The Chesapeake Conference was formed on January 12, 1933 by American University, Bridgewater College, Lynchburg College, Hampden–Sydney College and Randolph–Macon College. The latter two defected from the Virginia Conference over a freshman eligibility rule. By 1935, both Hampden–Sydney and Randolph–Macon were dissatisfied and considered returning to the Virginia Conference. At that time, however, that league had dwindled to only four members, and the following year disbanded after two left for the Southern Conference. In January 1937, Hampden–Sydney and Randolph–Macon were invited to join a potential new conference centered upon the state of Virginia and the Carolinas alongside Catawba, Lenoir-Rhyne, Elon, Presbyterian, Wofford, Erskine, Newberry, and Emory and Henry, but declined admission. The Chesapeake Conference continued to exist through the 1937 spring sports season, but had disbanded before the football season.
The following colleges held membership in the Chesapeake Conference:
- American (1933–1937)
- Bridgewater (1933–1935?)
- Hampden-Sydney (1933–1937)
- Lynchburg (1933–1935?)
- Randolph–Macon (1933–1936)
- Chesapeake Conference, College Football Data Warehouse, retrieved June 9, 2011.
- American University Athletics Timeline, American University, retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Split Seen Fatal in Va. Conference, The Free Lance-Star, December 7, 1935.
- Fletcher Would End Subsidization Rule, Herald-Journal, November 8, 1936.
- Snyder is on Committee, Herald-Journal, January 23, 1937.
- Several Upsets Seen On Gridiron's Front, The Palm Beach Post, September 24, 1933.
- Catholic Hard Hit On Eve Of Battle With Bobcat Pack, The Free Lance-Star, November 8, 1935.
- American University Trims Bridgewater, The Sun (Baltimore), September 29, 1935.
- Men's Basketball – Team History, Lynchburg College, retrieved June 9, 2011.