|Chevrolet Bolt EV|
2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV
|Also called||Opel Ampera-e (Europe)|
|Production||October 2016 – present|
|Assembly||Battery/drivetrain, HVAC and Instrument/Infotainment systems at LG, Incheon, South Korea, with Final assembly GM Orion Assembly Detroit, Michigan|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door Hatchback|
|Layout||Electric Drive Unit, front-wheel drive|
|Electric motor||200 hp (150 kW) permanent magnet motor/generator, torque 266 lb.ft./360 Nm|
|Transmission||Electronic Precision Shift, final drive ratio 7.05:1|
|Battery||60.0 kWh lithium-ion, 288 cells, 96s3p|
238 mi (383 km) (EPA)|
320 mi (520 km) (NEDC)
240 mi (380 km) (WLTP)
|Plug-in charging||120 V, 240 V AC, SAE Combo DC Fast Charge|
|Wheelbase||102.4 in (2,600 mm)|
|Length||164.0 in (4,170 mm)|
|Width||69.5 in (1,770 mm)|
|Height||62.8 in (1,600 mm)|
|Curb weight||3,563 lb (1,616 kg)|
The Chevrolet Bolt or Chevrolet Bolt EV is a front-motor, five-door all-electric subcompact hatchback marketed by Chevrolet; developed and manufactured in partnership with LG Corporation. A rebadged European variant is sold as the Opel Ampera-e in mainland Europe.
The Bolt has an EPA all-electric range of 238 mi (383 km), and EPA fuel economy rating of 119 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) (2.0 L/100 km) for combined city/highway driving. The European Ampera-e, has a certified range of 320 mi (520 km) under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and 240 mi (380 km) under the more strict Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP).
Production for the model year 2017 began in November 2016. The European version began production in February 2017. U.S. sales began in California in December 2016, with nationwide US and Canadian release in 2017.
At its introduction, the Bolt was named the 2017 Motor Trend Car of the Year, the 2017 North American Car of the Year, and an Automobile Magazine 2017 All Star — and was listed in Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of 2016.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Specifications
- 4 Markets and sales
- 5 Awards and recognition
- 6 Pre-production name confusion
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
As of June 2015[update], General Motors had tested more than 50 Bolt prototypes hand-built at the General Motors Proving Grounds in Milford, Michigan. The cars were tested at the proving grounds and overseas locations for ride and handling dynamics, cabin comfort, quietness, charging capability, and energy efficiency.
Alan Batey, head of General Motors North America, announced in February 2015 that the Bolt EV was headed for production, and would be available in all 50 states. GM also has plans to sell the Bolt in select global markets.
In January 2016, at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, the production version of the Chevrolet Bolt was unveiled. At the show, during GM CEO Mary Barra's keynote, Chevrolet confirmed an estimated range of 200 mi (320 km) or more, around US$30,000 price after government incentives, and stated it would be available in late 2016. Barra projected in February 2016 that the European version, marketed as the Opel Ampera-e (or Vauxhall Ampera-e in the United Kingdom), would enter production in 2017.
In March 2016, GM released photos and a short pre-production video of the Bolt at the company's Orion Assembly plant outside Detroit, testing manufacturing and tooling.
An unnamed source cited by Bloomberg News estimates that General Motors is expected to take a loss of between US$8,000 and US$9,000 per Bolt sold. A GM spokesman first declined to comment on the expected profitability. Opel refuted that in December 2016 and states that GM has battery cell costs of $130/kWh, and industry is not yet optimized for mass production.
Final assembly takes place at GM's Orion Assembly plant in Orion Township, Michigan, which received a US$160 million upgrade for Bolt production. Manufacture of the battery, motor, and drive unit started in August 2016 at LG, Incheon, South Korea.
The car is designed for flexible production by having some of the battery in the same position as the fuel tank in internal combustion engine-powered cars, and is made on the same assembly line as the Chevrolet Sonic at a combined rate of 90,000 per year.
Analysts expected Bolt production at 22,000 per year, and Ampera-e at a few thousand. Production may increase to 30,000 to 50,000 per year according to demand. Initial regular production had begun by early November 2016 at a rate of 9 per hour, gradually increasing to 30/hour. Retail deliveries began in California in December 2016.[needs update]
The Bolt was designed from 2012 by a team of 180 people in GM's Korea studio (formerly Daewoo Korea), as B-segment size on its own platform, and does not share elements with the GM Gamma platform cars Chevrolet Sonic/Spark/Opel Corsa.
The EPA classifies the Bolt as "small station wagon", with less than 130 cu ft of interior volume. GM refers to the Bolt as a crossover. The passenger volume is 94 cu ft (2,700 L), and cargo space is 17 cu ft (480 L) (381 liter).
The Bolt's doors, tailgate, and hood are aluminum. The driver can adjust the level of regenerative braking as the accelerator pedal is lifted. The front seats are asymmetrical to maximize cabin volume while accommodating airbags.
The Bolt's battery uses "nickel-rich lithium-ion" chemistry, allowing the cells to run at higher temperatures than those in GM's previous electric vehicles, allowing a simpler and cheaper liquid cooling system for the 60 kWh (220 MJ) battery pack. The battery pack is a stressed member and weighs 960 lb (440 kg). It accounts for 23% of the car's value, and is composed of 288 flat "landscape" format cells (similar in shape to cells used in other GM products, but contrasting the cylindrical 18650 and 21-70 cells used by Tesla). Cells are bundled into groups of three connected in parallel, and 96 groups connected in series compose the pack. The battery is rated at 160 kW power to avoid limiting the 150 kW/340 Nm motor. GM offers a battery warranty of 8 years / 100,000 miles (160,000 km), and has no plans for other battery sizes. 
In October 2015, General Motors said they will purchase the Bolt's battery cells at a price of $145 per kilowatt hour from LG Chem, representing a minimum of $8,700 in revenue per car. The cost is reportedly about $100 cheaper per kWh than the price LG was giving other customers at the time. GM estimated a cell price of $130/kWh in December 2016.
While initially expected to share its lithium-ion battery technology with the second generation Chevrolet Volt, the production version of the Bolt uses batteries with a different chemistry more suited to the different charge cycles of a long-range electric vehicle, compared to the more frequent charging/discharging of hybrids and short-range EVs.
Other specifications include a 200 hp (150 kW) and 266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m) Interior Permanent Magnet electric motor, acceleration from 0–30 mph (0–48 km/h) in 2.9 seconds and 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in less than 7 seconds, and a top speed of 91 mph (146 km/h). The electric motor is integrated with a single-speed transmission and differential, to form a single modular drive unit that connects directly to the front axles. The single-speed transmission has a final drive ratio of 7.05:1.
Body and Chassis
The Bolt EV is tall hatchback design, with a curb weight of 3,580 pounds (1,625 kg). Despite its overall height of nearly 63 inches (1.6 meters), the center of gravity is under 21 inches (53 cm) above the ground, yielding surprisingly stable handling during cornering. The low center of gravity is due to under-floor mounting of the battery pack, following the lead of Tesla's Model S.
Bolt uses the now-common kammback/hatchback low-drag body design, with sweeping curves leading to an abrupt back end. It was initially reported to have a drag coefficient of Cd=0.32 but GM says the final production vehicle has Cd=0.308.
Range and efficiency
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) five-cycle test methodology, the Bolt fuel economy is rated at 119 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) (2.0 L/100 km) for combined driving, 128 mpg-e (1.8 L/100 km) in city and 110 mpg-e (2.1 L/100 km) in highway. Charging time is rated at 9.3 hours on a Level 2 fast charger.
The Bolt EV has a combined EPA-rated range of 238 mi (383 km). For city driving, the EPA rated the Bolt range at 255 mi (410 km), and due to its relative high drag coefficient, its range for highway driving is 217 mi (349 km). One Bolt owner was able to drive from McHenry, Maryland in the western part of the state to Ocean City, Maryland, a distance of 313 mi (504 km), on a single charge.
The Ampera-e has a certified range of 320 mi (520 km) under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test cycle with a full battery, and achieved a range of 240 mi (380 km) under the more strict Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP). Opel expected the Ampera-e to achieve a NEDC range of about 500 km (310 mi).
Until July 2017, the Bolt is the only plug-in electric car with a manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) of less than US$50,000 capable of delivering an EPA-rated range of over 200 mi (320 km). All other electric cars below that price threshold and available for retail sales, except the Tesla Model 3, can only go 60 to 125 mi (97 to 201 km) on a single charge. The Bolt also surpasses the range of Tesla's entry-level Model S 60 sedan, which has an EPA-rated range of 210 mi (340 km). Among all-electric series production cars sold in the U.S., in addition to the Model 3, only the Tesla Model S sedan and Model X crossover can go more than 200 mi (320 km).
The Renault Zoe with the optional 41 kWh battery has a range of up 400 km (250 mi) under the NEDC cycle, but Renault clarified the upgraded battery delivers a real-world range of 300 km (190 mi) in urban or suburban areas.
All models of Bolt support standard SAE EV charging plugs, at Level 1 or Level 2 (AC). A factory option supports Level 3 (rapid DC) charging with the SAE Combo DC system. A portable Level 1 charging adapter is supplied with each Bolt, stowed in a special compartment under the hatchback floor.
Level 1 (110VAC) charging supplies roughly 1 kW and adds 3–5 miles (5–8 km) of range per hour of charging. Level 2 (240VAC) charging supplies up to 7.2 kW and adds 20–30 miles (30–50 km) of range per hour of charging. Level 3 charging with the factory-option 80 kW SAE Combo DC fast charging system can add 90 mi (140 km) of range in 30 minutes, or fill the battery to 80% capacity in an hour. The Bolt user manual suggests fast-charging to only 80% charge to ensure consistent 50 kW charging.
The Bolt EV is delivered with self-sealing tires whose interior surfaces are coated with a sticky compound to automatically seal small leaks and punctures in the tread area. There is no spare tire, nor is there (officially) a place to store one. The car is equipped with a digital Tire Pressure Monitoring System to warn the driver if a tire is leaking, and a portable inflator kit is available as a standard part. Under the rear hatchback cargo deck, there is a space that can be used to store an undersized spare, and some owners carry a compatible Chevy Cruze spare tire there.
The EPA-rated range of 238 mi (383 km) was confirmed by automotive reporters driving a preproduction Bolt with a 60-kWh battery. Driven under different driving modes with the air conditioning on, the trip between Monterey and Santa Barbara was completed with an energy consumption of 50.1 kWh, representing an average efficiency of 4.8 miles per kWh (12.9 kWh/100 km). A total of 237.8 mi (382.7 km) were driven, with the Bolt's display showing 34 mi (55 km) of range remaining. Several other journalists conducted a preproduction Bolt test drive on the same route, and all reported similar results regarding the Bolt EPA-estimated range.
As part of its debut at the 2016 Paris Motor Show, Opel reported driving an Ampera-e without recharging from Piccadilly Circus in London to Porte de Versailles in Paris, the venue of the exhibition. The rebadged Bolt traveled 417 km (259 mi) with 80 km (50 mi) of range remaining.
Markets and sales
Ordering began in California and Oregon in mid-October 2016. The first three Bolts were delivered in the San Francisco Bay Area on December 13, 2016, and a total of 579 units were delivered in 2016. Availability was rolled out gradually across the United States, and by August 2017 the car was available nationwide.
Demand profile did not exactly match predictions, leading GM to slow production in July 2017. However, in the last months of 2017 Bolt demand rose rapidly; by October, it outsold any other model of electric car, including those from Tesla. Sales totaled 23,297 units in 2017, making the Bolt the U.S. second best selling plug-in car in 2017 after the Tesla Model S (~26,500). In California, the Bolt listed as the top selling plug-in car with 13,487 units delivered, ahead of the Tesla Model S, listed second with 11,813. The Bolt also led the state's subcompact segment in 2017, with a market share of 14.7% of all new cars sold in this category. As of February 2018[update], cumulative sales in the American market totaled 26,477 units.
The Bolt has been available in Canada since the beginning of 2017. A total of 2,122 Bolt EVs were sold in Canada in 2017.
The Ampera-e launch in the Norwegian market was scheduled for April 2017, when 13 were registered. Deliveries to retail customers began on May 17, 2017. Over 4,000 cars were ordered in Norway, with some to be delivered in 2018. Registrations totaled 1,121 units in 2017.
In South Korea, General Motors opened the order books on March 18, 2017, and all 400 units of the first allotment were sold out in 2 hours.
Awards and recognition
The Bolt won the 2017 Motor Trend Car of the Year award, the 2017 North American Car of the Year, the 2017 AutoGuide.com Reader's Choice Green Car of the Year, 2017 Popular Mechanics Automotive Excellence Awards Car of the Year and the Green Car Reports Best Car To Buy 2017. The Bolt also ended up Car & Driver's '10 Best Cars' list for 2017 [better source needed] The Chevy Bolt also won the 2017 Green Car of the Year awarded by the Green Car Journal. It was also named by Time Magazine among its list of 25 Best Inventions of 2016, and among Popular Science's 10 Greatest Automotive Innovations of 2016. The Bolt EV beat out the Cadillac CT6 and Jaguar XE to win the Detroit Free Press award for Car of the Year.[better source needed] Automobile magazine included the Bolt in its 2017 All Star list.
Pre-production name confusion
In 2015, Chevrolet acknowledged confusion between two vehicles with a similar-sounding names; Bolt and Volt.
Chevrolet's marketing chief, Tim Mahoney, subsequently announced GM would keep the Bolt name.
Autoblog projected similar confusion among European customers where the Opel Ampera-e (the Bolt variant) is just one letter off from the Opel Ampera, the previous-generation Chevrolet Volt sold in Europe — suggesting the names could confuse customers who think the new all-electric hatchback is closely related to the old plug-in hybrid hatchback.
- Chevrolet Spark EV
- General Motors EV1
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- Plug-in electric vehicle
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koster battericellene dem nå cirka 130 dollar per kilowattime.. .. fnyser av påstanden om at de på sikt, når produksjonen er skrudd opp, skal tape penger på elbilen
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GM redesigned the Orion assembly operation to allow workers to build either Bolts or Sonics and can shift production depending on demand
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the Bolt's squat, wedge shape. .. 'It's a disaster for aero'. The seats look off-balance but allow for a wider armrest.
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|Collection of GM videos|
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