Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System

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Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System
Velachery MRTS Station
Velachery MRTS Station
Overview
OwnerSouthern Railway
LocaleChennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Transit typeRapid Transit
Number of lines1
Number of stations18
Daily ridership100,000[1]
Annual ridership36.5 million
HeadquartersChennai
Websitewww.sr.indianrailways.gov.in
Operation
Began operation1 November 1995; 28 years ago (1 November 1995)
Operator(s)Southern Railway
Train length9 coaches
Technical
System length19.34 km (12 mi)
No. of tracks2
Track gauge5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm)
Electrification25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead catenary
System map

Chennai Beach – Velachery
– St Thomas Mount
km
0
Chennai Beach
Rajaji Salai
High Court
1.8
Chennai Fort
Muthuswamy Road
2.64
Chennai Park Town
Chennai Park
Chennai Central Logo of Chennai Metro
Pallavan Salai
3.53
Chintadripet
5.10
Chepauk
5.84
Thiruvallikeni
7.05
Light House
Radhakrishnan Salai
Mundakanniamman Koil
8.73
Thirumayilai
9.77
Mandaveli
Kamaraj Salai
11.09
Greenways Road
Adyar River
11.96
Kotturpuram
Sardar Patel Road
12.89
Kasturba Nagar
13.86
Indira Nagar
14.72
Thiruvanmiyur
16.64
Taramani
17.78
Perungudi
19.41
Velachery
Velachery Road
Puzhuthivakkam
Adambakkam
24.72
St. Thomas Mount

Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System commonly referred to as Chennai MRTS is a metropolitan Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in Chennai, India. It is operated by Southern Railway of the state-owned Indian Railways. Opened in 1995, it was the first elevated railway line in India. The railway line runs from Chennai beach to Velachery, covering a distance of 19.34 km (12.02 mi) with 18 stations and is integrated with the wider Chennai suburban railway network.

While the suburban railway started has been operational since 1931, the Planning Commission of Government of India set up a team to study the adequacy and feasibility of different modes of transport and recommend development in major cities including Madras in 1965. In July 1971, eight important transport corridors including the 39 km (24 mi) north–southeastern rail corridor along the Buckingham Canal were identified for development of rail corridors. The north–southeastern rail corridor was approved by Government of India in 1983–84 with the project to be implemented in four phases. The project was taken up for implementation by the Ministry of Railways with construction beginning in 1991. The first phase from Chennai beach to Chepauk was completed in 1995 with further extension to Thirumyilai completed in 1997. Part of second phase from Thirumayilai to Thiruvanmiyur was completed in 2004 with the extension to Velachery in 2007. As of January 2024, a planned extension to St. Thomas Mount is under construction.

The Chennai MRTS line is largely elevated with at-grade sections at its terminals. The line runs at grade initially till Park Town, parallel to the suburban railway network and becomes elevated thereon, roughly following the course of the Buckingham Canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast till Thiruvanmiyur before deviating west towards Velachery. It uses the same broad gauge (5 ft 6in) as the suburban system, thus allowing the movements of trains between the existing suburban lines and the MRTS. The elevated tracks are built at an average height of about 14 metres (46 ft) from the ground. The Chennai MRTS uses 9-car electrical multiple unit (EMU) train sets. The trains use 25 kV overhead catenary for traction. The coaches are manufactured by the Integral Coach Factory, Chennai. The coaches are not air-conditioned and are equipped with first-class and second-class passenger seating.

As of 2015, the system had a ridership of 1 lakh (0.1 million) commuters per day. With the implementation of the Chennai Metro Rail starting in 2015 and planned expansion of the same, further expansion of the MRTS system was put on hold in 2017, with the plans for the MRTS system to be taken over by Chennai Metro Rail Limited. In 2022, the Southern Railway of Indian Railways gave an in-principle approval for the take-over under which the coaches, stations and other infrastructure will be upgraded on par with the Chennai Metro.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The Chennai Suburban Railway started operating in 1931 on an electrified line from Chennai Beach to Tambaram and two more lines were added connecting Chennai Central with Gummidipoondi in 1985 and Arakkonam later.[2][3] In 1965, the Planning Commission set up a team to study to assess the adequacy and limitation of existing transport facilities, to determine the feasibility of different modes of transport and recommend programmes for development of transport facilities in major metropolitan cities including Madras.[4][5]

Planning[edit]

To supplement the existing transport infrastructure in Chennai, a number of surveys were conducted such as the Madras Area Transportation Study (1968), Integrated Transport Plan (1977) and Madras Route Rationalisation Study (1986).[6] The Madras Area Transportation Study Unit (MATSU) identified eight important transport corridors including the north–southeastern rail corridor connecting between Kasturba Nagar and Manali Road. The study suggested the implementation of a rail based Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) on the southern section of the line along the Buckingham Canal connecting to the existent suburban system.[7] The MRTS system was envisaged as a 59.38 km (36.90 mi) loop line connecting Chennai beach and Tiruvottiyur.[8]

Since the planned railway line would pass through congested parts of the city, an elevated rail system was selected, as it would avoid land-acquisition problems.[9] The project was intended to be implemented in four phases: Chennai beach to Thirumayilai, Tirumailai to St. Thomas Mount, St. Thomas Mount to Villivakkam and Villivakkam to Ennore.[10]

Construction and opening[edit]

Railway map of the Chennai showing the operational and under construction MRTS lines

The project was sacntioned for implementation by the Ministry of Railways, Government of India in 1983–84.[7][5] After multiple delays, construction began in 1991 and part of first phase from Chennai beach to Chepauk was completed in 1995.[7][11] It became operational on 16 November 1995 and was the first operational elevated railway line in India.[7][2] The line was extended to Thirumayilai in 1997.[7][12][13] When the first phase between Chennai Beach and Thirumyilai was completed in 1997, the project had costed 280 crore (US$35 million) which was completely borne by the Government of India.[7] The first phase was projected to cater to 6 lakh passengers per day but the actual patronage turned out to be lesser than the projected estimates.[14][10]

The second phase of the project was taken up on the basis of further studies conducted by RITES during 1987 and 1994, taking into account population growth and the capacity of public transport system.[5] In 1998, the Railway Board accorded sanction of executing Phase II of the project from Thirumayilai to Velachery.[5] Part of the phase II railway line from Thirumaylai to Thiruvanmiyur was opened on 27 June 2004.[15][16] On 19 November 2007, the network was further extended from Thiruvanmiyur to Velachery.[17][18] While Phase I was fully funded by the Government of India and the state government gave the required land, for Phase II, the state government contributed two-thirds of the total project cost of 691.04 crore (US$87 million).[19][5][7]

The progress of different phases of the project is summarized below:[20]

Phase Length Route Stations Opening Date Status
Phase I-A 5.00 km (3.11 mi) Chennai BeachChepauk 5 16 November 1995 Operational
Phase I-B 3.66 km (2.27 mi) ChepaukThirumayilai 4 19 October 1997 Operational
Phase II-A 5.99 km (3.72 mi) ThirumayilaiThiruvanmiyur 6 26 January 2004 Operational
Phase II-B 4.69 km (2.91 mi) ThiruvanmiyurVelachery 3 19 November 2007 Operational
Phase II-B Extension[21] 5 km (3.1 mi) VelacherySt. Thomas Mount 3 TBD Under construction

Future plan[edit]

The extended second phase of the project, connecting Velachery with St. Thomas Mount was not completed as planned due to alignment and land acquisition issues.[22][23] According to the annual Railway Budget in 2012, it was expected that this line would be commission in 2013.[24] In October 2012, land acquisition was resumed by CMDA after the Madras High Court vacated a stay on the same.[25] There were further delays in land acquisition with land for about 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) of the stretch and Puzuthivakkam station yet to be acquired in April 2013.[26] Further cases were filed by land owners demanding higher compensation, based on the Land Acquisition Act 2013 in 2014.[27] In March 2016, Southern Railway stated that the final phase of the MRTS will take at least 18 more months from the date of receiving land from the state government which is yet to be handed over to the Railways.[28] In 2018, further discussion on land acquisition between the residents and the Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) failed.[29] While the Madras High Court directed the CMDA to pay higher compensation in 2019, the CMDA filed a review in the Indian Supreme Court against the same.[30] The Supreme Court ordered that fair compensation be paid to the land owners and directed the CMDA to complete the land acquisition by 8 January 2021.[31] Despite multiple plans to make the final stretch operational, As of January 2024, the line is still under construction.[32][33][34] On 18 January 2024, a concrete girder which was being placed collapsed in the under construction section of the railway line, which is expected to delay the opening further.[35][34]

The third and fourth phases of the MRTS were initially planned to connect St. Thomas Mount with Villivakkam and Villivakkam with Ennore, respectively.[10] However, with the implementation of the Chennai Metro Rail, the plan for developing these two phases have been dropped, since these overlap with the alignment of the Chennai Metro Rail.[20] With the implementation of the Chennai Metro Rail starting in 2015 and planned expansion of the same, the MRTS system was proposed to be merged and taken over by Chennai Metro Rail Limited in 2017.[36] In July 2018, PwC said that the merger would be expensive costing around 3,000 crore (US$380 million) to change the train-sets and establish other facilities post the merger.[37] On 11 May 2022, Southern Railway of the Indian Railways granted in-principle approval for the Chennai Metro to takeover the MRTS.[38]

Infrastructure[edit]

MRTS runs on an elevated course for most of its length. Pictured is the crossing over OMR

Route[edit]

The MRTS line is largely elevated, with at-grade sections at its terminals. From Beach to Chennai Park Town station, the line runs at grade, parallel to the suburban railway network.[20][7][12] Following Chennai Park Town station, the line's first phase becomes elevated and follows the course of the Buckingham Canal, which runs parallel to the Coromandel Coast.[7][12][39] The line remains elevated for the alignment of the second phase up to Perungudi, after which it returns to an at-grade section at Velachery. The 19 km (12 mi) line from Chennai Beach to Velachery is 15 km (9 mi) elevated and 4 km (2 mi) at surface.[20][12] The ongoing 5 km (3 mi) extension of the line from Velachery to St. Thomas Mount is also elevated.[12][20]

The route taken by the MRTS line has been criticized for choking the Buckingham Canal as many pillars of the elevated section of the railway have been placed on the canal bed.[40] Although the canal itself has been in decline due to fly tipping and sewage, the government had planned to revitalize and redevelop it.[41][40][42] However, a section of the canal will remain unavailable for navigation due to the presence of the pillars and the pillars have also reduced the canal width blocking the flow of storm water during rains.[43][40][44]

Stations[edit]

Pictured is Chindadripet station, one of the stations on the MRTS line

The MRTS line currently has 18 operational stations.[45] The Chennai Beach station is a hub terminal for several suburban trains, and, along with Chennai Fort station, it serves the commercial area of Broadway.[46][47] Chennai Park Town station is located opposite Chennai Central, which is a hub for both long-distance express trains and suburban trains.[48][49] Places of tourist interest such as Parthasarathy Temple, Kapaleeshwarar Temple and Mundagakanniamman Koil are located along the MRTS railway line.[50][51][52] Marina Beach spans along a stretch of the line closer to Thiruvallikeni station and the Chepauk station lies abutting the Chepauk cricket stadium.[53][54][55]

The MRTS passes along the OMR where many information technology (IT) companies are located.[56][57][58][59] The St. Thomas Mount station at the southern end of the alignment, upon completion, will have three different types of railway networks, namely, the suburban and long-distance express trains plying on the conventional tracks at grade level, the MRTS elevated station at level 1 and the Chennai Metro Rail at level 2.[60] There are large stations with attached parking lots and the stations are designed to accommodate six and nine-car train rakes.[61]

# Station name[45] Distance (km)[20] Opening Connections[62] Layout
English Tamil Transliteration
1 Chennai Beach சென்னை கடற்கரை Cennaī Kadarkarai 0 16 November 1995 Suburban At Grade
2 Chennai Fort சென்னை கோட்டை Cennaī Kottai 1.70 16 November 1995 Suburban At Grade
3 Chennai Park Town சென்னை பூங்கா நகர் Cennaī Poonga Nagar 2.54 1 November 1995 Central Main Line
Suburban
Metro – Blue Line
Metro – Green Line
At Grade
4 Chintadripet சிந்தாதிரிப்பேட்டை Chinthadripettai 3.43 16 November 1995 Elevated
5 Chepauk சேப்பாக்கம் Chepakkam 5 16 November 1995 Elevated
6 Thiruvallikeni திருவல்லிக்கேணி Thiruvallikeni 5.74 19 October 1997 Elevated
7 Light House கலங்கரை விளக்கம் Kalangarai Vilakkam 6.95 19 October 1997 Elevated
8 Mundagakanniamman Koil முண்டகக்கண்ணியம்மன் கோவில் Mundagakanniamman Kovil 7.925 14 May 2014 Elevated
9 Thirumayilai திருமயிலை Thirumayilai 8.66 19 October 1997 Elevated
10 Mandaveli மந்தைவெளி Mandaiveli 9.699 26 January 2004 Elevated
11 Greenways Road பசுமைவழிச் சாலை Pasumaivazhi Salai 11.02 26 January 2004 Elevated
12 Kotturpuram கோட்டூர்புரம் Kottoorpuram 11.892 26 January 2004 Elevated
13 Kasturba Nagar கஸ்தூரிபாய் நகர் Kasturibai Nagar 12.824 26 January 2004 Elevated
14 Indira Nagar இந்திரா நகர் Indira Nagar 13.796 26 January 2004 Elevated
15 Thiruvanmiyur திருவான்மியூர் Thiruvanmiyur 14.655 26 January 2004 Elevated
16 Taramani தரமணி Tharamani 16.57 19 November 2007 Elevated
17 Perungudi பெருங்குடி Perungudi 17.713 19 November 2007 At Grade
18 Velachery வேளச்சேரி Velachery 19.34 19 November 2007 At Grade
MRTS coaches have open doors on both sides. Pictured is an EMU at Thirumayilai

Various plans have been made to make use of the empty space in the MRTS stations.[63] In February 2009, IRCTC planned to set up food stalls at 12 MRTS stations.[64][65] In September 2013, the IRCTC invited tenders to set up food stalls at three stations Tirumayilai, Thiruvanmiyur and Velachery.[66] In April 2018, IRCTC opened the first food plaza at Thiruvanmiyur station.[67]

MRTS has been criticized for poor maintenance of stations, lack of inter-modal transport facility and security issues.[68][69][70] The stations often face vandalism, seepage of rainwater through holes in the roofs and non-functional station amenities such as lifts and escalators.[71][72]

In 2012, there was a shortage in the strength of the Railway Protection Force personnel at MRTS stations.[73] In 2013, in order to improve the security of the passengers using the network, it was that the MRTS stations would have a single entry and exit point as it has been difficult for the RPF personnel to monitor multiple gates at the same time.[74][75] Chennai Metro is planned to takeover the MRTS system so that the line will be modernized with better stations, integrated ticketing systems and better facilities for passengers.[76]

Track[edit]

The Chennai MRTS line bears greater resemblance to the Chennai Suburban Railway as opposed to a rapid transit line as it uses the same broad gauge (5 ft 6in) as the suburban railway system, thus allowing the movements of trains between the existing suburban lines and the MRTS.[7][77] Ballastless track is used between Tirumayilai and Velachery.[7][78] The trains use 25 kV overhead catenary for traction.[79][80][7]

Rolling stock[edit]

Chennai MRTS uses 9-car EMUs; Pictured is an EMU at Velachery station

The Chennai MRTS uses 9-car electrical multiple unit train sets.[81] A nine-car rake is typified by three motor coaches each at the front, the middle and the last with the motors used to run the wheels of the train at a stipulated speed limit.[82] In India, EMU coaches are manufactured by the Integral Coach Factory, Chennai.[83] The coaches are not air-conditioned and are equipped with first-class and second-class passenger seating.[84][85][86]

Operations[edit]

Timing[edit]

The current operational route length between Chennai Beach and Velachery is 19.34 km (12.02 mi) and has a journey time of 45 minutes.[20][87][88] The first train departs from Chennai Beach at 4:15 am, and the last one departs at 9:35 pm. From Velachery, the first train departs at 5:00 am to Chennai beach, with the last train departing Velachery at 10:20 pm.[89] On Sundays and holidays, 51 trips are operated.[90]

MRTS schedule is available on Google Maps on Android smartphone devices.[91][92][93][94] SMS tracking facility is available with the trains tracked in real time without human intervention.[95]

Fares and ticketing[edit]

The minimum fare for a second class Chennai MRTS ticket is 5 (6.3¢ US) and the maximum fare is capped at 10 (13¢ US).[96][97] First class tickets cost about five times higher than the second class fare.[98] In addition to one-time tickets for travel, the Southern Railways issues monthly tickets and quarterly season tickets for more frequent travelers.[99][100] Short validity tickets are available for tourists.[101][102] Tickets can be bought at the counters or booked through mobile app.[103]

Patronage[edit]

Average daily patronage by station (2009–10)

The ridership increased from approximately 25,000 in 2000 to 66,518 passengers per day in 2008.[104] When the MRTS was extended up to Velachery in 2007, it saw a three-fold increase in the revenue.[105] In 2015, the ridership increased to about 100,000 commuters a day.[106][1] Of the system's 18 stations, Park Town, Thirumayilai, Thiruvanmiyur and Velachery account for nearly 40 percent of the ridership.[107]

In a measure to increase patronage, the MRTS had adopted several schemes to draw potential passengers.[108] In 2023, Chennai Urban Transport Authority (CUMTA) introduced plans to improve last-mile connectivity to improve usage.[109] Indian Railways also operates special trains on certain occasions to boost revenue. As the route passes close to some of the most famous temples of Chennai, the MRTS operates special trains during popular religious festivals such as the Vaikunta Ekadashi at Parthasarathy Temple in Thiruvallikeni and Arupathumoovar festival at the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore.[50][51] Special trains are also run during cricket matches at the M. A. Chidambaram Stadium at Chepauk,[54][110][111] Kaanum Pongal at Marina Beach[112][113] and bus strikes.[114]

Access to the Chennai MRTS remains an issue as it does not fully integrate with other modes of transportation in the city.[115][116] As per a survey conducted in 2012, special focus was required on pedestrian facilities that would provide access to MRTS stations from nearby roads and bus stops, apart from identifying new feeder routes for the network.[117] With the completion of connectivity to St. Thomas Mount, the MRTS will be able to integrate into the grid of the Chennai Suburban Railway and the Chennai Metro Rail, thus sharing an inter-modal transportation interchange with both the systems and facilitate uninterrupted movement of commuters across different rail lines in the city.[118] The extension up to St. Thomas Mount is expected to increase patronage derived from people working in the IT establishments, residences and other offices near to the MRTS network.[119][120]

Finances[edit]

In a ten month period in 2009–10, the MRTS earned a revenue of 12.76 crore (US$1.6 million) with 12.21 crore (US$1.5 million) from ticketing sales and had operating expenses of about 23 crore (US$2.9 million), translating into losses of more than 10 crore (US$1.3 million).[61] As of 2023, the MRTS registered revenues of 20 crore (US$2.5 million) annually. But with an estimated operational expenses of about 105 crore (US$13 million), the annual losses widened to 85 crore (US$11 million).[109][121]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Velachery-St Thomas Mount MRTS stretch to get metro like stations". Times of India. 7 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  2. ^ a b Chennai Division, SR (PDF) (Report). Southern Railway. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  3. ^ Chennai Metro, project brief (PDF) (Report). Chennai Metro Rail Corporation. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  4. ^ Institutional Development of Suburban Rail systems (PDF) (Report). Indian Railway. p. 10. Retrieved 1 December 2023. This was appreciated by the Planning Commission way back in 1965, when it took the initiative to set up Metropolitan Transport Teams (MTT) to study the transport problems of the first four metropolitan cities of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras and to recommend policies and programs for their improvement.
  5. ^ a b c d e Report No.5 of 2006 (Railways) (PDF) (Report). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. p. 2,3. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  6. ^ Traffic and Transportation in CMA (PDF) (Report). Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. p. 1. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Indian Engineering Heritage (PDF) (Report). Indian National Academy of Engineering. pp. 41–43. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  8. ^ Sreevatsan, Ajai (10 August 2010). "Metro Rail may take over MRTS". The Hindu. Chennai. Archived from the original on 10 February 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  9. ^ "Mass rejected transit system". Business Today. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  10. ^ a b c "Towards a discussion of support to Urban Transport development in India, March 2005" (PDF). World Bank. pp. 22, 52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  11. ^ "MRTS connectivity from Velachery to St Thomas Mount to be ready by March". The Hindu. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Development of MRTS in Chennai". Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. Archived from the original on 12 July 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  13. ^ Ajai Sreevatsan (31 October 2011). "Evolution of Chennai's Public Transport System" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  14. ^ "MRTS work in progress". New Indian Express. 16 July 1994. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  15. ^ T. E. Raja Simhan; M. Ramesh (18 August 2007). "Extended MRTS stretch in Chennai ready for inauguration". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  16. ^ "MRTS services extended". The Hindu. 27 January 2004. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  17. ^ "Tiruvanmiyur-Velachery MRTS service opened". The Hindu. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  18. ^ Traffic and Transportation, Chapter 5 (PDF). CMDA (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
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  21. ^ "MRTS-suburban train linking work resumes after long delay". The Hindu. 20 February 2021. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  22. ^ "Protest against MRTS corridor realignment". The Hindu. Chennai. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  23. ^ "Threat of relocation evokes protests as Southern Railway alters MRTS alignment". The Times of India. Chennai. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  24. ^ Railway Budget 2012-13 (PDF) (Report). Government of India. p. 25. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  25. ^ "MRTS upto St. Thomas Mount back on track". The Hindu. Chennai. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  26. ^ "Decks cleared for acquisition of land for Adambakkam station". The Hindu. 10 April 2013. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  27. ^ C Shivakumar (23 May 2014). "MRTS Phase II Extension Starts Next Month". New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  28. ^ "The final leg of Mass Rapid Transit System for a distance of 500 metres is not likely to be completed in the near future". The Hindu. 27 February 2016.
  29. ^ "Land acquisition talks for MRTS link fail again". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  30. ^ "Chennai MRTS's last stretch to be delayed further as CMDA approaches SC". The News Minute. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  31. ^ "Chennai: Last-mile demolition to acquire land for MRTS extension begins". Times of India. 7 January 2021. Archived from the original on 25 September 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  32. ^ "MRTS extension stopped in its tracks". The Times of India. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  33. ^ "Velachery-St Thomas Mount MRTS by 2022-end". The New Indian Express. 28 December 2021. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  34. ^ a b "Part of bridge falls, rail project delayed again". The Times of India. 19 January 2024. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  35. ^ "Concrete girder of bridge collapses at MRTS worksite in Thillai Ganga Nagar". The Hindu. 18 January 2024. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  36. ^ "Chennai Metro-MRTS merger report in six months". The Hindu. 29 May 2017. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  37. ^ Sekar, Sunitha (19 July 2018). "Metro-MRTS merger likely to be a costly affair". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  38. ^ "MRTS merger with Chennai Metro gets railway's approval". The New Indian Express. 15 May 2022. Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  39. ^ "How Buckingham canal could have saved Chennai". The Hindu. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  40. ^ a b c Feasibility report (PDF) (Report). Government of Tamil Nadu. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  41. ^ "Buckingham canal restoration: WRD submits plan". The New Indian Express. 3 October 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  42. ^ "River restoration only on paper, a sham on ground". The Times of India. 29 August 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  43. ^ "Civic infrastructure struggling to be rain-ready". The Hindu. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  44. ^ Waterways (PDF) (Report). Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  45. ^ a b "Indian Railways Time Table" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  46. ^ "Beach station awaits makeover as Metro plans MRTS takeover". The New Indian Express. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  47. ^ "Chennai: 21-storey building, skywalk part of Broadway bus terminal". The Times of India. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  48. ^ "Central to Park station, an ordeal". The Times of India. 11 March 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  49. ^ "Facts about Chennai Central railway station". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  50. ^ a b "Huge crowds throng temples on Vaikunta Ekadasi". The Times of India. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2023.
  51. ^ a b "MRTS specials for 'Arupathumoovar' festival" (Press release). Southern Railway zone, Indian Railways. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2023.
  52. ^ "Mylapore Locals Get a New Stop". The New Indian Express. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  53. ^ "IIT Madras to study upgrade of two MRTS stations". The Times of India. 27 January 2024. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  54. ^ a b "Southern Railway to run special MRTS trains". The Times of India. 21 March 2024. Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  55. ^ "MRTS never more attractive". The New Indian Express. 27 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
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