465-2.


  • Kleeman, Terry F., Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom, ISBN 0-8248-1800-8