Cheyenne, Wyoming

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Cheyenne, Wyoming
City of Cheyenne
Downtown Cheyenne
Downtown Cheyenne
Official seal of Cheyenne, Wyoming
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Magic City of the Plains; Capital City (of Wyoming); The Frontier City
Location within Laramie County and location of Laramie County in Wyoming.
Location within Laramie County and location of Laramie County in Wyoming.
Cheyenne is located in Wyoming
Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Location within Wyoming
Cheyenne is located in the United States
Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 41°8′44″N 104°48′7″W / 41.14556°N 104.80194°W / 41.14556; -104.80194Coordinates: 41°8′44″N 104°48′7″W / 41.14556°N 104.80194°W / 41.14556; -104.80194
CountryUnited States
StateWyoming
CountyLaramie
Founded1867
Named forCheyenne people
Government
 • MayorMarian Orr[1]
Area
 • City28.61 sq mi (74.10 km2)
 • Land28.50 sq mi (73.81 km2)
 • Water0.11 sq mi (0.29 km2)  0.45%
Elevation
6,062 ft (1,848 m)
Population
 • City59,466
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
63,957
 • RankUS: 589th
 • Density2,232.66/sq mi (862.04/km2)
 • Urban
73,588 (US: 377th)
 • Metro
98,976 (US: 356th)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (Mountain)
Zip Code
82001, 82002, 82003, 82006, 82007, 82008, 82009, 82010
Area code(s)307
FIPS code56-13900[5]
GNIS feature ID1609077[6]
HighwaysI-25 (WY).svgUS 87.svg I-80 (WY).svg I-180 (WY).svg
US 85.svg US 30.svg
Websitewww.cheyennecity.org
Most populous Wyoming City

Cheyenne (/ʃˈæn/ shy-AN or /ʃˈɛn/) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.[7] It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population was 59,466 at the 2010 census.[8] Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado which has a population of 4,333,742 according to the 2010 United States Census.[3][9] Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek. The Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th-most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

History[edit]

c.1876
c.1882

On July 5, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew plotted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory (later Wyoming Territory). This site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River. The city was not named by Dodge, as his memoirs state, but rather by friends who accompanied him to the area Dodge called "Crow Creek Crossing".[10] It was named for the American Indian Cheyenne tribe, one of the most famous and prominent Great Plains tribes closely allied with the Arapaho.

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad brought hopes of prosperity to the region when it reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. The population at the time numbered over 4,000, and grew rapidly.[10] This rapid growth earned the city the nickname "Magic City of the Plains".[10]

In 1867, Fort D. A. Russell was established, three miles (5 km) west of the city. The fort was later renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base.

The Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917.

The Wyoming Stock Growers Association met at The Cheyenne Club, which allegedly acted as an interim government for the territory. Many of the WSGA's rules and regulations became state laws.

The Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920, initially serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving DC-3s and various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17s, B-24s, and PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield. Today, it serves a number of military functions, as well as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft.[11]

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

Late-June 2003 view from the International Space Station.

Lying near the southeast corner of the state, Cheyenne is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation (together with cities such as Carson City, Nevada; Juneau, Alaska; and Topeka, Kansas).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles (63.79 km2), of which 24.52 square miles (63.51 km2) is land and 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) is water.[12]

Climate[edit]

Cheyenne, like most of the rest of Wyoming, has a cool semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), and is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5b, with the suburbs falling in zone 5a.[13] Winters are cold and moderately long, but relatively dry, with a December average of 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), highs that fail to breach freezing occur 35 days per year, and lows dip to the 0 °F (−17.8 °C) mark on 9.2 mornings.[14] However, the cold is often interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F (10 °C) on twenty days from December to February.[14]

Snowfall is greatest in March and April, seasonally averaging 60 inches (1,500 mm), historically ranging from 13.1 inches (330 mm) between July 1965 and June 1966 up to 121.5 inches (3,090 mm) between July 1979 and June 1980, yet thick snow cover rarely stays.[14] Summers are warm, with a high diurnal temperature range; July averages 69.4 °F (20.8 °C), and highs reach 90 °F (32.2 °C) on an average twelve afternoons annually. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the average window for freezing temperatures being September 29 thru May 14, allowing a growing season of 106 days.[14] Official record temperatures range from −38 °F (−38.9 °C) on January 9, 1875, up to 100 °F (37.8 °C) on June 23, 1954, the last of four occurrences; the record cold daily maximum is −21 °F (−29.4 °C) on January 11, 1963, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 68 °F (20 °C) on July 31, 1960.[14] The annual precipitation of 15.9 inches (400 mm) tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter; it has historically ranged from 5.04 inches (128.0 mm) in 1876 to 23.69 inches (602 mm) in 1942.[14]

The city averages below 60% daily relative humidity in each month and receives an average 2,980 hours (~67% of the possible total) of sunshine annually. On July 16, 1979 an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne causing one death and 40 injuries.[15] It was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history.[16]

Climate data for Cheyenne Regional Airport, Wyoming (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1872−present[b])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
71
(22)
77
(25)
83
(28)
91
(33)
100
(38)
100
(38)
98
(37)
95
(35)
85
(29)
75
(24)
69
(21)
100
(38)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 58.4
(14.7)
59.9
(15.5)
67.4
(19.7)
74.6
(23.7)
82.4
(28.0)
89.9
(32.2)
94.2
(34.6)
91.8
(33.2)
86.4
(30.2)
77.3
(25.2)
66.8
(19.3)
58.1
(14.5)
94.7
(34.8)
Average high °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
40.5
(4.7)
47.5
(8.6)
54.9
(12.7)
64.7
(18.2)
75.3
(24.1)
83.4
(28.6)
81.2
(27.3)
71.8
(22.1)
58.8
(14.9)
46.5
(8.1)
38.2
(3.4)
58.6
(14.8)
Average low °F (°C) 18.0
(−7.8)
18.6
(−7.4)
24.4
(−4.2)
30.8
(−0.7)
40.2
(4.6)
48.9
(9.4)
55.5
(13.1)
54.1
(12.3)
44.7
(7.1)
33.9
(1.1)
24.2
(−4.3)
17.3
(−8.2)
34.3
(1.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −4.8
(−20.4)
−4.9
(−20.5)
6.1
(−14.4)
14.9
(−9.5)
27.1
(−2.7)
37.3
(2.9)
46.9
(8.3)
45.3
(7.4)
29.9
(−1.2)
17.0
(−8.3)
2.2
(−16.6)
−6.5
(−21.4)
−15.1
(−26.2)
Record low °F (°C) −38
(−39)
−34
(−37)
−21
(−29)
−8
(−22)
8
(−13)
25
(−4)
33
(1)
25
(−4)
8
(−13)
−5
(−21)
−21
(−29)
−28
(−33)
−38
(−39)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.33
(8.4)
0.47
(12)
1.05
(27)
1.78
(45)
2.34
(59)
2.34
(59)
2.19
(56)
1.95
(50)
1.48
(38)
0.93
(24)
0.59
(15)
0.49
(12)
15.94
(405)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.9
(15)
7.9
(20)
11.3
(29)
10.2
(26)
2.3
(5.8)
trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
1.3
(3.3)
5.0
(13)
8.0
(20)
8.4
(21)
60.3
(153)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 4.9 6.2 8.6 10.3 12.4 11.4 10.7 11.0 8.3 7.4 6.4 6.2 103.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.7 6.5 7.8 6.1 1.8 0.1 0 0 0.7 3.4 6.1 6.8 45.0
Average relative humidity (%) 52.5 54.6 56.1 54.3 55.8 53.5 51.3 51.4 51.5 50.0 53.6 54.0 53.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 190.7 202.6 253.1 271.9 291.9 303.2 317.5 297.4 262.3 237.0 178.8 175.4 2,981.8
Percent possible sunshine 64 68 68 68 65 67 69 70 70 69 60 61 67
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[14][18][19]
Climate data for Cheyenne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.3
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 9 10 10 9 7 4 2 1 5.8
Source: Weather Atlas [20]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18701,450
18803,456138.3%
189011,690238.3%
190014,08720.5%
191011,320−19.6%
192013,82922.2%
193017,36125.5%
194022,47429.5%
195031,93542.1%
196043,50536.2%
197041,254−5.2%
198047,28314.6%
199050,0085.8%
200053,0116.0%
201059,46612.2%
Est. 201863,957[4]7.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[21]
1870–2000 census[22]
2018 estimate[23]

At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city's population was 87.2% White or European American (79.3% non-Hispanic White alone), 12.7% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race.[24] 22.5% of the total population had a Bachelor's degree or higher.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 59,467 people, 25,558 households, and 15,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile (936.4/km2). There were 27,284 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile (429.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.44% European American, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, and 3.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population.

There were 25,558 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.3% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92.

The median age in the city was 36.5 years. Twenty-four percent of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 53,011 people, 22,324 households, 14,175 families residing in the city, and 81,607 people residing in the Metropolitan Statistical Area making it the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Wyoming. The population density was 2,511.4 inhabitants per square mile (969.6/km2). There were 23,782 housing units at an average density of 1,126.7 per square mile (435.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.1% White or European American, 2.8% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. 12.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 22,324 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93.

The city has a wide range of age groups, with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,856, and the median income for a family was $46,771. Males had a median income of $32,286 versus $24,529 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,809. About 6.3% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

Wyoming State Capitol, the home of the state’s legislature

Cheyenne's government consists of a mayor and a city council, elected on a non-partisan basis. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has nine members each of whom are elected from one of three wards. Each ward elects three members. The mayor's office is responsible for managing the various city departments which consist of Street/Alley, Police, Fire, Parks, Fleet Maintenance, Traffic, Sanitation, Downtown Historic District, Weed and Pest, Facilities Maintenance, and Cemetery. The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities is owned by the city but is semi-autonomous.[25]

Education[edit]

Public education in the city of Cheyenne is provided by Laramie County School District #1. The district is served by four high schools, Central High on the northwest side, East High on the east side, South High on the south side, and Triumph High, also on the south side.

Cheyenne is home to the Laramie County Community College (LCCC), one of seven constituent campuses managed by the Wyoming Community College Commission.

Cheyenne has a public library, a branch of the Laramie County Library System.[26]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Lions Park

The Cheyenne Community Recreation and Events Department operates an Ice and Events center, swimming pool, spray park, skateboard park, two golf courses, Cheyenne Botanic Gardens (including the Paul Smith Children's Village at the Gardens), paddle boat rentals in Lions Park (summers only), cemeteries, forestry operations, community house, Youth Activity Center and a miniature golf park. The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department also operates a 37 miles (60 kilometers)) Greater Cheyenne Greenway system. The greenway connects parks and neighborhoods of greater Cheyenne. It includes many bridges and underpasses where travelers can avoid high traffic roads and travel above waterways and drainages. In 1996, as a result of the greenway, Cheyenne was named a "Trail Town USA" by the National Park service and the American Hiking Society.[27]

Sports venues in Cheyenne include the Cheyenne Ice and Events Center, Pioneer Park,[28] Powers Field,[29] Bison Stadium[30][31] and Okie-Blanchard Stadium.[32]

Professional sports[edit]

The Cheyenne Warriors were founded as an American Professional Football League team in 2012. After playing a season in the APFL, they announced a move to the Indoor Football League. Shortly after the owner of the team died in December 2012, the Warriors announced that they were forming the new Developmental Football League. After playing several games in this new league, the team folded in May 2013.

Landmarks[edit]

Cheyenne's VFW post (1980) photographed by John Margolies, catalogues of roadside attractions

National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Over fifty different locations in Cheyenne are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including:

Several districts in the city are also listed, including:

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Road Network
Plaque depicting the city’s street grid along with historic districts
  • I-25 – North–South Interstate running from New Mexico to Wyoming intersects I-80 southwest of Cheyenne.
  • I-80 – East-West Interstate running from California to New Jersey. Intersects I-25 southwest of Cheyenne.
  • I-180 – Bypass Interstate that runs concurrent with US 85 from I-80 to US 30.
  • US 30 (Lincoln Highway) – East-West route through Cheyenne
  • US 85 (South Greeley Highway, Central Avenue (Southbound), Warren Avenue (Northbound)) – North–South route through Cheyenne
  • US 87 – North–South through Cheyenne that runs concurrent with I-25 through Cheyenne
  • WYO 210 (Happy Jack Road) – East-West route from I-25/US 87 (Exit 10) west out of Cheyenne towards Laramie
  • WYO 211 (Horsecreek Road) – Runs northwest out of Cheyenne to Horse Creek.
  • WYO 212 (College Drive, Four Mile Road) – North–South route that forms a beltway around Cheyenne. From I-25 (Exit 7) to WYO 219
  • WYO 219 (Yellowstone Road) – North–South route from US 85 in Cheyenne near the Cheyenne Airport north out of the city
  • WYO 221 (Fox Farm Road) – East-west route from US 85 east to WYO 212 in Cheyenne
  • WYO 222 (Fort Access Road) – North–South route from WYO 225 just southeast of Cheyenne and travels north to F.E. Warren Air Force Base and continues on its north route east of the city to WYO 221
  • WYO 225 (Otto Road) – East-West route from I-80/US 30 southwest of Cheyenne west

Local bus service[edit]

Cheyenne provides local hourly bus service from 6:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. Monday to Friday and 10:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. on Saturday. There is no Sunday service.[33]

Airports[edit]

Cheyenne Regional Airport features daily, nonstop airline service on American Eagle to Dallas/Forth Worth.

Railroads[edit]

The Union Pacific and BNSF railroads intersect in Cheyenne. The city is home to a BNSF railyard, as well as the Union Pacific's steam program. UP's 844, 3985 and 4014 reside in the steam shop.[34]

Arts and culture[edit]

Cheyenne Frontier Days, which is held over ten days centered around the last full week in July, is the largest outdoor rodeo in the US. The events include professional bull riding, calf roping, barrel racing, steer wrestling, team roping, bronc riding, steer roping, bareback riding, and many others. During this week there are many parades and other events. Additionally there is a carnival with numerous rides, games, and shops.[35]

Media[edit]

  • Wyoming Tribune Eagle newspaper
  • The Cheyenne Herald (OCLC 51310460) was written and published by Dave Featherly from 2002–2012.[36]
  • KGWN

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Cheyenne's sister cities are:[82]

Suburbs[edit]

1. North Cheyenne 2. South Greeley 3. Warren A.F.B 4. Ranchettes 5. Orchard Valley 6. Fox Farm-College

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Cheyenne kept at the City Office from January 1871 to August 1935 and at Cheyenne Regional since September 1935.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mayor's Office, Cheyenne. Accessed January 18, 2009.
  2. ^ "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  4. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  8. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Cheyenne city, Wyoming". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
  9. ^ "Front Range - America 2050". America2050.org. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c "History of Cheyenne". City of Cheyenne. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  11. ^ "Cheyenne Regional Airport History". Cheyenne Regional Airport. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  13. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  15. ^ "Tornado History Project: Maps and Statistics". Tornadohistoryproject.com. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  16. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  17. ^ ThreadEx
  18. ^ "Station Name: WY CHEYENNE". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  19. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CHEYENNE WSFO, WY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  20. ^ "Cheyenne, Wyoming, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
  21. ^ "Decennials - Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. February 8, 2006. Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  22. ^ "HISTORICAL DECENNIAL CENSUS POPULATION FOR WYOMING COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNS". Eadiv.state.wy.us. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
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  27. ^ "American Hiking Society – Protecting the places you love to hike". Americanhiking.org. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
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  29. ^ "Premier West Baseball Field Locations". premierwestbaseball.com. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  30. ^ "Stadiums — Wyoming High School Football History". wyoming-football.com. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  31. ^ "Wyoming High School Football Stadium Capacities". wyoming-football.com. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  32. ^ "Laramie County School District – Okie-Blanchard Sports Complex". davispartnership.com. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
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  38. ^ Aaron Schrank (November 5, 2014). "Republican Jillian Balow Elected Wyoming Schools Chief". Wyoming Public Radio. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
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  54. ^ "For the Record: Robert Mills Grant, May 2, 2012". Platte County Record Times. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
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