Chess prodigy

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Eleven-year-old Sammy Reshevsky, New York 1922

A chess prodigy is a child who can beat experienced adult players, and even Masters, at chess. Expectations can be high for chess prodigies. While some become World Champions, others show little or no progress in adulthood.

Early chess prodigies[edit]

Early chess prodigies were Paul Morphy (1837–1884) and José Raúl Capablanca (1888–1942), both of whom won matches against strong adult opponents at the age of 12, and Samuel Reshevsky (1911–1992), who was giving simultaneous exhibitions at the age of six.[1] Morphy went on to be unofficial World Champion (before the official title existed), Capablanca became the third World Champion, and Reshevsky—while never attaining the title—was amongst the top few players in the world for many decades.

List of youngest grandmasters[edit]

Since 1950, when the Grandmaster (GM) title was introduced by FIDE, one measure of chess prodigies is the age at which they gain the GM title. Below are players who have held the record for youngest grandmaster. The record has been held by Sergey Karjakin (then Ukraine) since 2002. The age listed is the age at which they qualified for the title. This is not equal to the age at which they officially became Grandmasters, because GM titles can only be awarded at FIDE congresses.

Note: all players are listed by their nationality at the time of gaining the title, not their current or later nationality.

Year Player Country Age
1950 David Bronstein  Soviet Union 26 years
1952 Tigran Petrosian  Soviet Union 23 years
1955 Boris Spassky  Soviet Union 18 years
1958 Bobby Fischer  United States 15 years, 6 months, 1 day
1991 Judit Polgár  Hungary 15 years, 4 months, 28 days
1994 Péter Lékó  Hungary 14 years, 4 months, 22 days
1997 Étienne Bacrot  France 14 years, 2 months, 0 days
1997 Ruslan Ponomariov  Ukraine 14 years, 0 months, 17 days
1999 Bu Xiangzhi  China 13 years, 10 months, 13 days
2002 Sergey Karjakin  Ukraine 12 years, 7 months, 0 days

This is a list of the players who became Grandmasters before their 15th birthday.

No. Player Country Age Birth year
1. Sergey Karjakin  Ukraine 12 years, 7 months, 0 days 1990
2. Gukesh D  India 12 years, 7 months, 17 days 2006
3. Javokhir Sindarov  Uzbekistan 12 years, 10 months, 5 days 2005
4. Praggnanandhaa Rameshbabu  India 12 years, 10 months, 13 days 2005
5. Nodirbek Abdusattorov  Uzbekistan 13 years, 1 month, 11 days 2004
6. Parimarjan Negi  India 13 years, 4 months, 22 days 1993
7. Magnus Carlsen  Norway 13 years, 4 months, 27 days 1990
8. Wei Yi  China 13 years, 8 months, 23 days[2] 1999
9. Raunak Sadhwani  India 13 years, 9 months, 28 days[3] 2005
10. Bu Xiangzhi  China 13 years, 10 months, 13 days 1985
11. Samuel Sevian  United States 13 years, 10 months, 27 days[4] 2000
12. Richárd Rapport  Hungary 13 years, 11 months, 6 days[5] 1996
13. Teimour Radjabov  Azerbaijan 14 years, 0 months, 14 days 1987
14. Ruslan Ponomariov  Ukraine 14 years, 0 months, 17 days 1983
15. Nihal Sarin  India 14 years, 1 month, 1 day 2004
16. Awonder Liang  United States 14 years, 1 month, 20 days[6][7] 2003
17. Wesley So  Philippines 14 years, 1 month, 28 days[8] 1993
18. Étienne Bacrot  France 14 years, 2 months, 0 days 1983
19. Illya Nyzhnyk  Ukraine 14 years, 3 months, 2 days[9] 1996
20. Maxime Vachier-Lagrave  France 14 years, 4 months, 6 days[10] 1990
21. Péter Lékó  Hungary 14 years, 4 months, 22 days 1979
22. Jorge Cori  Peru 14 years, 5 months, 15 days[11] 1995
23. Hou Yifan  China 14 years, 6 months, 16 days[12] 1994
24. Jeffery Xiong  United States 14 years, 6 months, 25 days[13] 2000
25. Anish Giri  Russia 14 years, 7 months, 2 days[14] 1994
26. Yuriy Kuzubov  Ukraine 14 years, 7 months, 12 days[15] 1990
27. Bogdan-Daniel Deac  Romania 14 years, 7 months, 27 days[16] 2001
28. Dariusz Świercz  Poland 14 years, 7 months, 29 days 1994
29. Alireza Firouzja  Iran 14 years, 8 months, 2 days 2003
30. Aryan Chopra  India 14 years, 9 months, 3 days[17] 2001
31. Nguyễn Ngọc Trường Sơn  Vietnam 14 years, 9 months, 22 days[18] 1990
32. Kirill Shevchenko  Ukraine 14 years, 9 months, 23 days 2002
33. Vincent Keymer  Germany 14 years, 11 months, 4 days[19] 2004
34. Arjun Erigaisi  India 14 years, 11 months, 13 days 2003
35. Daniil Dubov  Russia 14 years, 11 months, 14 days[20] 1996
36. Ray Robson  United States 14 years, 11 months, 16 days[21] 1994
37. Fabiano Caruana  Italy 14 years, 11 months, 20 days[22] 1992
38. Yu Yangyi  China 14 years, 11 months, 23 days[23] 1994

Here are the holders of the record for the youngest ever female to become a grandmaster (not to be confused with the lesser Woman Grandmaster title):

Year Player Country Age
1978 Nona Gaprindashvili  Soviet Union 37 years
1984 Maia Chiburdanidze  Soviet Union 23 years
1991 Susan Polgar  Hungary 21 years
1991 Judit Polgár  Hungary 15 years, 4 months
2002 Humpy Koneru  India 15 years 1 month
2008 Hou Yifan  China 14 years, 6 months[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chess prodigies and mini-grandmasters". 10 January 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  2. ^ Wei Yi has become the youngest GM in the world Archived February 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Raunak Sadhwani becomes India's 65th Grandmaster"."Raunak Sadhwani becomes India's 65th Grandmaster".
  4. ^ "Youngest-ever American Chess Grandmaster crowned in St. Louis". 23 November 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Richard Rapport Becomes Hungary's Youngest Grandmaster - Chessdom". players.chessdom.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  6. ^ "Abdusattorov (13) Second Youngest GM In History". 31 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  7. ^ Polgar, Susan (30 May 2017). "Awonder Liang has earned his final GM norm at 14 years and 1 month! Congratulations to Awonder and the Liang family! @USChess @websterupic.twitter.com/hecjYDMbQz". Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  8. ^ 14-year-old Filipino is newest grandmaster Archived January 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "GM title for Illya Nyzhnyk in Groningen". 1 January 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  10. ^ "British and French championships". 20 August 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  11. ^ Cori achieved his final GM norm in October 2009, but he crossed the 2500 rating mark during a tournament in January 2010
  12. ^ Hou Yifan – the youngest female grandmaster in history (Chessbase, December 8, 2008) gives 14-6-2, but this cannot be correct because that date (August 29) was the first day of the Women's World Chess Championship 2008. Chessbase appears to have used the first day of the championship, instead of the day she qualified for the final and earned her 3rd norm (September 12).
  13. ^ Ramirez, Alejandro (1 June 2015). "Jeffery Xiong rocks Chicago". ChessBase. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  14. ^ Anish Giri, 14, makes his final GM norm ChessBase January 31, 2009
  15. ^ "Yuriy Kuzubov joins the mini-GM club". 7 September 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  16. ^ "The chess games of Bogdan-Daniel Deac". www.chessgames.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  17. ^ Staff, Scroll. "Delhi's Aryan, 14, Secures Grandmaster Title". Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  18. ^ Staff, Scroll. "The world's second-youngest grandmaster". Retrieved 2018-01-14.
  19. ^ Schormann, Conrad (2019-10-20). "„It should have come earlier": 14 year old Vincent Keymer and the Grandmaster title". perlenvombodensee.de. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  20. ^ Satrapa, James (2011-08-07). "Daniil Dubov, grandmaster at fourteen". ChessBase.com. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  21. ^ Ray Robson is the new youngest GM Archived October 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Who was the future GM? Fabiano Caruana, Italy's top grandmaster!". 18 October 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Chess prodigies and mini-grandmasters". 10 January 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  24. ^ WWCC - Nalchik 2008 - and now there are just four!, FIDE web site, September 9, 2008

External links[edit]