Chengtoushan Site (simplified Chinese: 城头山遗址; traditional Chinese: 城頭山遺址; pinyin: Chéngtóushān yízhǐ) was a Neolithic settlement located on the northwestern edge of Dongting Lake in Li County, Hunan, China. The site is at the village of Chengtoushan, Chengtoushan Town, Li County, it is about 12 kilometres (7 mi) northwest of the county seat and 8 kilometres (5 mi) north of the Li River.
The site contains one of the earliest dated rice field in China (dating from 4500 to 3000 BC). The settlement spanned three separate cultures: the Daxi culture, the Qujialing culture and the Shijiahe culture. The site was abandoned around the middle period of the Shijiahe culture.
Chengtoushan was a round settlement surrounded by a moat and rammed earth wall, which was first built during the Daxi culture. The remains of human sacrifices were discovered under the foundation of the wall. The remains of a gravel road, a river bridge and a river-control gate were also discovered at Chengtoushan.
Chengtoushan is possibly one of the oldest walled sites in China: with the walls and moat built around 4000 BCE, it existed for two millennia. The rice paddy dated about 6500 BCE is considered to be one of the oldest in the world.
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