Chetwynd, British Columbia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Chetwynd

Little Prairie
District municipality
District of Chetwynd[1]
The townsite of Chetwynd in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
The townsite of Chetwynd in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
Coat of arms of Chetwynd
Coat of arms
Chetwynd, British Columbia is located in British Columbia
Chetwynd, British Columbia
Location within British Columbia
Chetwynd, British Columbia is located in Canada
Chetwynd, British Columbia
Chetwynd, British Columbia (Canada)
Coordinates: 55°41′45″N 121°38′18″W / 55.69583°N 121.63833°W / 55.69583; -121.63833Coordinates: 55°41′45″N 121°38′18″W / 55.69583°N 121.63833°W / 55.69583; -121.63833
CountryCanada
ProvinceBritish Columbia
Regional districtPeace River
Settled1918 (trading post)
IncorporatedSeptember 25, 1962 (village)
 May 31, 1983 (district)
Government
 • MayorAllen Courtoreille
 • Governing bodyChetwynd District Council
 • MLAMike Bernier
Area
 • Total64.32 km2 (24.83 sq mi)
Elevation
615 m (2,018 ft)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total2,503
 • Density39.3/km2 (102/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (Mountain Time Zone)
Postal code
V0C 1J0
Area code(s)250 / 778 / 236
WebsiteDistrict of Chetwynd

Chetwynd /ˈɛtwɪnd/ is a district municipality located on the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Situated on an ancient floodplain, it is the first town eastbound travellers encounter after emerging from the Rockies along Highway 97 and acts as the gateway to the Peace River Country. The town developed during the construction of infrastructure through the Rocky Mountains in the 1950s, and was used as a transshipment point during the construction of hydroelectric dams in the 1960s and 1970s and the new town of Tumbler Ridge in the early 1980s. Home to approximately 2,600 residents, the population has increased little if at all since the 1980s but is significantly younger than the provincial average.[3]

Once known as Little Prairie, the community adopted its name in honour of provincial politician Ralph L.T. Chetwynd, just prior to its incorporation in 1962. The 64-square-kilometre (25 sq mi) municipality consists of the town, a community forest, and four exclave properties. Chetwynd has dozens of chainsaw carvings displayed throughout town as public art. It is home to a Northern Lights College campus. Nearby, there are four provincial parks, two lakes, and several recreational trails.

Highways 29 and 97 intersect in town; the east-west Highway 97 connect the town to Prince George and Dawson Creek while the north-south Highway 29 connects Tumbler Ridge and Hudson's Hope. A rail line branches off in three directions: northward to Fort St. John, east to Dawson Creek, and west through the Rockies to Prince George. Its economy is dominated by the primary industries of forestry, fossil fuel extraction, and transportation. A member municipality of the Peace River Regional District, and as of 2021 is represented in provincial politics by Liberal MLA Mike Bernier, who was first elected in 2013.

History[edit]

From 1918 until the 1930s, the present townsite hosted a trading post on a grassy pasture known to the Sekani and Saulteaux as Little Prairie.[4] In the 1920s, settlers from the Peace River Country began migrating westwards, across the frozen Kiskatinaw and Pine Rivers, to homestead. Little Prairie was homesteaded in 1930 by Alexander and Lillan Windrem who cleared the land by 1935 for hay, oats and gardens.[5] Oil and coal discoveries, west of Little Prairie, near Commotion Creek, led to the construction of area roads. As the area's natural resource potential became more apparent, a highway was planned in the late 1940s from the British Columbia Interior to the northern side of the Rocky and Omineca Mountains. The John Hart Highway, named after former B.C. Premier John Hart, was completed in 1952; designated Highway 97S it stretches from Prince George to Dawson Creek, with an intersection at Little Prairie. This was northeastern BC's first connection with the rest of the province; previously a trip through the neighboring province of Alberta was required. Following the opening of the highway, businesses such as restaurants and service stations were opened in Little Prairie to accommodate incoming workers and settlers. The first school was built in 1951.[4]

Little Prairie was incorporated as a waterworks district on October 8, 1957; within the span of a few years a rail line, natural gas pipeline, and telephone line were built along the highway from Prince George. Provincial Minister of Railways Ralph L.T. Chetwynd (who also directed the Pacific Great Eastern Railway) headed the rail line project. The rail line continued eastward to Dawson Creek which was the westernmost terminus of Northern Alberta Railways. In early 1958, the first train ceremonially arrived in Little Prairie from Vancouver. Its load included pipe to symbolize natural gas development, steel railway track for the extension of the rail line, box cars for grain and lumber, and a truck representing freight hauling along the Alaska Highway.[6] The railway station in Little Prairie was completed in 1959 and named after Chetwynd, who had died two years earlier. Soon afterwards the post office adopted this name. Chetwynd became the community's official name on July 1, 1959. In 1960 the Chetwynd Waterworks District expanded its mandate to include garbage disposal, fire protection, and street lighting. Led by its Chamber of Commerce, the community incorporated as a municipality on September 25, 1962.[7]

Sign and chainsaw carvings along Highway 97 welcoming travelers going east

Growth continued in the 1960s when the town served as the rail-to-truck transshipment point for delivering workers and supplies to the construction site of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam, in nearby Hudson's Hope. Canfor and West Fraser Timber bought sawmills in 1964 and 1971, respectively, and eventually became two of the town's largest employers. The development of its forestry sector led to the town being declared the Canadian Forest Service's 1992 Forestry Capital of Canada.[8] The community opened a rodeo ground and curling rink in 1963, a library in 1967, a new fire hall in 1968, an airport in 1970 and a hospital in 1971.[4]

Further growth was stoked in the late 1970s and early 1980s by the construction of the Peace Canyon Dam near the Bennett Dam, the opening of the natural gas and sulfur plant, and the construction of the mining town Tumbler Ridge. Chetwynd thus was re-incorporated as a district in 1983 with a population of 2,957.[9] With no more megaprojects, Chetwynd's population remained relatively stable at about 3,000, with a peak population in 1996 at 3,113.[10]

On 4 December 1996, Chetwynd's boundaries were expanded to include 49 km2 (19 sq mi) of forested land and industrial properties.[11] Most of this came from moving the northern border up 210 metres (689 ft) over Ol' Baldy Ridge to create a community forest, a concept which originated from a Chetwynd Secondary School proposal in 1980 for a fitness trail. The trail became the backbone of a system of interconnected trails and greenspaces that went up the ridge. Four industrial properties—a gas plant, sulfur processing plant, coal mine, and pulp mill—became exclaves of the district as they incorporated to receive municipal services. The coal mine, with an expected lifespan of 15 years, was approved by the province for development in 1998. It was not constructed until 2004 making it the province's first new coal mine in 20 years. It only operated for 2 years before closing due to poor yields, equipment failure, and lack of financial backing.[12][13]

Geography and climate[edit]

Carved out of an ancient floodplain, the small terrace upon which Chetwynd is situated lies in the northern foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Once used as a grazing spot by nomadic Aboriginals, the terrace was farmed by settlers until it was developed into a town. Two types of soil—namely, the Widmark and Centurion Series—comprise the terrace's surface. The Widmark Series—a moderately well-drained degraded loamy, woody, silty, and clay-like soil—lies north of Highway 97. Meanwhile, the Centurion Series—which lies south of the highway—is a poorly drained soil with a dark-brown peaty surface material consisting of decomposed leaves and mosses. These soils, also limited by topography and stoniness, are generally used for forage and pasture.[14][15]

The District of Chetwynd with main townsite and four exclave properties

The town is surrounded by forested hills but the prairies of the Peace River Country begin here and continue eastward into Alberta. It lies in a transition area dividing two biogeoclimatic regions: the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir zone.[16][17] The regions surrounding Chetwynd and Dawson Creek contain Reindeer herds, although the total number of caribou have decreased in the first two decades of the twenty-first century.[18] One factor of the caribou's decline is the large number of wolves who prey on the caribou; in 2014 the British Columbian government began a wolf-culling program to reduce the number of wolves in the region.[19] The region also contains moose, whose numbers have increased due to improved habitats caused by cutting down trees for the logging industry. The area surrounding Chetwynd was affected by a pine beetle infestation, which caused timber mills to reduce their operations in the region.[20]

The town experiences a cool continental climate, including frigid winters and warm summers. Southwesterly winds, coming off Williston Lake, predominate, with wind speeds averaging around 8.2 km/h (5.1 mph).[21] About 318 mm (12.5 in) of rain and 169 cm (67 in) of snow fall on the town annually and about 30 days with some fog are expected per year.[21] Chetwynd, like the rest of the Peace River Regional District, uses Mountain Standard Time year-round. The remainder of the province uses Pacific Standard Time with daylight saving time, meaning that Chetwynd shares the same time with the province during the summer and is one hour ahead during the winter.[22]

Climate data for Chetwynd Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 15.0 13.5 22.2 25.5 34.3 32.3 36.3 35.4 33.3 26.6 14.6 12.4 36.3
Record high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
14.8
(58.6)
22.4
(72.3)
26.1
(79.0)
33.4
(92.1)
31.0
(87.8)
32.7
(90.9)
33.8
(92.8)
30.8
(87.4)
27.0
(80.6)
14.8
(58.6)
13.2
(55.8)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.9
(37.2)
11.2
(52.2)
16.6
(61.9)
20.1
(68.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.6
(70.9)
16.3
(61.3)
9.4
(48.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
−4.1
(24.6)
9.1
(48.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.2
(13.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.6
(40.3)
9.5
(49.1)
13.4
(56.1)
15.4
(59.7)
14.5
(58.1)
9.9
(49.8)
4.1
(39.4)
−5.5
(22.1)
−9.1
(15.6)
3.0
(37.4)
Average low °C (°F) −15.3
(4.5)
−12.9
(8.8)
−8.7
(16.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.4
(36.3)
6.6
(43.9)
8.5
(47.3)
7.4
(45.3)
3.5
(38.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
−10.0
(14.0)
−14.1
(6.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
Record low °C (°F) −52.0
(−61.6)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−9.8
(14.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
−6.6
(20.1)
−8.5
(16.7)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−46.3
(−51.3)
−52.0
(−61.6)
Record low wind chill −58.0 −48.8 −43.1 −31.4 −14.9 0.0 0.0 −6.8 −10.0 −34.4 −50.0 −53.8 −58.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.1
(0.83)
16.2
(0.64)
21.9
(0.86)
20.4
(0.80)
37.2
(1.46)
75.7
(2.98)
76.9
(3.03)
51.4
(2.02)
41.2
(1.62)
29.1
(1.15)
30.6
(1.20)
19.1
(0.75)
440.6
(17.35)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.9
(0.04)
0.5
(0.02)
1.3
(0.05)
10.3
(0.41)
32.5
(1.28)
75.7
(2.98)
76.9
(3.03)
51.4
(2.02)
38.0
(1.50)
14.0
(0.55)
3.8
(0.15)
1.2
(0.05)
306.4
(12.06)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 27.3
(10.7)
22.7
(8.9)
28.5
(11.2)
11.6
(4.6)
5.2
(2.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.4
(1.3)
19.2
(7.6)
35.4
(13.9)
24.1
(9.5)
177.4
(69.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.6 8.3 9.9 8.3 11.2 13.2 13.9 12.5 12.4 10.5 11.6 9.0 130.3
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.9 0.6 1.2 5.4 10.4 13.2 13.9 12.5 12.0 6.7 2.3 0.9 79.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.2 8.2 9.2 4.2 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 5.1 10.3 8.3 57.1
Average relative humidity (%) 69.6 63.7 55.0 41.1 40.0 45.2 48.1 49.0 50.4 54.8 69.8 71.6 54.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 73.5 109.2 160.0 212.0 246.2 247.6 282.0 257.5 171.8 120.8 69.4 53.1 2,002.8
Percent possible sunshine 30.7 40.3 43.7 50.0 48.9 47.4 53.8 55.2 44.8 37.2 27.7 23.9 42.0
Source: Environment Canada[23]

Demographics[edit]

Canada 2016 Census[24]
Chetwynd British Columbia
Median age 32.6 years 43 years
Under 15 years old 21.4% 14.9%
Between 15 and 64 years old 70.1% 66.9%
Over 65 years old 8.4% 18.3%
Median household income 90,709$ 69,995$
Household size 2.5 2.4
Historical populations
YearPop.±%
19661,368—    
19711,260−7.9%
19761,733+37.5%
19812,553+47.3%
19862,774+8.7%
19912,843+2.5%
19962,980+4.8%
20012,591−13.1%
20062,633+1.6%
20112,635+0.1%
20162,503−5.0%
Note: 1976 population figure is adjusted due to boundary changes.[25][26]

An initial 1958 population estimate, associated with Chetwynd's application for incorporation, recorded 750 residents—inclusive of nearby work camps.[4] The 1966 Canadian census, the first to define Chetwynd as a distinct subdivision, counted 1,368 residents.[26]

According to the 2016 Canadian census, Chetwynd had 2,503 residents with a median age 10.4 years lower than the province's. English is the mother tongue of nearly all (90%) residents of Chetwynd with a small population (3%) of native Tagalog speakers. Only 7% of Chetwynd residents are immigrants which is considerably lower than the provincial average of 28%. The largest immigrant group comes from the Philippines, representing 43% of all immigrants to the municipality. There are few visible minorities in Chetwynd (8%) compared to the provincial average of 30% with Philippinos representing the largest visible minority as well with 100 residents (4% of the total population). Approximately 525, or 21%, of residents of Chetwynd considered themselves to have an Aboriginal identity, much higher than the provincial average of 6%. The primary ethnic groups in Chetwynd were reported as: Canadian (33%), Scottish (25%), English (23%), German (20%), Irish (18%), First Nations (14%), French (13%), and Metis (8%).[24]

Residents of Chetwynd are less educated than the provincial average. Residents with no certificate, diploma, or degree make up 21% of the population compared to the provincial average of 16%. Those with a secondary school diploma comprise 37% of the population compared to the provincial average of 29%. Residents with a certificate or diploma comprise 32% of the population compared to the provincial average of 30%. There are significantly fewer residents with University degrees in Chetwynd (10%) compared to the provincial average of 25%. Almost all commuters in Chetwynd commute by car, truck, or van (76%) which is higher than the provincial average of 70%.[24]

Economy[edit]

Chetwynd is the commercial centre for the rural communities of the Pine River Valley, as well as Moberly Lake, Jackfish Lake, and Lone Prairie. These rural residents are mostly cattle, sheep, and bison ranchers and use the town as a transportation hub to ship products via highways or rail. After the town was connected by rail and highway to the remainder of the province, the town's economy expanded, between 1950 to 1980, to include primary industries, including lumber mills (West Fraser Mills, Canadian Forest Industries, Tembec Pulp Mill), gas plants (Duke Energy, Talisman Energy), a coal processing plant (Pine Valley Mining), and a sulfur processing plant (Enersul). Since the late 1990s, Chetwynd has undergone an economic downturn from the closure of coal mines in Tumbler Ridge and the softwood lumber trade dispute between Canada and the United States, which led to the closure of the Louisiana-Pacific Canada Pulp Company pulp operations in 2001.[27] The 2001 census recorded 1,120 income-earners over the age of 15 residing in Chetwynd; of these, 690 worked full-time throughout the year.[28] Since then, the economy has rebounded with increased oil, gas and mineral exploration, tourist marketing of the area's outdoor recreational activities and chainsaw carvings program, new and re-opened coal mines, and wind farm construction.[29] Both the Dokie Ridge Wind Farm and Meikle Wind Farm were constructed.[30] In 2015, Paper Excellence bought the Tembec Mill, which had been idle since 2012, and invested $50 million in upgrades.[31] The mill opened in May 2015 only to undergo a maintenance shutdown in September of that year.[32]

Education[edit]

Chetwynd's roads, schools, and parks

The 2001 census estimated that 10% of people in Chetwynd between 20 and 64 years old graduated from a university, less than half of the 24% provincial average and 26% did not graduate from secondary school, 6% higher than the provincial average.[28] Chetwynd's schools are administered by School District 59 Peace River South, which operates one secondary school and three primary schools: Chetwynd Secondary School, Don Titus Elementary, Windrem Elementary, and Little Prairie Elementary.[33] Northern Lights College maintains a campus in Chetwynd, which has a 2003 enrollment of 170 students (based on full-time equivalents).[33] It was established in 1976 with eight general interest and two university transfer courses.[34][35]

Infrastructure[edit]

Looking east along Highway 97

The John Hart Highway portion of Highway 97 runs east–west through Chetwynd, connecting the town to Dawson Creek (102 km or 67 mi east) and Prince George (304 km or 185 mi south). Highway 29 (Don Philips Way) runs north–south through Chetwynd, connecting the town to Hudson's Hope (60 km or 34 mi north) and Tumbler Ridge (89 km or 47 mi southeast). The downtown core lies just west of the intersection of Highway 97 and Highway 29. Chetwynd's internal street network has 28 km or 17 mi of paved road[36] which uses the highway as its main arterial road with parallel frontage roads for local trips. A site plan by the province in 1957 laid out the basic structure of the town.[4]

Chetwynd has rail, air, and bus service for regional and provincial transportation needs. Rail lines enter Chetwynd from three directions: from Fort St. John in the north, from Dawson Creek in the east, and from Prince George in the south. Pacific Great Eastern Railway (later BC Rail) ran passenger service to Chetwynd until 1990. Since then the trains have been used solely for moving resources such as lumber and coal. The District of Chetwynd has operated the unmanned Chetwynd Municipal Airport (IATA: YCQ) since 1970. The runway was paved in 1975 but only handles chartered flights and helicopters. A new airport terminal was constructed in 2008 by students at Northern Lights College.[37] The closest airports with commercial airlines are at Fort St. John and Dawson Creek. Until 2018 Greyhound Bus Lines maintained a bus stop in town on their Vancouver-Prince George-Dawson Creek route.[38]

The District uses the northeast-flowing Pine River as both a source of drinking water and an outlet for sewage. The former comes from an intake pipe southwest of town.[33] Its sewerage consists of 28 kilometres (17 mi) of sanitary sewers and 3 kilometres (2 mi) of storm sewers.[36] Raw sewage is processed by a five-cell lagoon system and released into the Pine River south of town.[33] The water supply was briefly shut off in 2000 when oil pipeline along the Pine River ruptured spilling 6,200 barrels (990 m3) of oil into the river.[39][40] Electricity is supplied by BC Hydro from the Bennett and Peace Canyon Dams and natural gas by Pacific Northern Gas. In 2019, the federal and provincial governments announced a joint project to increase electricity supply to the Peace Region. The project expands on existing infrastructure by building two 230 kilovolt transmission lines from the under-construction Site C dam and its substation to existing stations approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Chetwynd.[41]

Culture and recreation[edit]

The Little Prairie Heritage Museum, located in one of the town's oldest buildings (a converted post office dating to 1949) displays artifacts and re-creations of the town's frontier times, and nostalgia pieces from the construction of infrastructure through the Rocky Mountains. A public art program, started in 1987, showcases over 50 chainsaw carvings spread throughout town with a downtown monument that declares Chetwynd the "Chainsaw Sculpture Capital of the World". The town's first annual chainsaw carving contest was held in June 2005. A regular contestant in the Communities in Bloom contest, the District built four wind turbines in 2004 to power decorative lights on 25 large trees along its boulevard as an entry to the WinterLights Celebration contest.[42] A statue of a lumberjack entitled "Chetwynd, the Little Giant of the Great Peace", measuring 2.7 metres (9 ft) tall and located alongside the highway, has stood in the town since 1967. The statue has been periodically altered by replacing the ax with other accessories, such as a lasso, rifle, gold pan and pitchfork, or dressed in other outfits, like a Santa suit.[4][43]

Ol' Baldy, locally known as Mount Baldy

For outdoor recreation, a community forest on Mount Baldy provides residents with trails for walking, hiking, cycling, and cross-country skiing close to home. There is downhill skiing about 100 km (60 mi) west of town (and closer to the Rocky Mountains) at the Powder King Mountain Resort. Nearby provincial parks include Gwillim Lake Provincial Park (56 km, 35 mi southeast), Moberly Lake Provincial Park (25 km, 16 mi northwest), Pine River Breaks Provincial Park (15 km, 9 mi east), and East Pine Provincial Park (30 km, 19 mi east).[44] Chetwynd has an indoor rodeo facility,[45] an outdoor speed skating oval, and a general recreation complex which has within it an ice arena, swimming pool and curling rink, among other facilities.[46]

Media[edit]

Since the 1970s, the Chetwynd Communications Society has worked to establish radio and television service. For many years, they rebroadcast pre-recorded content to Chetwynd and surrounding communities via a telecommunications tower on nearby Wabi Mountain. On 5 December 1996, 94.5 CHET-FM—the town's first radio station—went on-air. Since then the station has expanded with a repeater tower in Dawson Creek at 104.1 and is now known collectively as Peace FM. Its programming uses a series of specialty programs such as metal, gospel, hard rock, and dance. Chetwynd's community television station, CHET-TV channel 55, began broadcasting on March 8, 2000, in a ceremony attended by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson.[47] The Chetwynd Communications Society also owns a series of low-powered repeaters that rebroadcasts selected Canadian and American stations via satellite. In addition, Chetwynd is served by CBUZ-FM 93.5, repeating CBC Radio One station CBYG-FM from Prince George.[48][49]

Two periodicals covered local news: the weekly newspaper Chetwynd Echo and the biweekly newsletter Coffee Talk Express. The Chetwynd Echo was created by the Chamber of Commerce in 1959 as The Chinook in a tabloid format. It was renamed the Weekly Advertiser in 1962 and the Chetwynd Echo in 1971 when it switched to a broadsheet format.[50][51] The Chetwynd Echo closed in 2016, publishing its final edition on January 6.[52]

Government and politics[edit]

Chetwynd municipal hall, fire hall, and ambulance bay

The District of Chetwynd's council-manager form of municipal government is headed by a mayor (who also represents Chetwynd on the Peace River Regional District's governing board) and a six-member council.[53] These positions, plus two school board trustees, are subject to at-large elections every three years. Mayor Allen Courtoreille was first elected in 2018.[54] He was preceded by Merlin Nichol (2011–2018) and Evan Saugstad (2003–2011),[55] and long-time mayor Charlie Lasser.[56] The city funds a volunteer fire department, which services the town and nearby rural communities. It also maintains the sewer, water, local road, sidewalk, street lighting, animal control, building inspection, park, and recreation services. The city also partially funds a ten officer Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment, which covers the municipality and nearby rural communities.[57]

The Province staffs a government agent office in Chetwynd for access to licenses, permits, and government programs.[58] Through the Northern Health Authority the province operates the five-bed Chetwynd General Hospital.[59] As part of the Peace River South provincial electoral district, it is represented in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia by BC Liberal Mike Bernier, first elected in the 2013 provincial election. Before Bernier, Peace River South was represented by Blair Lekstrom between 2001 and 2013, and by Jack Weisgerber, between 1986 and 2001, of the Social Credit Party of British Columbia (1986–1994) and Reform Party of British Columbia (1994–2001). In 1996 as leader of the Reform Party, Weisgerber won re-election despite placing second in the Chetwynd polls to the BC Liberal Party candidate.[60]

Chetwynd is located in the Prince George—Peace River riding which sends a Member of Parliament to the federal House of Commons of Canada. The town has been represented by Conservative Party member Bob Zimmer since the May 2011 federal election. Prior to Zimmer, the town was represented by Jay Hill, also of the Conservative Party, from 1993 to 2010.[61] Before Hill, the riding was represented by former Chetwynd mayor Frank Oberle of the Progressive Conservative Party. Oberle was elected Chetwynd's mayor in 1968, its MP in 1972,[62] and was appointed to be Canada's Minister of Science and Technology in 1985 and its Minister of Forestry in 1989 during the 33rd Canadian Parliament.[63]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "British Columbia Regional Districts, Municipalities, Corporate Name, Date of Incorporation and Postal Address" (XLS). British Columbia Ministry of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  2. ^ "Chetwynd, District municipality". 2016 Census Profile. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  3. ^ "Community Highlights for Chetwynd". 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. September 11, 2007. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bea Kurjata, ed. (1989). History book saga of Little Prairie-Chetwynd. Altona, Manitoba: Chetwynd and Area History Committee. pp. 1–2, 66, 89–99, 515. ISBN 0-88925-943-7.
  5. ^ Shaw, John (1989). "The Windrems". History book saga of Little Prairie-Chetwynd. Altona, Manitoba: Chetwynd and Area History Committee. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-88925-943-7.
  6. ^ "Chetwynd History". District of Chetwynd. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  7. ^ "Little Prairie grows into Village of Chetwynd". Peace River Block News. June 30, 1978.
  8. ^ "National Forest Week". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). BC Legislature. May 4, 1992. Volume 2, Number 19.
  9. ^ "British Columbia Municipal Census Populations, 1976–1986". BC Stats. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  10. ^ "British Columbia Municipal Census Populations, 1986–1996". BC Stats. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  11. ^ "Order-in-Council #1423". Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (British Columbia). December 4, 1996. Archived from the original on December 29, 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2007.
  12. ^ "Mine approved". Chetwynd Echo. March 17, 1998.
  13. ^ Simpson, Scott (December 13, 2006). "2-year-old B.C. coal mine closed, seeking buyer". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2007.
  14. ^ Farstad, L.; Lord, T.M.; Green, A.J.; Hortie, H. J. (1965). Soil Survey of the Peace River Area in British Columbia: Report No. 8 of the British Columbia Soil Survey. Ottawa: Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationary. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
  15. ^ Soil Capability Classification for Agriculture (Map) (1965 ed.). Department of the Environment (Canada). § 93P-12NTS.
  16. ^ "Boreal White and Black Spruce". Biogeoclimatic Zones of British Columbia. Ministry of Forests and Range (British Columbia). Archived from the original on December 11, 2005. Retrieved December 4, 2005.
  17. ^ "Engelmann Spruce – Subalpine Fir". Biogeoclimatic Zones of British Columbia. Ministry of Forests and Range (British Columbia). Archived from the original on December 11, 2005. Retrieved December 4, 2005.
  18. ^ Meissner, Dirk (February 2, 2020). "Bring more voices to caribou recovery plan, says B.C. premier's former liaison". National Post. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  19. ^ Preprost, Matt (April 11, 2019). "Caribou plan pitched to skeptical public". Alaska Highway News. ProQuest 2208293791. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  20. ^ Tanner, Adrienne (April 29, 2019). "Caribou, wolves and the battle tearing apart northeastern B.C." Macleans. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Dokie Wind Energy Inc. (2005). "Technical Assessment Report" (PDF). pp. 55–60. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2006. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  22. ^ "Region considers the time old question". Fort Nelson News. September 28, 1983.
  23. ^ "Chetwynd A, British Columbia". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  24. ^ a b c "Census Profile, 2016 Census, Chetwynd". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  25. ^ "1981 Census of Canada: Census Divisions and Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. July 1983. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-08-25. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  26. ^ a b "British Columbia Municipal Census Populations, 1921–1971". BC Stats. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2005.
  27. ^ Nielsen, Mark (October 18, 2001). "Chetwynd Pulp Mill Shut Down". Peace River Block Daily News. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
  28. ^ a b "Community Highlights for Chetwynd". 2001 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. February 1, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2006.
  29. ^ Fawcett, Max (January 8, 2010). "2009: Year in Review". The Chetwynd Echo. pp. 1–25.
  30. ^ "$400 million Meikle wind farm in Tumbler Ridge gets green light". Alaska Highway News. January 20, 2015. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  31. ^ St. Denis, Jen (May 7, 2014). "Paper Excellence plans to restart Chetwynd mill in July". Business in Vancouver. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  32. ^ Carter, Michael (November 30, 2015). "Paper Excellence Chetwynd lays off 109, but company not saying when layoffs take effect". Business in Vancouver. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  33. ^ a b c d "A Socio-economic profile of the South Peace River Region, British Columbia, Canada" (PDF). 2003 Edition. Dawson Creek & District Chamber of Commerce. pp. 82–83. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2006. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  34. ^ "Northern Lights College Facilities Expanded". The Echo: Progress Edition. July 5, 1978.
  35. ^ "Chetwynd Campus". Northern Lights College. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2005.
  36. ^ a b Municipal redbook: an authoritative reference guide to local government in British Columbia. Burnaby, BC: Reed Construction. 2005. p. 23.
  37. ^ "NLC, District of Chetwynd to partner to build airport terminal" (Press release). Northern Lights College. May 17, 2007. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  38. ^ "2018 year in review". Alaska Highway News. Fort St. John, British Columbia. December 27, 2018. p. A1.
  39. ^ "Oil Spill Threatens Chetwynd". Peace River Block Daily News. July 2, 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
  40. ^ "Pine River Oil Spill". Ministry of Environment (British Columbia). Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  41. ^ Staff (April 22, 2019). "Canada, B.C. bring clean energy to Peace region". The Nelson Daily. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  42. ^ Kaulbach, Garry (2006). "District of Chetwynd Windmill Project 2005/06" (PDF). District of Chetwynd. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  43. ^ Iona Campagnolo (1979). "Statue of lumberjack entitled "Chetwynd, the Little Giant of the Great Peace," located alongside the highway". University of Northern Northern British Columbia Archives & Special Collections. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  44. ^ Peech, Brian (July 25, 2020). "A summer of peace; Open spaces and history of B.C.'s Northeast provide the backdrop for sublime adventure". Vancouver Sun. p. C7.
  45. ^ Cozicar, Austin (June 14, 2018). "The Chetwynd Rodeo is back". Dawson Creek Mirror. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  46. ^ "Rec Centre". District of Chetwynd. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  47. ^ "The History of CHET FM and CHET TV". PEACE FM & 55 CHET TV. Archived from the original on December 26, 2005. Retrieved December 18, 2005.
  48. ^ "CBUZ-FM 93.5 MHz Chetwynd, British Columbia". Radio-Locator.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  49. ^ "Decision CRTC 94-816". Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. October 26, 1994. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  50. ^ Gammon, Maureen (1989). "The Chetwynd Echo". History book saga of Little Prairie-Chetwynd. Altona, Manitoba: Chetwynd and Area History Committee. pp. 521–522. ISBN 0-88925-943-7.
  51. ^ Fawcett, Max (March 13, 2009). The Chetwynd Echo turns 50. The Chetwynd Echo. p. 1.
  52. ^ "Chetwynd Echo to close". Dawson Creek Mirror. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
  53. ^ "District of Chetwynd 2008 Annual Report" (PDF). District of Chetwynd. April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
  54. ^ Preprost, Matt (October 25, 2018). "Incumbents fall, newcomers rise in elections across Northeast B.C". Alaska Highway News. Fort St. John, British Columbia. p. A1.
  55. ^ "Election Results". CivicInfo. Archived from the original on March 6, 2021. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  56. ^ Carter, Mike (February 2, 2015). "Charlie Lasser: Public service is his pantheon". Alaska Highway News.
  57. ^ Police Resources in British Columbia, 2019 (PDF) (2006 ed.). Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General, Police Services Division. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 3, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  58. ^ "Locations: Chetwynd". Service BC. Ministry of Citizens' Services (British Columbia). 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
  59. ^ "Hospital keeps beds". The Province. Vancouver. June 26, 2002. p. A6.
  60. ^ "Peace River South Electoral District" (PDF). 36th Provincial General Election – 28 May 1996. Elections BC. 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  61. ^ "MP services still available". The Prince George Free Press. Prince George, British Columbia. October 14, 2010. p. 6.
  62. ^ Lennard, Sonya (November 25, 2004). "Former MP found home in the Peace: Oberle's autobiography chronicles this warchild's journey to the Peace". Alaska Highway News. Fort St. John, British Columbia. p. A1.
  63. ^ Fletcher, Anne (October 2, 1990). "Oberle's Task: Putting Forestry on Map". Financial Post. p. 47.

External links[edit]