Chhatrapati (Devanagari: छत्रपती) is an Indian royal title equivalent to an Emperor used by the Marathas. The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is from Sanskrit chhatra (roof or umbrella) and pati (master/owner/ruler); Chhatrapati thus indicates a person who gives shelter to his followers and protects them.
In contrast, the Indian Maharaja or Raja, Yuvraj, Rajkumar or Kumar, Senapati, and Sardar most closely equate to the European titles King, Crown Prince, Prince, Duke, and Count, respectively. Shivaji adopted this title due to the fact that a lot of the other titles were bestowed on rulers by other powers like Adilshahi or Mughals.
Chhatrapti is the title adopted by Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, founder of the Maratha Empire when he got crowned. As described below, Shivaji's lineal successors in the royal House of Bhonsle also held the title of Chhatrapati.
The Royal House of Bhonsle
|Shivaji||c. April 1627 / 19 February 1630||1674 - 1680||3 April 1680|
|Sambhaji||14 May 1657||20 July 1680 - 11 March 1689||11 March 1689|
|Rajaram||24 February 1670||1689 – 1700||3 March 1700|
|Shivaji II||9 June 1696||1700 – 1708||14 March 1726|
|Shahu||18 May 1682||1708 – 1748||15 December 1749|
The royal Bhonsle line then splits into two, the Chhatrapatis of Satara and the Chhatrapatis of Kolhapur:
The Chhatrapatis of Satara
- Shahu (1708–1748)
- Ramraja (1749–1777)
- Shahu II of Satara (1777–1808)
- Pratapsingh (1808–1839)
- Shahaji II of Satara (1839–1848)
- 1848 to Great Britain
- Pratapsinh I (adopted)
- Rajaram III
- Pratapsinh II
- Raja Shahu III (1918–1950)
- Pratapsinhraje (1950–1978)
- Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978-)
The Chhatrapatis of Kolhapur
- Tarabai as a regent of Shivaji II (1700–1708)
- Shivaji II (1700–1712)
- Sambhaji II (1712–1760)
- Shivaji III (1760–1812)
- Shambhu (1812–1821)
- Shahaji (1821–1838)
- Shivaji III (1838–1866)
- Rajaram I (1866–1870)
- Shivaji IV (1871–1883)
- Shahaji II also known as Rajarshi Shahu(1874–1922) (adopted from the ruling Ghatge family of Kagal)
- Rajaram III (1922–1940)
- Shivaji V (1941–1946)
- Sambhaji III as titular Prince (1971–1983)
- Shahu II as titular Maharaja (1983–present) (adopted from Bhosale family of Nagpur)
- Maheshwari, K.K. & K.W. Wiggins (1989). Maratha Mints and Coinage, Nashik: Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies, pp.205–6
- H. S. Sardesai (2002). Shivaji, the great Maratha, Volume 2. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 428. ISBN 978-81-7755-284-3.
- Indu Ramchandani, ed. (2000). Student’s Britannica: India (Set of 7 Vols.) 39. Popular Prakashan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
- ^ V.S. Kadam, 1993. Maratha Confederacy: A Study in its Origin and Development. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi.
- D.B. Kasar, Rigveda to Rajgarh – Making of Shivaji the Great. Manudevi Prakashan, Mumbai.