|Country of origin||Korea|
Cheongju (청주; 淸酒; literally "clear wine") is a clear, refined rice wine. Southern cities in South Korea such as Masan, Gunsan, and Nonsan are famous for producing good cheongju. Beopju brewed in Gyeongju and sogokju brewed in Hansan are well-known varieties of cheongju.
Cheongju has been widely used in a variety of traditional rituals and rites, as it is regarded as a well-prepared alcohol. Cheongju is a clear ("cheong" means clear) and easy to swallow wine.
The word cheongju (청주; 淸酒) consists of two syllables: cheong (청; 淸) meaning "clear" and ju (주; 酒) meaning "alcoholic drink". It contrasts with takju (탁주; 濁酒), as "tak" (탁; 濁) means "turbid". The word takju usually refers to makgeolli (milky, unrefined rice wine).
According to Things on Korea—a 12th century book on Korea written by a Song scholar—the Goryeo people used non-glutinous rice to brew rice wine. A 12th century Chinese book, Illustrated Account of Goryeo, reports that Korean rice wine that is made with nuruk is deeper in color and has a higher alcohol content; it says that when drinking this wine one gets drunk quickly and sobers up quickly. This book says that clear, refined rice wine was made in the royal court, while milky, unrefined rice wine was more popular among commoners.
Cheongju is usually brewed in winter, between the months of November and March. Steamed rice mixed with nuruk (fermentation starter) and water is left to ferment for 16 to 25 days, at a temperature not higher than 14–16 °C (57–61 °F). During the fermentation process, the rice starch becomes saccharified; the yeast fungi feed on the sugars created by saccharification and produce alcohol. The fermented wine is then filtered with yongsu (a wine strainer), which is dipped into the liquid. The clear wine inside the yongsu is ladled out to make cheongju.
- "cheongju" 청주 [refined rice wine]. Korean–English Learners' Dictionary. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "cheongju" 청주. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "Traditional Liquors & Wines". Korea Tourism Organization. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "malgeun-sul" 맑은술. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "yakju" 약주. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Sūn, Mù (in Literary Chinese). Jīlín lèishì 雞林類事 [Things on Korea]. Song China: Wikisource.
- Xú, Jīng (1124) (in Literary Chinese). Xuānhé fèngshǐ gāolì tújīng 宣和奉使高麗圖經 [Illustrated Account of Goryeo]. Song China: Wikisource.
- Yoon, Suk-Ja; Park, Duck-Hoon (1994). "Study on traditional folk wine of Korea – In the Southern region of Korea – Chulla-do, Kyungsang-do and Cheju-do". Journal of The Korean Society of Dietary Culture. 9 (4): 355–367.
- Korean Society of Food Science and Technology (2004). Sikpum gwahak gisul dae sajeon 식품과학기술대사전 (in Korean). Seoul: Kwangil Publishing. ISBN 9788986752106 – via Naver.
- Hepinstall, Hi Soo Shin (2001). Growing up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-281-5.