Chevrolet Lumina

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Chevrolet Lumina
2nd Chevrolet Lumina 1.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Production1989–2001 (for 1990–2001 model years)
Body and chassis
ClassMid-size
LayoutTransverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
FR layout (Export Model)
PlatformW-body
RelatedChevrolet Monte Carlo
Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme
Pontiac Grand Prix
Chronology
PredecessorChevrolet Celebrity (sedan)
Chevrolet Monte Carlo (coupe)
Chevrolet Caprice (Mexico)
Chevrolet Impala (Argentina)
SuccessorChevrolet Impala (sedan)
Chevrolet Monte Carlo (coupe)

Chevrolet Lumina is a nameplate that was used by the Chevrolet division of General Motors used from 1990 to 2001. As the Chevrolet division sought to consolidate its mid-size nameplates under a single product range, the Lumina was offered as a two-door coupe and a four-door sedan; a mechanically unrelated minivan was produced under the Chevrolet Lumina APV nameplate.[1]

Produced upon the GM10 platform (later designated the GM W platform), the Chevrolet Lumina replaced both the Chevrolet Celebrity and Chevrolet Monte Carlo; smaller than the Chevrolet Astro, the Lumina APV replaced the Celebrity station wagon. In 1995, the Chevrolet Lumina was redesigned, with the two-door coupe adopting the Monte Carlo nameplate.[2] For 2000, the Lumina was replaced by the revival of the Chevrolet Impala nameplate, retaining the W platform through the 2016 model year.

Both the first and second generations of the Chevrolet Lumina were sourced from Oshawa Car Assembly in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. From 1998 to 2013, GM subsidiary Holden manufactured the Chevrolet Lumina in Australia as a rebadged version of the Holden Commodore (for Middle East and South Africa export).[3]

First generation (1990–1994)[edit]

First Generation
1991-1994 Chevrolet Lumina sedan -- 04-10-2011.jpg
1991-1994 Chevrolet Lumina Sedan
Overview
ProductionJanuary 1989–August 25, 1994[4]
Model years1990–1994
AssemblyOshawa, Ontario, Canada
DesignerIrvin Rybicki (1985)
Body and chassis
Body style2-door notchback coupe
4-door notchback sedan
LayoutFF layout
PlatformW-body
RelatedBuick Regal
Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme
Pontiac Grand Prix
Powertrain
Engine2.2 L LN2 I4
2.5 L Iron Duke I4
3.1 L LH0 V6
3.4 L LQ1 V6
Transmission5-speed manual
3-speed 3T40 automatic
4-speed 4T60 automatic
4-speed 4T60-E automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase107.5 in (2,730 mm)
Length1990 Coupe: 198.4 in (5,039 mm)
1990 Sedan: 197.6 in (5,019 mm)
1991–94 Coupe & 1993–94 Sedan: 198.3 in (5,037 mm)
1991–92 Sedan & Z34 Sedan: 199.3 in (5,062 mm)
WidthCoupe & Z34 Sedan: 71.7 in (1,821 mm)
Sedan: 71.0 in (1,803 mm)
HeightCoupe & Z34 Sedan: 53.3 in (1,354 mm)
Sedan: 53.6 in (1,361 mm)
Curb weight3496 lb (1586 kg)
1990 Chevrolet Lumina sedan

The North American Chevrolet Lumina was based on the mid-size GM W-body, which was shared with the Pontiac Grand Prix, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme (later Intrigue), Buick Regal and Buick Century (after 1996).[5] Although the Lumina became a popular seller, GM was widely criticized in the motoring press for being late to the game in introducing a direct aero-designed competitor to the Ford Taurus.[6] The "Lumina" name was considered by Ford in the pre-production stage of the Taurus.[7] The Chevrolet Lumina's first generation ended production in August 1994, making this the shortest-lived generation of the first-generation GM W-body cars.[8]

Chevrolet Lumina in NASCAR in 1994.

In 1989, the Lumina became the nameplate under which Chevrolets were raced in NASCAR, more than a year before the model was available to the public.[9]

Chevrolet signed a deal with Disney-MGM Studios to make the 1990 Lumina the company's Official Car.[10]

Specifications[edit]

  • Front Head Room 39.9 in.
  • Front Hip Room 51.9 in.
  • Front Shoulder 59.9 in.
  • Front Leg 49.9 in.
  • Fuel Tank 16.5 gallons

Engines[edit]

  • 1990–1992 2.5 L (151 in³) Iron Duke I4
  • 1993–1994 2.2 L (134 in³) 122 I4
  • 1990–1994 3.1 L (191 in³) LHO V6
  • 1991–1994 3.4 L DOHC (207 in³) LQ1 V6

Lumina Z34[edit]

1991–1994 Chevrolet Lumina Z34

Starting in 1990, Chevrolet offered a high performance version of the Lumina, the Lumina Z34. It came standard with the FE3 sport suspension package, the 210 hp LQ1 V6 engine shared with the Lumina Euro 3.4 (sedan), the five-speed Getrag 284 manual transmission, dual exhaust, and four-wheel anti-lock brakes. The Z34 also featured cosmetic changes to go along with the performance enhancements such as unique front and rear fascias, side skirts, a rear spoiler, a louvered hood, a unique steering wheel and sport bucket seats. Performance figures included a 0-60 mph (0–97 km/h) time of 7.2 seconds, a 1/4 mile (~400 m) time of 15.0 seconds, a (limited) top speed of 130 mph (209.21 km/h), a 60-0 mph (97–0 km/h) distance of in 153 ft (47 m), and a lateral acceleration of 0.79 g's (7.7 m/s²). A Bose stereo system and automatic transmission, which lowered the horsepower rating to 200 and 0-60 time by a .5 seconds, were optional. The only paint colors available for the Z34 were white, red, black, gray, silver, and light blue.

In 1995, the Lumina Z34 was replaced with the Chevrolet Monte Carlo Z34.

Production[edit]

Year Total Sedans Total Coupes Sedan LQ1 Coupe LQ1
1990 278,311 45,783 N/A N/A
1991 157,782 34,495 N/A 8,936
1992 188,557 33,490 5,623 13,016
1993 200,842 29,916 3,489 12,323
1994 75,753 10,866 1,234 4,478
Total production[11] 901,245 154,550

Safety[edit]

1991-1994 Chevrolet Lumina Euro 3.4 sedan
1990-1994 Lumina NHTSA scores[12][13][14][15][16]
1989 Frontal Driver Frontal Passenger Side Driver Side Passenger 4x2 Rollover 4x4 Rollover
1990 0/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1991 0/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1992 0/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1993 0/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1994 0/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated

Second generation (1995–2001)[edit]

Second generation
98Lumina.JPG
Overview
ProductionMarch 7, 1994 – April 26, 2001[4][17][18]
AssemblyRamos Arizpe, Mexico
Oshawa, Ontario, Canada
DesignerChuck Jordan (1990, 1991)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door notchback sedan
LayoutFF layout
PlatformW-body 1.5 Gen
RelatedChevrolet Monte Carlo
Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme
Pontiac Grand Prix
Powertrain
Engine3.1 L L82 V6
3.1 L LG8 V6
3.4 L LQ1 V6
3.8 L L36 V6
Transmission4-speed 4T60-E automatic
4-speed 4T65-E automatic
Dimensions
Length200.9 in (5,103 mm)
Width72.5 in (1,842 mm)
Height1995–98: 55.2 in (1,402 mm)
1999–2001: 54.8 in (1,392 mm)
Chronology
SuccessorChevrolet Caprice (in Mexico)
Chevrolet Impala (in Spain)
Chevrolet Lumina (in Mexico)
Chevrolet Lumina (in Mexico)

General Motors began development of an updated Lumina in 1989, under chief engineer Norm Sholler, planned for a late 1992 launch. By 1991, a final body design was approved. Development eventually took longer than planned, delaying launch by 18 months. The redesigned Lumina was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January 1994 as a 1995 model. The 1995 Lumina received a rounded body, increasing its size, as well as an updated interior. Unlike its other W platform counterparts, the Lumina retained the first-generation chassis. Replacing the Lumina two-door coupe was the resurrected Monte Carlo. The LH0 V6 was dropped in favor of the L82 V6, known as the 3100 SFI; the latter engine produced 20 more horsepower from the same displacement due to a revised intake manifold and cylinder heads.[19][20][21][22]

Initial trim levels consisted of base and LS; the latter replacing the "Euro" trim. Options included an electric sunroof, leather bucket seats, power windows, power driver seat, and an AM/FM stereo with CD player. This Lumina was also sold with police (code 9C3) and taxi packages, because the Chevrolet Caprice was discontinued after the 1996 model year. (1998 in Mexico, also replaced with a Holden-sourced Caprice.) Production began on Monte Carlo coupes in February 1994 and March 7, 1994 for Lumina sedans at GM's Oshawa manufacturing plant, for a June 6, 1994 market launch for the 1995 model.[23]

The LTZ trim was introduced in 1996 for the 1997 model year because the Impala SS and Caprice were discontinued. Standard features included 16" brushed aluminum wheels, blackwall radial sport tires, sport tuned suspension, a 3.1 L V6 rated at 160 hp (120 kW) and 185 lb⋅ft (251 N⋅m) or an optional 3.4 L V6 rated at 215 hp (160 kW) and 220 lb⋅ft (300 N⋅m) of torque, a rear spoiler, restyled front and rear body clips (resembling the Monte Carlo Z34), a tachometer, and a floor-mounted shifter.

In 1997 for MY 1998, the 3.4 L V6 was replaced by the 3800 Series II which produced 200 hp (150 kW) and 225 lb⋅ft (305 N⋅m) of torque. Despite its increased torque, the 3.8 liter LTZ demonstrated slightly worse performance due to its lowered horsepower, with 0-60 mph (0–100 km/h) times of 7.5 seconds (as opposed to 7.2 seconds for the LQ1) and 1/4 mile (~400 m) times of 15.7 seconds (as opposed to 15.5 seconds for the LQ1). The car has a computer-limited top speed of 107 mph (172 km/h) and the rev limiter kicks in at 5,800 rpm for the 3.8L (Rev limiter is at 7,000 rpm for the 3.4L LQ1).

Also in 1997, the 1998 model year Luminas received second generation airbags. The front-wheel drive Chevrolet Impala was introduced as a replacement for the Lumina in 1999, although GM produced 2001 model year Luminas to be exclusively sold for rental fleets. Retail sales of the Lumina ended in Canada in 1999 with the new imported models and the redesign of the Caprice, with the United States following a year later. Fleet production ended on April 26, 2001. In some Asian countries, the Lumina continued as a rebadged Buick Century/Regal.

Chevrolet Lumina LTZ

Specification levels[edit]

Throughout its lifecycle, the second generation Lumina was available in three trim levels:

Base (1995–2001): The most popular Lumina had standard front row bench seat with seating for six passengers, power locks, tilt steering wheel, dual airbags, and air conditioning. Base models were equipped with fifteen-inch steel wheels with wheel covers.

LS (1995–1999): The mid-level trim models included aluminum wheels, optional dual zone temperature controls, power windows (optional on Base), tachometer, higher-end stereo with GM's Delcolock, anti-lock brakes, remote keyless entry system, upgraded seats, and an optional 3.4 L DOHC engine (1995-1996).

LTZ (1997–1999): The top of the line Lumina included alloy wheels, a choice of the 3.1 L V6 engine, 3.4L DOHC engine (1997) and the 3.8 L V6 engine (1998-1999), power driver seat, dual zone climate control and leather with the option for deluxe cloth. A center console was standard on LTZ (optional on LS). Exterior differentiation included the front end, trunk lid, and taillights from the Fifth Generation Chevrolet Monte Carlo.

Engines[edit]

  • 1995–1999 3.1 L (191 in³) L82 V6
  • 1995–1997 3.4 L DOHC (207 in³) LQ1 V6
  • 1998–1999 3.8 L (231 in³) L36 V6
  • 2000–2001 3.1 L (191 in³) LG8 V6

Production[edit]

Year Total Units LQ1 L36
1995 264,688 15,998 N/A
1996 224,553 2,054 N/A
1997 234,626 7 N/A
1998 208,627 N/A 16,679
1999 139,098 N/A 13,869
2000 37,493 N/A N/A
2001 42,803 N/A N/A
Total production 1,151,888

Safety[edit]

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)[edit]

1995-2001 Lumina IIHS scores[24]
Moderate overlap frontal offset Good
Small overlap frontal offset Not Tested
Side impact Not Tested
Roof strength Not Tested

NHTSA[edit]

1995-2001 Lumina NHTSA scores[25][26][27][28][29][30][31]
Year Frontal Driver Frontal Passenger Side Driver Side Passenger 4x2 Rollover 4x4 Rollover
1995 5/5 stars 4/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1996 5/5 stars 4/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated Not Rated
1997 5/5 stars 4/5 stars 4/5 stars 3/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated
1998 4/5 stars 5/5 stars 4/5 stars 3/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated
1999 4/5 stars 5/5 stars 4/5 stars 3/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated
2000 4/5 stars 5/5 stars 4/5 stars 3/5 stars Not Rated Not Rated
2001 4/5 stars 5/5 stars 4/5 stars 3/5 stars 4/5 stars Not Rated

Third & fourth generation (1998–2013)[edit]

Third & fourth generation
2000-2001 Chevrolet Lumina SS 01.jpg
2000–2001 Chevrolet Lumina SS sedan
(third generation)
Overview
Production1998–2013
AssemblyElizabeth, South Australia
Body and chassis
Body style4-door sedan
LayoutFR layout
PlatformGM V platform (1998–2006)
GM Zeta platform (2006–2013)
RelatedHolden Commodore
Chevrolet Omega
Pontiac G8
Chevrolet Lumina LS

The Australian GM subsidiary, Holden, manufactured a third and fourth generation Lumina based on the rear-wheel drive Commodore (VX, VZ and VE series) sedan, sport utility and coupé (the latter body not available with the fourth generation VE series).

This model was exclusively manufactured for export primarily to the Middle East and South Africa. Luxury specifications of these sedans were also exported in Brazil as the Chevrolet Omega.

High-performance models were powered by Chevrolet V8 engines, including the high specification Pontiac G8 based on the VE Series, exported to the United States.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chevrolet Lumina - Research New & Used Chevy Lumina Sedans". Automotive.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  2. ^ "Chevrolet Monte Carlo model history". NADAguides. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  3. ^ Nunez, Alex. "Chevrolet Special Vehicles debuts in Middle East with the CR8". Autoblog. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  4. ^ a b http://www.autonews.com/article/20010430/ANA/104300757/lumina-reaches-end-of-the-line
  5. ^ "Curbside Classic: 1990-94 Chevrolet Lumina – Not Quite Saving The Best 'Til Last". Curbside Classic. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  6. ^ Krebs, Michelle (1996-06-23). "Behind the Wheel: Ford Taurus G vs. Chevrolet Lumina;Some Cheap Shots In the Price Fight". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  7. ^ Snitkoff, Edward. "Curbside Classic: 1986 Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable – At This Moment, You Mean Everything". Curbside Classics. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  8. ^ "New Chevrolet Lumina". www.thenewautos.net. Archived from the original on 2016-02-02. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  9. ^ "Lumina To Make Its Nascar Finale". tribunedigital-dailypress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  10. ^ Okulski, Travis. "The 1990 Chevrolet Lumina Is The Official Car Of Disney-MGM Studios". jalopnik.com.
  11. ^ The Encyclopedia of American Cars, 2006 Edition
  12. ^ "1990 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  13. ^ "1991 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  14. ^ "1992 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  15. ^ "1993 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  16. ^ "1994 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  17. ^ "Historical Newspapers - Newspapers.com".
  18. ^ https://www.gmheritagecenter.com/docs/gm-heritage-archive/vehicle-information-kits/Lumina/1995-Chevrolet-Lumina.pdf
  19. ^ Lienert, Paul. "Big Three Hope Makeovers Will Win Converts". Chicago Tribune.
  20. ^ Levin, Doron P. "Fast-Paced World Of Family Sedans Passing GM By". The New York Times.
  21. ^ autosofinterest.com/2014/01/05/design-notes-1995-chevrolet-lumina-sedan/2/
  22. ^ Dean, Paul (13 January 1994). "In 2000: Future Stock: Sorry, cars won't fly or walk on water. And they'll still slurp up gas. But look for more luxury, lighter frames and better value". Los Angeles Times.
  23. ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/19940221/ANA/402210747/chevrolet-rolls-out-its-comeback-cars-:monte-carlo-lumina-lead-mid
  24. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: Chevrolet Lumina". Iihs.org. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  25. ^ "1995 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  26. ^ "1996 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  27. ^ "1997 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  28. ^ "1998 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  29. ^ "1999 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  30. ^ "2000 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
  31. ^ "2001 Chevrolet Lumina 4-DR. | Safercar - NHTSA". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-05.

External links[edit]