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Chess in Armenia

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The Yerevan Chess House, founded in 1970[1]
Two men playing chess in Yerevan Vernissage

Chess has been played in Armenia since the early Middle Ages; however, it was institutionalized during the early Soviet period.[2] Highly popular in Armenia today,[3][4][5] chess gained widespread recognition during the 1960s, when Soviet Armenian grandmaster Tigran Petrosian became the World Chess Champion.[2][6] A country of about three million people, Armenia is considered one of the strongest chess nations today.[7][8] Among countries, Armenia has one of the most chess grandmasters per capita.[9]

Since the country's independence, the Armenian men's chess team has won the European Team Championship (1999), the World Team Championship (2011) and the Chess Olympiad (2006, 2008, 2012). The women's team had its crowning victory at the 2003 European Championship. As of February 2016, Armenia ranks seventh in the world by the average rating of its top players.[10] Levon Aronian, Armenia's best chess player, is currently world No. 2 in the FIDE rankings. Aronian was a World Champion candidate several times.

Since the 2011–12 school year, chess lessons have been made part of the curriculum in every public school in Armenia, making it the first country in the world to make chess mandatory in schools.[11][12]

Name[edit]

Until the early 20th century, chess was known in Armenian as čatrak (ճատրակ), from Middle Persian chatrang.[13][14] Today, that term—pronounced jadrag[15]—is only used in Western Armenian, which is spoken in the Armenian diaspora.[16][17] In modern Eastern Armenian, which is the variation of Armenian used in the Republic of Armenia, chess is known as šaxmat շախմատ [ʃɑχmɑt]. It is derived from Russian šáxmaty (шахматы), itself a derivative from Persian šâh mât (شاه مات), literally meaning "the king is at a loss."[18]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

In Shatrang: The Book of Chess (1936), orientalists Joseph Orbeli and Kamilla Trever suggest that chess was known in Armenia since at least the 9th century, when Armenia was under Arab rule.[19] According to them, the game was brought to Armenia by the Arabs from India, where the game is believed to have been originated in the 6th century as Chaturanga.[19][20] In 1967, chess figures were found in the citadel of Dvin, the medieval Armenian capital.[21] Chess is mentioned in manuscripts from the 12th–13th centuries, kept in the Matenadaran Institute of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan, including a 13th-century manuscript by Vardan Areveltsi. Until the mid-20th century villagers in Shenavan near Aparan used homemade chess figures similar to medieval ones.[19][22]

Soviet period[edit]

Chess in Armenia was institutionalized after the establishment of Soviet rule in 1920.[23] In 1926–27, by the initiative of chemist Simon Hovyan (1869–1942), sections about chess started appearing in many Armenian newspapers. Hovyan contributed to the popularization of chess in Armenia by giving lectures about it. He translated books by Emanuel Lasker, Ilya Maizelis (ru), and Yakov Rokhlin (ru) into Armenian.[23]

A 1996 Armenian postage stamp depicting Tigran Petrosian and the Yerevan Chess House

The first chess competitions were held in 1927, when the Armenian Chess Federation was founded.[1] Until 1934 chess players from Armenia competed in the Transcaucasian championship. In 1934 the first Armenian Chess Championship was held in Yerevan. Genrikh Kasparyan became its winner. In later years Kasparyan won the championship nine times and became the most-titled Armenian chess player with ten national championship wins. The women's championship was also held the same year, Sirush Makints and Margarita Mirza-Avagian shared the champion title.[24] The first Armenian chess club was founded in 1936. Chess clubs were also founded in Leninakan (now Gyumri) and Kirovakan (now Vanadzor) in the 1950s.[23]

Chess became particularly popular with the unprecedented success of Tigran Petrosian in the 1960s. Born in Tiflis, the current capital of Armenia's neighbor Georgia, he started his ascent in Armenia with a 1946 victory at the national championship. He then won the Soviet champion title four times (1959, 1961, 1969, 1975). In 1963 Petrosian became the World Chess Champion, defeating Mikhail Botvinnik, another Soviet representative. Petrosian's victory not only popularized the game of chess, but also "led to an outpouring of patriotic fervour" in the smallest Soviet republic. "From that moment on, chess became a national obsession."[25] Many couples named their sons Tigran, after Petrosian.[25] Besides being World Champion for six years (1963 to 1969), Petrosian won the Chess Olympiad nine times with the Soviet team (1958 to 1974).[26]

In 1962, there were 30,000 chess players in Soviet Armenia, as well as 3,000 instructors and judges. By 1986 the number of chess players had increased to 50,000, including three grandmasters: Rafael Vaganian, Smbat Lputian, and Arshak Petrosian.[23] In the late Soviet period, Rafael Vaganian (1989)[27] and Artashes Minasian (1991)[28] became Soviet Champions. Vaganian also won the Olympiad with the Soviet team twice in 1984 and 1986.[29]

In 1985, Garry Kasparov, born in Baku, Soviet Azerbaijan to an Armenian mother and Russian Jewish father,[30] became World Champion. Although he never represented Armenia and is only half-Armenian, some sources preferred to call him Armenian,[31] partly because his last name is the Russified form of his mother's Armenian last name Kasparyan.[32]

Independent Armenia[edit]

Armenia gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, Armenian chess players have had the opportunity to represent the Republic of Armenia. Three major chess tournaments have taken place in independent Armenia: the 32nd Chess Olympiad was held at the Sports & Music Complex in Yerevan in 1996;[33] the 2001 World Team Chess Championship and the 2014 European Individual Chess Championship were held at the Yerevan Opera Theater.[34][35]

Armenia earned its first medal at the 1992 Chess Olympiad, finishing third.[36] Armenia won bronze medals at the 2002 and 2004 Olympiads as well.[37][38] The Armenian team made a breakthrough with the sensational victory at the 2006 Chess Olympiad.[39] They also won the 2008[40] and 2012 Chess Olympiads.[41] Their record at the World Team Championships has been similarly outstanding, finishing third in 1997,[42] 2001,[43] and 2005,[44] and winning in 2011.[45] At the European championships the team performed somewhat more poorly, placing third in 1997,[46] first in 1999, and second in 2007.[47]

Teaching of chess in schools[edit]

Children playing at an outdoor chess set in Charles Aznavour Square of Yerevan

In 2011, the Ministry of Education of Armenia made chess part of the primary school curriculum along with such standards as math and history for children over the age of 6.[48][49] Chess is compulsory for second, third and fourth graders.[12] Over $1.5 million was spent on the program. The inclusion of chess in schools was generally received positively by the public, but some parents claimed that their children's school program was already complicated and overloaded.[50] Grandmaster Smbat Lputian argues that "bringing chess into schools is the best way to build the future."[51]

The decision was widely reported in the international media. Journalists, chess experts and officials in various countries praised the program and advised its adoption in their respective countries.[52][53] During his visit to Armenia in 2014 Magnus Carlsen stated: "I think Armenia's experience of teaching chess in schools is a great example for the whole world."[54]

Institutions[edit]

The national governing body for chess, the Armenian Chess Federation, was founded in 1927.[1] President of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan was elected its president in 2004 (when he was Defence Minister) and was reelected in 2011.[55] Sargsyan "is known for enthusiastically supporting Armenian chess players."[52] On one occasion, Sargsyan stated that "We don't want people to know Armenia just for the earthquake and the genocide. We would rather it was famous for its chess."[25] The Armenian government provides grandmasters with salaries and perks.[6][12]

The Chess Academy of Armenia (Հայաստանի շախմատի ակադեմիա), "one of the leading chess-teaching institutions in the country", was "founded in 2002 in Yerevan by the initiative of grandmaster Smbat Lputian, supported by the Prime Minister Andranik Margaryan". The academy has organized international and national chess tournaments.[56]

National championship[edit]

The first Armenian championship occurred in 1934 when it was part of the Transcaucasian SFSR. Championships were held sporadically in the Armenian SSR until 1945, when they became an annual event; this practice has been continued in independent Armenia. Genrikh Kasparyan has won it the most times (10 times), followed by Ashot Anastasian (8 times), Levon Grigorian (6 times) and Artashes Minasian (6 times).[57]

The first woman's championship also took place in 1934, but was not held again till 1939. Some of the most notable women champions include Elina Danielian (6 times), Lilit Mkrtchian (4 times) and Siranush Andriasian (3 times).[24]

Media[edit]

The logo of Chess in Armenia magazine

In 1972, the magazine Chess in Armenia (Շախմատային Հայաստան Shakhmatayin Hayastan) was founded by Gaguik Oganessian. It was published monthly until 1997, when it became a weekly magazine.[58] In 1972, the TV show Chess-64 (originally named Chess School) started to be aired by the Public Television of Armenia. Hosted by Gaguik Oganessian, it is the "longest lived program series" in the channel's history.[59] Another more recently created show, Chess World, is aired after the First News.[60]

Individual statistics[edit]

FIDE, the World Chess Federation, lists 24 active Armenian grandmasters, 4 woman grandmasters, 17 international masters and 4 woman international masters.[61]

Men[edit]

The Top 10 Armenian grandmasters as of October 2017 are listed below.[62]

Armenian players in FIDE Top 110
# Player Birth year GM Title Rating World rank[a]
1 Aronian, LevonLevon Aronian 1982 2000 2801 2
2 Movsesian, SergeiSergei Movsesian 1978 1997 2671 76
3 Akopian, VladimirVladimir Akopian 1971 1991 2667 77
4 Sargissian, GabrielGabriel Sargissian 1983 2002 2657 92
5 Melkumyan, HrantHrant Melkumyan 1989 2008 2642 121
6 L. Petrosian, TigranTigran L. Petrosian 1984 2004 2601 225
7 Hovhannisyan, RobertRobert Hovhannisyan 1991 2010 2595 242
8 Pashikian, ArmanArman Pashikian 1987 2007 2594 246
9 Grigoryan, Karen H.Karen H. Grigoryan 1995 2013 2586 278
10 Andriasian, ZavenZaven Andriasian 1989 2006 2585 283

Levon Aronian is currently No. 2 in the FIDE World Rankings. He won the Chess World Cup in 2005 and 2017.[63]

Women[edit]

The Top 10 women Armenian chess players are listed below as of October 2017.[64]

Armenian women players in FIDE Top 100
# Player Birth year Title Rating World rank[b]
1 Danielian, ElinaElina Danielian 1978 GM 2415 48
2 Mkrtchian, LilitLilit Mkrtchian 1982 IM 2390 67
3 Galojan, LilitLilit Galojan 1983 IM 2291 213
4 Andriasian, SiranushSiranush Andriasian 1986 WIM 2281 232
5 Gevorgyan, MariaMaria Gevorgyan 1994 WIM 2262 271
6 Kursova, MariaMaria Kursova 1986 WGM 2259 280
7 Ghukasyan, SiranushSiranush Ghukasyan 1998 WIM 2207 419
8 Asatryan, SonaSona Asatryan 1999 WIM 2171 530
9 Babayan, ArmineArmine Babayan 1990 - 2166 547
10 Sargsyan, Anna M.Anna M. Sargsyan 2001 - 2160 571

Team records[edit]

Chess Olympiads[edit]

A billboard in central Yerevan celebrating Armenia's victory at the 38th Chess Olympiad. It shows members of the Armenian team with the caption "The Kings of Chess".
Open
Year Event Location Players Position Ref
1992 30th Chess Olympiad Philippines Manila, Philippines Vaganian, Akopian, Lputian, Minasian, A. Petrosian, Anastasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [36]
1994 31st Chess Olympiad Russia Moscow, Russia Vaganian, Akopian, Lputian, Anastasian, Minasian, Yegiazarian 13 [65]
1996 32nd Chess Olympiad Armenia Yerevan, Armenia Akopian, Vaganian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian, A. Petrosian 5 [66]
1998 33rd Chess Olympiad Russia Elista, Russia Vaganian, Lputian, Akopian, Minasian, Asrian, Anastasian 16 [67]
2000 34th Chess Olympiad Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Vaganian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian, Asrian, Sargissian 17 [68]
2002 35th Chess Olympiad Slovenia Bled, Slovenia Akopian, Lputian, Asrian, Sargissian, Minasian, Anastasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [37]
2004 36th Chess Olympiad Spain Calviá, Spain Akopian, Aronian, Vaganian, Lputian, Sargissian, Minasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [38]
2006 37th Chess Olympiad Italy Turin, Italy Aronian, Akopian, Asrian, Lputian, Sargissian, Minasian 1st, gold medalist(s) [39]
2008 38th Chess Olympiad Germany Dresden, Germany Aronian, Akopian, Sargissian, T. Petrosian, Minasian 1st, gold medalist(s) [40]
2010 39th Chess Olympiad Russia Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia Aronian, Akopian, Sargissian, Pashikian, Grigoryan 7 [69]
2012 40th Chess Olympiad Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Aronian, Movsesian, Akopian, Sargissian, T. Petrosian 1st, gold medalist(s) [41]
2014 41st Chess Olympiad Norway Tromsø, Norway Aronian, Sargissian, Movsesian, Akopian, Kotanjian 8
2016 42nd Chess Olympiad Azerbaijan Baku, Azerbaijan did not participate
2018 43rd Chess Olympiad Georgia (country) Batumi, Georgia
Women's
Year Event Location Players Position Ref
1992 30th Chess Olympiad Philippines Manila, Philippines Aslanian, Khalafian, Danielian, Karakashian 33 [70]
1994 31st Chess Olympiad Russia Moscow, Russia Danielian, Aslanian, Grigorian, Airapetian 24 [71]
1996 32nd Chess Olympiad Armenia Yerevan, Armenia Danielian, Hlgatian, Mkrtchian, Khalafian 20 [72]
1998 33rd Chess Olympiad Russia Elista, Russia Danielian, Hlgatian, Mkrtchian, Aginian 21 [73]
2000 34th Chess Olympiad Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Danielian, Mkrtchian, Hlgatian, Aginian 10 [74]
2002 35th Chess Olympiad Slovenia Bled, Slovenia Danielian, Mkrtchian, Hlgatian, Galojan 15 [75]
2004 36th Chess Olympiad Spain Calviá, Spain Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian, Andriasian 11 [38]
2006 37th Chess Olympiad Italy Turin, Italy Mkrtchian, Danielian, Aginian, Andriasian 8 [76]
2008 38th Chess Olympiad Germany Dresden, Germany Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian, Galojan, Andriasian 6 [77]
2010 39th Chess Olympiad Russia Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Aginian, Kharatian 11 [78]
2012 40th Chess Olympiad Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Hairapetian 6 [79]
2014 41st Chess Olympiad Norway Tromsø, Norway Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Sargsyan 5
2016 42nd Chess Olympiad Azerbaijan Baku, Azerbaijan did not participate
2018 43rd Chess Olympiad Georgia (country) Batumi, Georgia

World Team Championships[edit]

Men's
Year Location Players Position Ref
1993 Switzerland Lucerne, Switzerland Vaganian, Akopian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian, Petrosian 4 [80]
1997 Switzerland Lucerne, Switzerland Akopian, Vaganian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian, Khachiyan 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [42]
2001 Armenia Yerevan, Armenia Akopian, Vaganian, Lputian, Asrian, Anastasian, Minasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [43]
2005 Israel Beersheba, Israel Aronian, Akopian, Asrian, Vaganian, Lputian, Anastasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [44]
2010 Turkey Bursa, Turkey Aronian, Akopian, Sargissian, Pashikian, Petrosian, Kotanjian 5 [81]
2011 China Ningbo, China Aronian, Movsesian, Akopian, Sargissian, Hovhannisyan 1st, gold medalist(s) [45]
2013 Turkey Antalya, Turkey Aronian, Movsesian, Akopian, Sargissian, Petrosian 5 [82]
2015 Armenia Tsakhkadzor, Armenia Aronian, Sargissian, Movsesian, Akopian, Melkumyan 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
2017 Russia Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia did not participate
Women's
Year Location Players Position Ref
2007 Russia Yekaterinburg, Russia Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian, Andriasian, Aghabekian 8 [83]
2009 China Ningbo, China Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Aginian, Andriasian 5 [84]
2011 Turkey Mardin, Turkey Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Aginian 6 [85]
2013 Kazakhstan Astana, Kazakhstan did not participate[86]
2015 China Chengdu, China Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Gaboyan 7
2017 Russia Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia did not participate

European Team Championships[edit]

Men's
Armenia vs Azerbaijan at the 2011 European Team Chess Championship. Levon Aronian (left) and Teimour Radjabov (right) pictured in the foreground.
Year Location Players Position Ref
1992 Hungary Debrecen, Hungary Vaganian, Akopian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian 19 [87]
1997 Croatia Pula, Croatia Akopian, Vaganian, Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [46]
1999 Georgia (country) Batumi, Georgia Lputian, Minasian, Anastasian, Petrosian 1st, gold medalist(s) [88]
2001 Spain León, Spain did not participate[89]
2003 Bulgaria Plovdiv, Bulgaria did not participate[90]
2005 Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden Akopian, Aronian, Vaganian, Lputian, Anastasian 12 [91]
2007 Greece Heraklion, Greece Aronian, Akopian, Sargissian, Asrian, Lputian 2nd, silver medalist(s) [47]
2009 Serbia Novi Sad, Serbia Aronian, Akopian, Sargissian, Pashikian, Petrosian 4 [92]
2011 Greece Porto Carras, Greece Aronian, Movsesian, Akopian, Sargissian, Hovhannisyan 4 [93]
2013 Poland Warsaw, Poland Aronian, Movsesian, Akopian, Sargissian, Petrosian 4 [94]
2015 Iceland Reykjavik, Iceland Aronian, Sargissian, Movsesian, Melkumyan, Grigoryan 2nd, silver medalist(s) [47]
2017 Greece Halkidiki, Greece
Women's
Year Location Players Position Ref
1992 Hungary Debrecen, Hungary Aslanian, Hlgatian, Grigorian 19 [95]
1997 Croatia Pula, Croatia Danielian, Hlgatian, Mkrtchian 5 [96]
1999 Georgia (country) Batumi, Georgia Danielian, Mkrtchian, Hlgatian 5 [97]
2001 Spain León, Spain did not participate[98]
2003 Bulgaria Plovdiv, Bulgaria Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian 1st, gold medalist(s) [99]
2005 Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian, Andriasian, Galojan 6 [100]
2007 Greece Heraklion, Greece Danielian, Mkrtchian, Aginian, Andriasian, Aghabekian 3rd, bronze medalist(s) [101]
2009 Serbia Novi Sad, Serbia Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Aginian, Andriasian 5 [102]
2011 Greece Porto Carras, Greece Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Aginian 7 [103]
2013 Poland Warsaw, Poland Danielian, Mkrtchian, Galojan, Kursova, Hairapetian 5 [104]

Club championships[edit]

In 1995, the Yerevan city club won the European Chess Club Cup men's tournament.[105] In 2006, the Yerevan MIKA club won the European Club Cup women's tournament.[106]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ active players only
  2. ^ active female players only

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Info – Federation". Armenian Chess Federation. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "In Armenia chess is king and grandmasters are stars". The Independent. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. 
  3. ^ "Compulsory chess lessons might be making Armenia's kids supersmart". msnNOW. Microsoft. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Shahrigian, Shant; Werman, Marco (1 November 2011). "Learning Chess in Elementary School". The World. Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  5. ^ Garry Kasparov has compared the popularity of chess in Armenia with the popularity of football (soccer) in Latin America. "Garry Kasparov: "There's No Doubt That Carlsen Is the Strongest Player"". Chess-News.ru. 1 October 2012. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Parkinson, Joe (3 December 2012). "Winning Move: Chess Reigns as Kingly Pursuit in Armenia". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  7. ^ Moss, Stephen (16 November 2011). "Armenia's killer chess move". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2013. Armenia is an obsessive chess-playing country, one of the strongest in the world despite a population that is the same as – yes, you guessed it – Wales. 
  8. ^ "Armenia: the cleverest nation on earth". BBC World Service. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  9. ^ "Armenia Wins World Chess Title, Ukraine Takes Third". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2013. Chess has been one of Armenia's most popular sports since Tigran Petrosian, a Tbilisi-born Armenian, became a world champion in 1963. The country currently boasts one of the largest per capita numbers of chess grandmasters in the world. 
  10. ^ "Federations Ranking". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Akhmeteli, Nina (19 January 2012). "Chess lessons introduced to the curriculum in Armenian schools". BBC News. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c Parameswaran; Gaedtke, Gayatri; Felix (24 March 2013). "Chess mania captures Armenia's attention". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  13. ^ Adjarian, Hrachia (1926). Հայերեն Արմատական Բառարան [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian). 3. Yerevan University Press. p. 190. 
  14. ^ Petrosian, Tigran; Hakobian, G. (1982). Շախմատ [Chess]. Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia (in Armenian). 8. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. pp. 514–515. 
  15. ^ Awde, Nicholas; Davidian, Vazken-Khatchig (2006). Western Armenian Dictionary & Phrasebook. New York: Hippocrene Books. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7818-1048-7. 
  16. ^ "Լեւոն Արոնեան Կը Շարունակէ Մնալ Աշխարհի Երկրորդ Լաւագոյն Ճատրակ Խաղացողը [Levon Aronian Continues to Remain Second Best Chess Player]". Asbarez (in Armenian). Los Angeles. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Ճատրակ. Եւրոպայի Անհատական Ախոյեանութիւն. Հայրենի Վարպետներուն Ապահոված Կէտերը' 4-րդ Հանգրուանի Մրցումներէն Ետք [Chess: European Individual Championship: Armenian Masters Placed Fourth]". Aztag (in Armenian). Beirut, Lebanon. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Chess: East and West, Past and Present. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1968. p. xxv. 
  19. ^ a b c Orbeli, Joseph; Trever, Kamilla (1936). Шатранг. Книга о шахматах [Shatrang: The Book of Chess] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: State Hermitage. p. 195. OCLC 82233681. 
  20. ^ United States Chess Federation; Kurzdorfer, Peter (2003). The Everything Chess Basics Book. Avon, Massachusetts: Adams Media. p. 2. ISBN 9781440522291. Chess is a descendant of a game called Chaturanga believed to have originated in India in the sixth century and which may have been related to a much older Chinese game. 
  21. ^ Ghafadarian, Karo (1970). "Հնագիտական աշխատանքը Հայաստանում սովետական շրջանում [Archaeological Research in Armenia in Soviet Years]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences (3): 16. 
  22. ^ Arakelian, Babken N. (1977). "Ակադեմիկոս Հովսեփ Օրբելի (Ծննդյան 90-ամյակի առթիվ) [Academician Hovsep Orbeli (on his 90th birth anniversary)]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian National of Sciences (1): 27. 
  23. ^ a b c d Karpov, Anatoly, ed. (1990). Шахматы. Энциклопедический словарь [Chess. Encyclopedic dictionary] (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. p. 21. ISBN 5-85270-005-3. 
  24. ^ a b "All Women's Champions of Armenia". Chess in Armenia Magazine. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c "Armenia revels in its chess prowess". BBC News. 26 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  26. ^ "Petrosian, Tigran". OlimpBase. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  27. ^ "Vaganian Rafael Artemovich". Chess Network Company. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  28. ^ "Minasian Artashes". Chess Network Company. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  29. ^ "Vaganian, Rafael". OlimpBase. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  30. ^ Saunders, Robert A.; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-8108-7460-2. 
  31. ^ Byrne, Robert (11 July 2004). "CHESS; Even Loosely Defined, Armenia Can't Beat the Rest of the World". New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2014. Kasparov was dubbed Armenian because his mother is Armenian. 
  32. ^ "Prominent Russians: Garry Kasparov". Russia Today. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  33. ^ "32nd Chess Olympiad: Yerevan 1996". OlimpBase. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  34. ^ "5th World Team Chess Championship: Yerevan 2001". OlimpBase. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  35. ^ "European Individual Chess Championship launches in Yerevan". Armenpress. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  36. ^ a b "30th Chess Olympiad: Manila 1992". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  37. ^ a b "35th Chess Olympiad: Bled 2002". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  38. ^ a b c "36th Chess Olympiad: Calvia 2004". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  39. ^ a b "37th Chess Olympiad: Turin 2006". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  40. ^ a b "38th Chess Olympiad: Dresden 2008". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  41. ^ a b "40th Olympiad Istanbul 2012 Open tournament". Turkish Chess Federation. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "4th World Team Chess Championship: Lucerne 1997". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  43. ^ a b "5th World Team Chess Championship: Yerevan 2001". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  44. ^ a b "6th World Team Chess Championship: Beer Sheva 2005". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  45. ^ a b "8th World Team Chess Championship: Ningbo 2011". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  46. ^ a b "11th European Team Chess Championship: Pula 1997". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  47. ^ a b c "16th European Team Chess Championship: Heraklion 2007". OlimpBase. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  48. ^ "Armenia Introduces Chess As Mandatory School Subject". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
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External links[edit]