Cherkessk

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Cherkessk (English)
Черкесск (Russian)
-  City  -
City of Cherkessk.jpg
View of the city
Map of Russia - Karachay-Cherkess Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic in Russia
Cherkessk is located in Karachay-Cherkessia
Cherkessk
Cherkessk
Location of Cherkessk in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic
Coordinates: 44°13′N 42°03′E / 44.217°N 42.050°E / 44.217; 42.050Coordinates: 44°13′N 42°03′E / 44.217°N 42.050°E / 44.217; 42.050
Coat of Arms of Cherkessk (Karachay-Cherkessia).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Karachay-Cherkess Republic
Administratively subordinated to city of republic significance of Cherkessk[1]
Capital of Karachay-Cherkess Republic[1]
Administrative center of city of republic significance of Cherkessk[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2008)
Urban okrug Cherkessk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Cherkessk Urban Okrug[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 129,069 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 127th
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded 1825[citation needed]
City status since 1931[citation needed]
Previous names Baltapashinskaya (until 1931),[citation needed]
Baltapashinsk (until 1934),[citation needed]
Sulimov (until 1937),[citation needed]
Yezhovo-Cherkessk (until 1939)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[5] 3690XX
Dialing code(s) +7 8782[citation needed]
Official website
Cherkessk on Wikimedia Commons

Cherkessk (Russian: Черке́сск) is the capital city of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia, as well as its political, economic, and cultural center. Its population was 129,069 (in 2010).[3]

Names[edit]

In Russian, the city is called Черке́сск (Čerkessk)[6] and has similar names in the languages of the city's other major ethnic groups. In Karachay, it is Черкесск (Çerkessk)[6] or Черкесск шахар (Çerkessk şaxar); in Kabardian, it is Шэрджэс къалэ (Shärjäs q’alä) or Черке́сск (Čérkéssk);[6] in Abaza, it is Черкес къала (Ćerkes q̇ala) or Черкесск (Ćerkessk);[6] in Nogai, it is Шеркеш шахар (Şerkeş şaxar) and in Ukrainian, it is Черкеськ (Čerkes′k).

For its first century of existence, Cherkessk was a stanitsa, a village inside a Cossack host, which from 1825 to 1931 was named Batalpashinskaya stanitsa (Russian: Баталпашинская станица Batalpašinskaja stanica)[6] and nicknamed Pashinka (Пашинка Pašinka) In 1931, it was renamed Batalpashinsk (Баталпашинск Batalpašinsk),[7][6] and then in quick succession Sulimov (Сулимов Sulimov) in 1934[7][6] for Daniil Sulimov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR, and following Sulimov's execution in the Great Purge, Yezhovo-Cherkessk (Ежово-Черкесск Ežovo-Čerkessk) in 1937[7][6] for Nikolai Yezhov, head of the NKVD. With Yezhov's arrest, the initial "Yezhovo-" was dropped, and the city received its present name in 1939.[7][6]

History[edit]

What is now Cherkessk was established in 1804 as a Russian military fort on the Kuban River, what was then the border with Circassia, on the spot where in 1790 Russian troops under the command of General Johann Hermann von Fersen (Ivan Ivanovich Herman fon Fersen) defeated the Ottoman Batal Pasha.[7] In honor of the victory over Batal Pasha, the fort was named Batalpashinskaya; it was a redoubt surrounded by an earthen rampart and ditch.[7] (That the fort was named for an enemy leader may have led villagers to prefer the nickname Pashinka.)

The settlement itself was founded as the Cossack stanitsa of Batalpashinskaya near the Russian Army outpost. The officially recognized year of founding of Batalpashinskaya and modern Cherkessk is 1825. However, the Cossack settlers from the Khopyour and Kuban regiments began arriving in the newly organized stanitsa not earlier than spring of 1826.[8] In 1860, the village was designated as a center of a uyezd of the Kuban Oblast.[7] A decree of 30 December 1869 by Tsar Alexander II transformed the village into a city of Batalpashinsk but the decree was never implemented,[9] and Batalpashinskaya remained a stanitsa until the Soviet times. In 1888, the village became a seat of one of Kuban's seven otdels.

In 1922, the village became the seat of the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast of the RSFSR,[7] and in 1926, the Cherkess National Okrug. In 1931, it was granted town status and renamed Batalpashinsk. It received its current name of Cherkessk in 1939.[6] The city was occupied by the Nazi German Wehrmacht during World War II (the Great Patriotic War) from 11 August 1942 to 17 January 1943[7] as part of the Case Blue offensive. In 1957, it became the capital of the reformed Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast which became the Karachay–Cherkess Republic in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Cherkessk is the capital of the republic.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Cherkessk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Cherkessk is incorporated as Cherkessk Urban Okrug.[2]

Population[edit]

The population of Cherkessk was 129,069 in the 2010 Census,[3] 116,244 in the 2002 Census[10] and 113,060 in the 1989 Soviet Census.[11]

Ethnic groups[edit]

The city is inhabited by native Cherkess (Circassians), Karachays, Russians, Abaza, Nogays and minorities of Ukrainians, Greeks and Armenians.

1926[edit]

According to the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926, inhabitants of Batalpashinsk (present-day Cherkessk) included:[12]

1939[edit]

The 1937 census results were suppressed and destroyed but the Soviet census of 1939 recorded:[12]

1959[edit]

The Soviet census of 1959 recorded:[12]

  • Russians (87.7%)
  • Ukrainians (2.8%)
  • Cherkesses (2.1%)
  • Abazins (1.8%)
  • Karachays (1.6%)
  • Nogais (0.4%)
  • Greeks (0.4%)
  • Ossetians (0.4%)

1970[edit]

The Soviet census of 1970 recorded:[12]

  • Russians (74.5%)
  • Cherkesses (6.4%)
  • Karachays (6.2%)
  • Abazins (5.0%)
  • Ukrainians (2.1%)
  • Nogais (1.0%)
  • Greeks (0.5%)
  • Ossetians (0.5%)

1989[edit]

According to the 1989 data from the final Soviet census, the population of the city included:[12]

  • Russians (67.8%)
  • Cherkesses (9.0%)
  • Karachays (7.8%)
  • Abazins (6.5%)
  • Ukrainians (2.2%)
  • Nogais (1.2%)
  • Ossetians (0.5%)
  • Greeks (0.5%)

2002[edit]

In 2002, the Russian census reported the population including:[13]

2010[edit]

In 2010, the population included:[citation needed]

  • Russians (54.7%)
  • Karachays (16.4%)
  • Cherkesses (13.2%)
  • Abazins (8.2%)
  • Nogais (1.5%)
  • Other (6.0%)

Education[edit]

Cherkessk is home to the following education institutions:

Culture[edit]

  • Drama Theater: ethnic, modern and classical plays
  • State Philharmonic: classical and ethnic orchestra performances
  • Elbrus State Ensemble: ethnic Caucasian dances, dance studio
  • Ensemble of Cossack Dance and Song: ethnic performances

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #84-RZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #41-RZ
  3. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-02-20. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Города России: Черкесск. Энциклопедия — М.: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. И. Кондратьева, 1994. (Russian)
  8. ^ В. А. Колесников. Былое Невинного Мыса. К 185-летию переселения Хопёрского казачьего полка на Кубань и основания станицы Невиномысской. Ставрополь. «ЮРКИТ» 2011. (Russian)
  9. ^ Филиппов Е. В. Город Баталпашинск: проекты и реалии. (Russian)
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Этнокавказ. Национальный состав КЧР по переписям 1926—2002 (Russian)
  13. ^ "Население Карачаево-Черкессии". Ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Северо-Кавказская государственная гуманитарно-технологическая академия | СевКавГГТА". Kchgta.ru. 2013-09-30. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 

Sources[edit]

  • Народное Собрание (Парламент) Карачаево-Черкесской Республики. Закон №84-РЗ от 24 февраля 2004 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Карачаево-Черкесской Республики», в ред. Закона №34-РЗ от 5 июля 2011 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Карачаево-Черкесской Республики в связи с изменением наименования должности высшего должностного лица Карачаево-Черкесской Республики». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "День Республики", №36-37 (16431), 28 февраля 2004 г. (People's Assembly (Parliament) of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic. Law #84-RZ of February 24, 2004 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic, as amended by the Law #34-RZ of July 5, 2011 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic Due to the Change of the Title of the Top Executive Position of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Народное Собрание (Парламент) Карачаево-Черкесской Республики. Закон №41-РЗ от 7 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования города Черкесска и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №35-РЗ от 23 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Карачаево-Черкесской Республики "Об установлении границ муниципального образования города Черкесска и наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "День Республики", №207–208 (16602), 14 декабря 2004 г. (People's Assembly (Parliament) of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic. Law #41-RZ of December 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Cherkessk and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #35-RZ of June 23, 2014 On Amending the Law of the Karachay–Cherkess Republic "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Cherkessk and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]