General Motors 90° V6 engine

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Chevrolet 90° V6 engine
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Displacement200 cid (3.3 L)
229 cid (3.8 L)
262 cid (4.3 L)
Cylinder bore3.50 in (89 mm)
3.736 in (95 mm)
4.00 in (102 mm)
Piston stroke3.48 in (88 mm)
Cylinder block alloy
Cylinder head alloy
PredecessorChevrolet Straight-6 engine

The Chevrolet 90° V6 family of engines began in 1978 with the Chevrolet 200 cid (3.3 L) V6 as the base engine for the all new 1978 Chevrolet Malibu. The original engine family was phased out in early 2014, with its final use as the 4.3 L V6 engine used in Chevrolet and GMC trucks and vans. Its phaseout marks the end of an era of Chevrolet small-block engine designs dating back to the 1955 model year. A new Generation V 4.3 L V6 variant entered production in late 2013, based on the LT1 small block V8 used in the 2014 Chevrolet Silverado.

Generation I[edit]

These engines have a 90° v-block with 12 valves activated by a pushrod valvetrain. All engines have cast iron blocks and cylinder heads. The engines are based on the Chevrolet Small-Block engine, and the V6 is formed by the removal of the #3 and #6 cylinders. The V6s share the same 4.4-inch bore spacing and 9.025-inch deck height as the V8 engines. Many parts are interchangeable between the 90° V6 and the small block V8 including valvetrain components, bearings, piston assemblies, lubrication and cooling system components, and external accessories.[1] The 90-degree V6 engine uses the same transmission bellhousing pattern as the Chevrolet small-block V8 engine. The oil pan dipstick is located on the passenger side above the oil pan rail; this design was phased in on both the V6-90 and Small Block Chevrolet assembly lines (for engines manufactured after 1979) sharing the same casting dies. All the engines use a 1-6-5-4-3-2 firing order.[2] The engines in this family are longitudinal engines, and have been used in rear-wheel drive cars and trucks, industrial, and marine applications. As of 2012, the Chevrolet 90° V6 is currently produced at the GM Powertrain Division plant in Romulus, Michigan.

3.3L (200 CID)[edit]

Introduced in 1978, the 200 cid replaced the larger 250 cid as the base engine for Chevrolet's new downsized intermediate line. The 200 cid used a unique 3.5-inch bore and a 3.48-inch stroke (the Chevrolet 305 cid and 350 cid V8 engines shared the same stroke dimension). These bore and stroke dimensions were later used by the 267 cid V8 Chevrolet engine. Also like the small block V8 engines, the 200 cid V6 used 2.45-inch main bearings and 2.10-inch rod bearing diameters.

Being a 90-degree V6, Chevrolet took steps to eliminate the rough running tendencies of the 200. The crankshaft has each of its connecting rod throws offset by 18 degrees for each pair of rods. This required the connecting rods to have 0.050-inch narrower ends as well as a thrust bearing to be installed between each pair of rods. However, the connecting rods were still the same 5.7-inch length as most other small-block Chevrolet V8 engines. This produced an engine with a semi-even fire sequence of 132 degrees/108 degrees.[2]

The 200 cid V6 was only produced for 1978 and 1979. It was available only with a 2-barrel carburetor. In 1978, the 200 cid used the Rochester 2GC carburetor and in 1979 it used a Rochester Dualjet carburetor. The smaller Dualjet carburetor caused a slight decrease in power.

Year Horsepower Torque Bore and Stroke Carburetor Compression Ratio
1978 95 hp (71 kW) @ 3800 rpm 160 lb⋅ft (217 N⋅m) @2000 rpm 3.50 x 3.48 inches 2-BBL 2GC 8.20:1
1979 94 hp (70 kW) @ 4000 rpm 154 lb⋅ft (209 N⋅m) @2000 rpm 3.50 x 3.48 inches 2-BBL M2ME 8.20:1

3.8L (229 CID)[edit]

The 229 cid (3,751 cc) engine was first introduced for the 1980 model year. This engine replaced the 250 cid straight-six in full-size Chevrolets and Camaros as the new base V6. Additionally, the intermediate Chevrolet Malibu and Monte Carlo also used the 229 cid as a replacement for both the 200 cid V6 and the 231 cid Buick V6. Checker Motors Corporation also used this engine starting with its 1980 A11 Taxi and A12 Marathon sedans. Both the Buick V6 and the 229 cid Chevrolet V6 are 90-degree V6 engines, and both are often referred to as the 3.8L V6. These engines should not be confused as being the same, and are completely unique engine designs.

The 229 cid has a 3.736-inch bore and a 3.48-inch stroke, identical to the Chevrolet 305 cid V8 engine. The 229 cid used the same 2.45-inch main bearing and 2.10-inch rod bearing diameters as the 200 cid V6 engine. Also like the 200 cid V6, the 229 cid used the same crankshaft with the 18-degree offset throws and the same 5.7-inch connecting rods with 0.050-inch narrowed ends. It came equipped with 1.84-inch intake valves and 1.50-inch exhaust valves. The 229 cid V6 was only equipped with a 2-barrel carburetor. For 1980 the 229 cid used a mechanical Dualjet. From 1981 to 1984 the electronic Dualjet was used along with the GM's CCC (Computer Command Control) system. The 229 cid was rated between 110 and 115 hp (86 kW).

Year Horsepower Torque Bore and Stroke Carburetor Compression Ratio
1980 115 hp (86 kW) at 4,000 rpm 175 lb⋅ft (237 N⋅m) at 2,000 rpm 3.736 x 3.48 inches 2-BBL M2ME 8.60:1
1981–1982 110 hp (82 kW) at 4,200 rpm 170 lb⋅ft (230 N⋅m) at 2,000 rpm 3.736 x 3.48 inches 2-BBL E2ME 8.60:1
1983–1984 110 hp (82 kW) at 4,000 rpm 190 lb⋅ft (258 N⋅m) at 1,600 rpm 3.736 x 3.48 inches 2-BBL E2ME 8.60:1

4.3L (262 CID)[edit]

The 4.3L (262 cid) V6 is the last and most successful engine in the Chevrolet 90-degree V6 engine family. This engine was introduced in 1985 as a replacement for the 229 cid V6 in the full-size Chevrolet, the Chevrolet El Camino and Chevrolet Monte Carlo. It also replaced the 250 cid in the Chevrolet full-size trucks and full-size vans (including the mid-sized Astro) as the new base six-cylinder engine.

The 4.3L V6 has a 4.00-inch bore and a 3.48-inch stroke (101.6mm x 88.39mm), identical to the 350 cid Chevrolet V8 engine. To create a true even fire engine, Chevrolet produced a crankshaft with 30-degree offsets between each rod pin. Consequentially, rod journals were increased to a larger 2.25 inches. The connecting rods used on the 4.3L are therefore unique to this engine, being 5.7 inches in length, but having the larger 2.25-inch journals. The 4.3L also used larger valves than the 229 cid V6, with a 1.94-inch intake valve and a 1.50-inch exhaust valve (also shared with the 350).[2]

In 1986 and 1987, the 4.3L engine saw engine design upgrades similar to the Chevrolet small block V8. In 1986, the rear main crankshaft oil seal was changed from a two piece to a one piece seal. Some 1985 model year vehicles would have a 1986 engine due to service replacement - cylinder blocks were shipped with oil pans.[3] 1987 saw new center bolt valve covers and hydraulic roller lifters.[4]

For the 1992 model year, the 4.3L had its block design modified to allow a balance shaft to be installed.[5] Even though the 4.3L is an even fire V6, the 90-degree block layout is not ideal for smoothness. The balance shaft on the 4.3L is installed above the top timing gear, and runs through the top of the lifter valley. It is gear driven off the timing chain, and therefore a new timing chain cover was designed for these balanced 4.3L V6s. Balance shaft engines do not have provisions for a mechanical fuel pump unlike the non-balance shaft motors which retained the cast in boss.

As of the 2013 model year, the 4.3L was still in production although the distributor was eliminated in the late 2000s where a coil-on-plug ignition system (using a 58x crankshaft position sensor based on the GEN IV LSx) was phased in. This resulted in a new design timing cover with a wider bottom flange, making it incompatible with the 1996-06 LU3/L35. The only vehicles using the 4.3L by that time were the GMT900 light duty trucks and vans.

As of March 7, 2014, the last 4.3L engine rolled off the line at Romulus Powertrain. Chevrolet Performance still lists the LU3 motor in their product catalog. Mercury Marine, which sells its engines under the MerCruiser brand, developed a 4.5L V6 based on the 4.3L architecture using similar dimensions.

LB1 and LB4[edit]

In 1985, the 4.3L was either equipped with throttle-body fuel injection, RPO LB4 or a Rochester Quadrajet 4-Barrel carburetor, RPO LB1. The Chevrolet Caprice, Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Chevrolet El Camino, Pontiac Parisienne, and Pontiac Grand Prix used the LB4 rated at 130 hp (97 kW). Pick-ups and Vans used the LB1 version rated at 155 hp (116 kW). The LB1 used in trucks and vans was referred to as Vortec in Chevrolet literature (named after a combustion chamber design known as a swirl port which twists the fuel mix from the intake ports as introduced on the Cavalier 2.0L motor), and this name continued to be used with all truck and van 4.3L V6s until present day.

In 1986, the 4.3L engine used in passenger cars saw an increase in power to 140 hp (100 kW). This engine remained unchanged until 1990 when it was last used in taxi and Police Chevrolet Caprices. In 1986 the Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari vans used the fuel-injected LB4 instead of the LB1. In 1987, the Chevrolet full size pick-ups and full-size vans were upgraded to use the LB4 throttle-body injection version of the 4.3L. The mechanical fuel pump boss was retained but the hole was undrilled (marine applications had the fuel pump boss drilled and tapped). From 1987 onwards LB4s output was 160 hp (120 kW) for pickups, while full-size vans were rated at 150 hp (110 kW). In 1988 the S-series trucks and S-Blazer and Jimmys had the LB4 4.3L as an available option (the accessory drive was upgraded to a serpentine belt drive), which later replaced the 2.8 as the base V6. The LB4 continued until 1996 with minor variations in power, but without any major change. While a majority of LB4s did not have a balance shaft, some 1994 model year engines may have a balance shaft since production of the cylinder block used on the L35 was phased in for both induction systems. The 1994 model year was the final time a non-balance shaft cylinder block was used; production 1995 TBI engines were all balance shaft engines.

Year Horsepower Torque Fuel System Compression Ratio RPO Applications
1985–1986 155 hp (116 kW) @ 4000 rpm 230 lb⋅ft (312 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm 4-BBL 9.3:1 LB1 1,2,3
1985 130 hp (97 kW) @ 3600 rpm 210 lb⋅ft (285 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm TBI 9.3:1 LB4 4,5
1986–1990 140 hp (100 kW) @ 4000 rpm 225 lb⋅ft (305 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm TBI 9.3:1 LB4 4,5
1987–1988 145 hp (108 kW) @ 4200 rpm 225 lb⋅ft (305 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm TBI 9.3:1 LB4 5
1986 160 hp (120 kW) @ 4000 rpm 235 lb⋅ft (319 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm TBI 9.3:1 LB4 3
1987–1992 155 hp (116 kW) @ 4000 rpm 230 lb⋅ft (312 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm TBI 8.6:1 LB4(w/C6P emissions 2500&3500 series only) 2
1987–1992 160 hp (120 kW) @ 4000 rpm 235 lb⋅ft (319 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm TBI 9.1:1 LB4 1,3,6,7
1993–1995 155 hp (116 kW) @ 4000 rpm 230 lb⋅ft (312 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm TBI 9.1:1 LB4 2
1993–1995 165 hp (123 kW) @ 4000 rpm 235 lb⋅ft (319 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm TBI 9.1:1 LB4 1,3,6,7



For the 1990–1991 model years a high-output 4.3L V6 was an available option for the Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari vans. The LU2 used unique hypereutectic, strutless pistons and a more aggressive camshaft. Like the LB4, the LU2 used throttle-body fuel injection, but was rated at 170 hp (130 kW) and 260 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) of torque. This engine was replaced in 1992 with the L35.

Year Horsepower Torque Fuel System Compression Ratio RPO Applications
1990–1992 170 hp (130 kW) @ 4600 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm TBI 9.1:1 LU2 1


L35 CPI[edit]

1992 introduced a new version of the 4.3L, the L35. This version of the 4.3L was equipped with CPI (Central Port Fuel Injection). This system had one centrally located fuel injector to distribute fuel to six hoses each with a poppet valve to each of the intake ports. This system allowed for a multi-point injection, using one injector. The fuel injection was a batch fire system and used a two piece cast aluminum dual-plenum manifold. This engine was available in Chevrolet S-10 Pickups, Chevrolet C/K Pickups, and S10 Blazer/S15-Jimmys SUVs, Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari vans only. The L35 was rated at 200 hp (150 kW) and 260 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) of torque.

The cylinder block was redesigned for use with a balance shaft. Cylinder heads (10238181 casting) used with the L35 will have intake ports with eyebrows that clear the fuel injectors. Timing cover flange area was thickened in 1995 when some of the balance shaft motors had a 6 bolt timing cover - some engines had a crankshaft position sensor (in conjunction with a redesigned distributor containing a pickup assembly which functions as a camshaft position sensor) when OBDII was phased in.

Year Horsepower Torque Fuel System Compression Ratio RPO Applications
1992–1994 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,500 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 3,600 rpm CPI 9.1:1 L35 1,2,3
1995 190 hp (140 kW) at 4,500 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 3,400 rpm CPI 9.1:1 L35 1
1995 191 hp (142 kW) at 4,500 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 3,400 rpm CPI 9.1:1 L35 3
1995 195 hp (145 kW) at 4,500 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 3,400 rpm CPI 9.1:1 L35 2


L35 and LF6 SCPI and MPFI[edit]

Major design changes were made to the 4.3L V6 for the 1996 model year. Like other small block Chevrolet V8s, the 4.3L engine received redesigned heads which had improved airflow and combustion efficiency. These heads are referred to as Vortec heads.

The engine block was revised with structural reinforcing ribs up front eliminating the two freeze plugs (on the front and back) along with an alloy oil pan (for the S10, Blazer, and Jimmy). The 1996+ cast aluminum oil pan has 12 bolts where a 16 bolt oil pan from the earlier 4.3 does not interchange. These 4.3L (1996-2000) came with a redesigned 4L60-E with a removable bellhousing which bolts to the oil pan.

Crankshafts manufactured for the 1999 model year (to the end of 4.3L production) had a pilot hole depth of 1.410" when coupled to the LSx-based 4L60E, which had a redesigned torque converter pilot hub which is longer and used with a 300mm stator shaft). The torque converter pilot hub is longer than the early 4L60E (similar in appearance to the 700R4 c. 1993-95) or the second generation variants (incorporating a removable bellhousing) with the GMT330 or 1996-2000 C/K series.

This engine came in two versions, the LF6 rated at 175 hp (130 kW) - 180 hp (130 kW), and the L35 rated at 180 - 200 hp (150 kW). Only the S-series pick-ups used the LF6, while the full-size trucks, vans and Blazer and Jimmy used the L35 version. The L35 was optional on the S-Series trucks.

Year Horsepower Torque Fuel System Compression Ratio RPO Applications
1996 170 hp (130 kW) at 4,400 rpm 235 lb⋅ft (319 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 LF6 5
1997–2002 175 hp (130 kW) at 4,400 rpm 240 lb⋅ft (325 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI[6] 9.2:1 LF6 5
1996–2002 180 hp (130 kW) at 4,400 rpm 240 lb⋅ft (325 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 LF6 6
1996–2002 180 hp (130 kW) at 4,400 rpm 245 lb⋅ft (332 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 L35 5
1996–2002 190 hp (140 kW) at 4,400 rpm 250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 L35 3,4,6
1996–2002 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,400 rpm 250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 L35 2
1996–1998 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,400 rpm 255 lb⋅ft (346 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 L35 1
1999–2002 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,600 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm SCPI 9.2:1 L35 7


LU3 and LG3 MPFI[edit]

2002 saw major changes to the 4.3L fuel-injection system. For 2002 California emission Chevrolet Astros, GMC Safaris, Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras all came equipped with the updated LU3 4.3L. 2003 saw the L35 discontinued and the LU3 replacing it in all other applications. A new variation was also introduced in 2003, the LG3. For 2004 to 2009 the LU3 has been the only 4.3L produced.

The biggest change to the LU3 and LG3 was the fuel-injection system. These engines used a multipoint fuel-injection system, with six Multec II fuel injectors mounted at each intake port on the manifold. GM recommends the Multec II spider assembly (which is also available for the L30 and L31 small block V8 motors) as a replacement for the 1996-01 CPI injector/spider assembly since the poppet valves have been known to stick open. The sticking poppet valves have been attributed to ethanol fuel blends sold in the State of California. The composite upper intake manifold and cast aluminum lower intake from the L35 engine is also used on the LU3. The LG3 uses a cast aluminum upper intake and a cast iron lower intake.[7] The lower intake eliminated the EGR valve.

The LU3 also received a quiet cam to help reduce vibration at both idle and high engine speeds. This camshaft used the same lift and duration as the older design, but the cam was reprofiled to keep the valve lifters in full contact with the cam lobes as the cam ramps down.[7]

The LG3 was used in Chevrolet and GMC S-series pickups and was only produced for 2003. The LU3 was used in the Chevrolet and GMC full-size trucks and vans, the Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari vans and the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer and GMC S-15 Jimmy. The LG3 was rated at 180 hp (130 kW) and 245 lb⋅ft (332 N⋅m) of torque. The LU3 was rated at 190-200 hp and 250–260 lb·ft of torque.

For the 2007+ GMT900 Silverado/Sierra trucks, the LU3 engine received a distributorless ignition system - the traditional distributor was eliminated where a stub shaft was used. Also the crankshaft sensor was upgraded to a 58x reluctor wheel (same as the GEN IV LSx) which resulted in the timing cover redesigned (this time the cover is aluminum alloy in lieu of the composite cover; the timing cover bolt pattern is not the same as the 1996-06 LU3 and L35.

Year Horsepower Torque Fuel System Compression Ratio RPO Applications
2003 180 hp (130 kW) at 4,400 rpm 245 lb⋅ft (332 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI 9.2:1 LG3 5
2003–2005 190 hp (140 kW) at 4,400 rpm 250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI 9.2:1 LU3 3,4,6
2002–2003 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,400 rpm 250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI 9.2:1 LU3 2
2002–2003 200 hp (150 kW) at 4,600 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI 9.2:1 LU3 1
2004–2014 195 hp (145 kW) at 4,600 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) at 2,800 rpm MPFI 9.2:1 LU3 1,2


Turbocharged LB4 4.3L V6[edit]

In 1991 GMC introduced the GMC Syclone limited edition truck that used a turbocharged 4.3L V6. This engine used a Mitsubishi TD06-17C turbocharger, Garrett Water/Air intercooler and electronic multi-point fuel injection. Although GM made these modifications to the engine, it was still referred to with the RPO LB4 code. The majority of the naturally aspirated LB4's long-block was shared with the turbo version. However, the vehicles that used the 4.3L turbo engine also included RPO code ZR9. Internal engine upgrades included nodular iron main bearing caps, graphite composite head gaskets with stainless steel flanges and hypereutectic pistons which lowered the engine compression to 8.35:1.[8] A unique intake manifold that used the 48 mm (1.9 in) twin-bore throttle body from the 5.7L TPI Corvette engine was used on the engine's top end.[9]

The Turbocharged 4.3L was last used in the GMC Typhoon in the 1993 model year. The engine produced 280 hp (210 kW) @ 4400 rpm and 360 lb⋅ft (490 N⋅m) of torque @ 3600 rpm.[10]

Generation V[edit]

4.3L (262 CID)[edit]

Commencing with the 2014 model year, a new LV3 EcoTec3 4300 based on the GEN V (LT1) Small Block Chevrolet will become the new base motor for the next generation Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra light duty trucks and will be phased in throughout the rest of the truck/van line after the 2015 model year, which will signal an end to a design dating back to 1955. Like its small block V8 counterparts, GM Powertrain also sells the motor for marine and industrial applications.


ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Also calledEcoTec3
Configuration90° V6
Displacement4,301 cc (262.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore99.6 mm (3.92 in)
Piston stroke92 mm (3.6 in)
Cylinder block alloyAluminum
Cylinder head alloyAluminum
Compression ratio11.0:1
Fuel systemDirect injection
Fuel type
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Power output
  • 285 hp (213 kW) (Gasoline)
  • 297 hp (221 kW) (E85)
Torque output
  • 305 lb⋅ft (414 N⋅m) (gasoline)
  • 330 lb⋅ft (450 N⋅m) (E85)

The 4.302 l (262.5 cu in) LV3 V6 is a new engine announced by GM at the end of 2012. GM considers this a new engine design which inherits from its predecessors its displacement, 2-valve pushrod valvetrain, 90-degree cylinder angle, and 4.400 in (111.8 mm) bore centers. It is based on the fifth generation LT engine and includes the same features such as direct injection, piston cooling jets, active fuel management, variable displacement oil pump, continuously variable valve timing and aluminum cylinder heads and block. The engine is SAE certified to 285 hp (213 kW) at 5300 rpm and 305 lb⋅ft (414 N⋅m) at 3900 rpm on regular unleaded gasoline and 297 hp (221 kW) at 5300 rpm and 330 lb⋅ft (450 N⋅m) at 3900 rpm on E85. Emissions are controlled by a close-coupled catalytic converter, Quick Sync 58X ignition, returnless fuel rail, fast-response O2 sensor.[11] It was launched in the all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and 2014 GMC Sierra 1500.[12]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chevy 90-Degree V6". Archived from the original on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  2. ^ a b c "Chevy Production 90 degree - V6 Engine". Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  3. ^ "Rebuilding the Chevrolet 262". Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  4. ^ "Chevy 4.3L 262ci V-6 - The 3/4 350". Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  5. ^ "Rebuilding the new Chevy 262". Retrieved 2008-12-26.
  6. ^ "VIN Information Card 1998".
  7. ^ a b "Vortec 4300 4.3L V6 (LG3/LU3) Truck Engines". Retrieved 2008-11-04.[dead link]
  8. ^ Harhaus, Volker, Michael Pocobello & Frank Tenkel (1991). The Turbo/Intercooled Syclone Engine. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ISSN 0148-7191.
  9. ^ "ENGINE TOUR". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  10. ^ "SPECIFICATIONS". Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  11. ^ "GM 4.3 Liter V6 EcoTec3 LV3 Engine". Retrieved 2013-10-09.
  12. ^ Trio of New EcoTec3 Engines Powers Silverado and Sierra


  • Chappell, Pat (1995). The Standard Catalog of Chevrolet 1912–1990. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-141-2.
  • Lenzke, James T. (2001). The Standard Catalog of Light Duty American Trucks. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-933-2.
  • Harhaus, Volker, Michael Pocobello & Frank Tenkel (1991). The Turbo/Intercooled Syclone Engine. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ISSN 0148-7191.