|- City -|
Aerial view of Cherepovets
Location of Vologda Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of May 2006)|
|Federal subject||Vologda Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Cherepovets|
|Administrative center of||Cherepovetsky District, city of oblast significance of Cherepovets|
|Municipal status (as of July 2008)|
|Urban okrug||Cherepovets Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||120.9 km2 (46.7 sq mi)[dubious ]|
|Population (2010 Census)||312,310 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||59th|
|Density||2,583/km2 (6,690/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Founded||November 4, 1777|
|City status since||1777|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8202|
|Cherepovets on Wikimedia Commons|
Cherepovets (Russian: Череповец; IPA: [tɕɪrʲɪpɐˈvʲɛts]) is a city in the west of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Sheksna River, a tributary of the Volga River, and on the shores of the Rybinsk Reservoir. Population: 312,310 (2010 Census); 311,869 (2002 Census); 310,463 (1989 Census). It is the largest city in Vologda Oblast in terms of population.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 History
- 5 Administrative and municipal status
- 6 Economy
- 7 Modern city
- 8 Notable residents
- 9 Geopolitical significance
- 10 International relations
- 11 References
The origin of the word "Cherepovets" is a subject of much debate among the local historians. According to one version, the city supposedly received its name from the word "skull" ("cherep" in Russian). In antiquity there was a pagan sanctuary in honor of the god Veles on the hill at the confluence of the Sheksna and the Yagorba Rivers. The top of the hill was called the "skull". Another version suggests that the word "Cherepovets" originates from the name of the tribe "ves" (весь), who inhabited the Sheksna's banks. According to some legends, "Cherepovets," in the language of local indigenous Veps, means "Veps' fish hill".
Cherepovets has a four-season humid continental climate (just above subarctic), with warm summers and cold but not extremely cold winters by Russian standards. It falls into the humid continental zone by the fourth warmest month being just above 10 °C (50 °F) in mean temperature and the annual temperature being 3.3 °C (37.9 °F), some way above the freezing point. Winter however, lasts for five months, rendering transitional periods rather short.
|Climate data for Cherepovets|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.4
|Average high °C (°F)||−6.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−10
|Average low °C (°F)||−15
|Record low °C (°F)||−48
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46
The foundation of Cherepovets is traditionally ascribed to the monks Feodosy and Afanasy. In 1362, they founded the Cherepovets Resurrection Monastery, in the vicinity of which a small village of Fedosyevo was founded. Historians consider the former village of Fedosyevo to be the heart of modern Cherepovets. It has developed throughout the centuries into an important regional center of trade, manufacturing and transportation. Cherepovets was granted city status in 1777 by Catherine the Great and became the center of a separate uyezd in the administrative structure of the Novgorod Governorate.
The construction of the Mariinsk canal system was one of the most significant events in the city life. The Mariinskaya system connected Cherepovets with the Volga and the Baltic Sea. But in spite of this the city developed very slowly. In 1863, the population of the city was only 3,300 (as compared with more than 300,000 nowadays). For a long time the city brickworks with only seven workers was the sole industrial enterprise in Cherepovets. This changed when the urbanization process was catalyzed after the 1861 Emancipation Reform and rapid development of the shipping business. The city soon became a prominent shipbuilding and logistics center tying major regional rail- and waterways. The population of Cherepovets surpassed the 10,000 mark by 1915.
In March 1918 eastern uyezds of the Novgorod Governorate became a separate governorate centered around Cherepovets. The new governorate existed for less than ten years. In 1927 it was merged with the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov and Murmansk Governorates into a single Leningrad Oblast. In September 1937 most of the former Cherepovets Governorate territories (with the exception of Tikhvin district) were transferred to the newly established Vologda Oblast.
The subsequent history of Cherepovets is closely tied to the construction of the city's steel works, the second biggest in Russia, which was built during the first decade after the end of the World War II. Unlike the majority of the big Soviet centers of metallurgy, Cherepovets is not located near mines or ore deposits. Its development was determined by its logistic advantages with regard to the infrastructure of Northern Russia that made it possible to connect remote mining centers like Vorkuta and Olenegorsk into a single system. Rapid growth of industry drastically changed the city itself - by the early 1960s the population exceeded the 100,000 mark (three times bigger than the pre-World War II population), and by 1970 it became the largest city in the Vologda Oblast ahead of Vologda itself.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Cherepovets serves as the administrative center of Cherepovetsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Cherepovets (one of the four in the oblast)—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Cherepovets is incorporated as Cherepovets Urban Okrug.
Cherepovets is one of the most significant industrial centers in northwestern Russia. Frequently the name of the city is associated with the joint-stock company Severstal products, which are exported to more than fifty countries. Severstal is one of the natural resource-consuming industries in the city and one of the largest iron-and-steel plants in Russia.
The city began growing especially rapidly with the construction of the Metallurgical Works in the late 1930s. The first works' blast furnace was put into operation in 1955. The first Cherepovets iron was produced in August 1955 and steel in May 1958. In February 1959 the first ingot was rolled in a blooming mill and in November of the same year the first hot-rolled plate was produced.
Nowadays complex production processes of iron and steel making are highly mechanized and automatically operated. The works' shops have been modernized according to the latest achievements of engineering and technology of metal production. The joint-stock company Severstal (LSE, MOEX) is one of the global exporters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals: iron, steel, hot-rolled plates, cold roll-formed shapes, and other products.
In addition to metallurgy, chemical industry is equally well presented. Its main production area is concentrated in mineral fertilizers. PhosAgro (LSE, MOEX) is the largest producer of phosphate based fertilizers and phosphoric and sulfuric acids in Europe. It is also one of the leading producers of NPK fertilizers, ammonia and AN in Russia.
Cherepovets is served by the Cherepovets Airport, which is home to Severstal's own airline Severstal Air Company. Cherepovets also has rail access to Vologda, the oblast's administrative center, as well as to Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The passing years have left their mark on the city's appearance. Large scale housing and industrial construction has been carried out in the city. Over the past years hundreds of new multi-story blocks of apartments as well as detached and semi-detached houses were built in Cherepovets.
Cherepovets is not only an industrial city; it is also a center of culture, education, and sport. Professional associations of local writers, poets, actors, painters, composers, journalists function there.
Cherepovets is famous for its sport achievements. The joint-stock company "Severstal" regularly holds competitions in twelve types of sports. Sportspeople from Cherepovets regularly participate in the International and All-Russian competitions. "Severstal" hockey club is one of the leading hockey clubs in Russia. "Severstal" basketball team, as well as the chess players' team, are in the Russia Major League. Severstal Cherepovets is an ice hockey team based in Cherepovets, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League.
- Vasily Vereshchagin (1842–1904), famous battle painter, born in Cherepovets.
- Anna Demidova (1878–1918), House of Romanovs maid, murdered with Nicholas II and his family, born and raised in Cherepovets.
- Alexander Kutepov (1882–1930), White Army general, born in Cherepovets.
- Igor Severyanin (1887–1941), poet, one of the main figures of the Russian Futurist movement, grew up in Cherepovets.
- Valery Chkalov (1904–1938), aviator, studied at Cherepovets technical school.
- Nikolay Amosov (1913–2002), heart surgeon, born near Cherepovets and got his education in the city.
- Joseph Brodsky (1940–1996), Nobel Prize–winning poet and essayist, lived with his family in Cherepovets during the evacuation from Leningrad.
- Nikolai Noskov (born 1956), musician, former singer of Gorky Park, grew up and started his career in Cherepovets.
- Alexander Bashlachev (1960–1988), singer-songwriter, poet, born and grew up in Cherepovets.
- Leonid Parfyonov (born 1960), journalist and television host, born and grew up in Cherepovets.
- Dmitri Yushkevich (born 1970), NHL and KHL ice hockey player, born in Cherepovets, started playing in the Metallurg Cherepovets hockey school.
In case of an international crisis that puts Moscow at risk, such as a nuclear war, Cherepovets is the primary relocation site of the Russian President, chief of FSB, Minister of Defence, and the commanding general in control of Russia's ICBM stockpile.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Resolution #178
- Law #371-OZ
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 19 256», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 19 256, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
- Law #1104-OZ
- Сайт мэрии Череповца. Кузин Юрий Александрович, мэр города Череповца (in Russian). Мэрия Череповца. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Официальный сайт города Череповца. Городская Дума (in Russian). Череповецкая городская Дума. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Судаков, Г. В. (2006). Г. В. Судаков, ed. Вологодская энциклопедия (PDF) (in Russian). Вологда: ВГПУ, Русь. p. 524. ISBN 5-87822-305-8. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 516. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- "List of postal codes" (in Russian). Russian Post. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Телефонный код города Череповец (in Russian). kody.su. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Cherepovets, Russia, Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Cherepovets, Russia, Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Cherepovets, Russia, Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Chemical Industry". Vologda Oblast Official Website. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Russia's top 10 most polluted cities". RIA Novosti. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Cherepovets sister cities
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1104-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ города Череповца и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1104-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the City of Cherepovets and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.).