Cheongju (wine)

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Cheongju
Cheongju.jpg
Type Rice wine
Country of origin Korea
Variants Beopju, sogokju
Korean name
Hangul 청주
Hanja 淸酒
Revised Romanization cheongju
McCune–Reischauer ch'ŏngju
IPA [tɕʰʌŋ.dʑu]

Cheongju (청주; 淸酒; literally "clear wine") is a clear, refined rice wine.[1] Southern cities in South Korea such as Masan, Gunsan, and Nonsan are famous for producing good cheongju.[2] Beopju brewed in Gyeongju and sogokju brewed in Hansan are well-known varieties of cheongju.[3]

Cheongju has been widely used in a variety of traditional rituals and rites, as it is regarded as a well-prepared alcohol. Cheongju is a clear ("cheong" means clear) and easy to swallow wine.

Names[edit]

The word cheongju (청주; 淸酒) consists of two syllables: cheong (; ) meaning "clear" and ju (; ) meaning "alcoholic drink". It contrasts with takju (탁주; 濁酒), as "tak" (; ) means "turbid". The word takju usually refers to makgeolli (milky, unrefined rice wine).

The native Korean word for "clear wine", malgeun-sul (맑은술), is also used to refer to cheongju.[4] Another name for cheongju is yakju (약주; 藥酒), which often translates into "medicinal wine".[5]

History[edit]

According to Things on Korea—a 12th century book on Korea written by a Song scholar—the Goryeo people used non-glutinous rice to brew rice wine.[6] A 12th century Chinese book, Illustrated Account of Goryeo, reports that Korean rice wine that is made with nuruk is deeper in color and has a higher alcohol content; it says that when drinking this wine one gets drunk quickly and sobers up quickly.[7] This book says that clear, refined rice wine was made in the royal court, while milky, unrefined rice wine was more popular among commoners.

Preparation[edit]

Cheongju is usually brewed in winter, between the months of November and March.[2] Steamed rice mixed with nuruk (fermentation starter) and water is left to ferment for 16 to 25 days, at a temperature not higher than 14–16 °C (57–61 °F).[2] During the fermentation process, the rice starch becomes saccharified; the yeast fungi feed on the sugars created by saccharification and produce alcohol. The fermented wine is then filtered with yongsu (a wine strainer), which is dipped into the liquid.[8] The clear wine inside the yongsu is ladled out to make cheongju.[9]

Substitutes[edit]

A dry white vermouth can serve as a substitute for cheongju in cooking.[10]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "cheongju" 청주 [refined rice wine]. Korean–English Learners' Dictionary. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "cheongju" 청주. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  3. ^ "Traditional Liquors & Wines". Korea Tourism Organization. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  4. ^ "malgeun-sul" 맑은술. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  5. ^ "yakju" 약주. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  6. ^ Sūn, Mù (in Literary Chinese). Jīlín lèishì 雞林類事 [Things on Korea]. Song China: Wikisource. 
  7. ^ Xú, Jīng (1124) (in Literary Chinese). Xuānhé fèngshǐ gāolì tújīng 宣和奉使高麗圖經 [Illustrated Account of Goryeo]. Song China: Wikisource. 
  8. ^ Yoon, Suk-Ja; Park, Duck-Hoon (1994). "Study on traditional folk wine of Korea – In the Southern region of Korea – Chulla-do, Kyungsang-do and Cheju-do". Journal of The Korean Society of Dietary Culture. 9 (4): 355–367. 
  9. ^ Korean Society of Food Science and Technology (2004). Sikpum gwahak gisul dae sajeon 식품과학기술대사전 (in Korean). Seoul: Kwangil Publishing. ISBN 9788986752106 – via Naver. 
  10. ^ Hepinstall, Hi Soo Shin (2001). Growing up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-281-5.