Chhotu Ram

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Sir Chhotu Ram
Chhotu Ram 1995 stamp of India.jpg
Sir Chhotu Ram on a 1995 stamp of India
Born(1881-11-24)24 November 1881
Died9 January 1945(1945-01-09) (aged 63)
Lahore, Punjab, British India
(present-day Punjab, Pakistan)
Alma materUniversity of Delhi
TitleFor the honesty of Social work, he was given the title of the Sir.
Political partyUnionist Party
Spouse(s)Giano Devi
FamilyCh. Birender Singh (grandson) and Ch. Mahender Singh Ohlian (Great Grandson)

Sir Chhotu Ram (born Ram Richpal; 24 November 1881 – 9 January 1945) was a prominent politician in British India's Punjab Province, an ideologue of the pre-Independent India, who belonged to the Jat community and championed[dubious ] the interest of oppressed communities[according to whom?] of the Indian subcontinent. For this feat, he was knighted in 1937. On the political front, he was a co-founder of the National Unionist Party which ruled the United Punjab Province in pre-independent India and kept Congress and Muslim League at bay.

Early life[edit]

Chhotu Ram was born as Ram Richpal in a Jat family in the village of Garhi Sampla, Rohtak district, Punjab Province.[1] His parents were Chaudhary Sukhiram Singh Ohlian and Sarla Devi. He acquired the nickname Chhotu Ram as he was the youngest of his brothers.[2] He was married to a Jat girl of Village Kheri Jat, Jhajjar.

Chhotu Ram joined primary school in January 1891, passing out four years later. When he was around eleven years of age he married Giano Devi.[3] He studied for his middle school examination in Jhajjar, 12 miles from his village, then enrolled in the Christian Mission School in Delhi. He passed his intermediate examination in 1903 and proceeded to St. Stephen's College, Delhi from where he graduated in 1905[4] with a distinction in Sanskrit. He gained his LLB from Agra College in 1910 and began his practice as an advocate in 1912. He started the Anglo-Sanskrit School on 26 March 1913 in Rohtak. He joined Indian National Congress in 1916. Chhotu Ram worked as the President of the Rohtak District Congress Committee from 1916 to 1920. Parts of his education were funded by the prominent Jat philanthropist Seth Chhaju Ram.

Political activities[edit]

After 1920, Ram tried to create a non-sectarian peasant group consciousness. He formed the Unionist Party (Zamindara League) in 1923, which was a cross-communal alliance of Hindu, Sikh, and Muslim agriculturists. He soon aligned with such Muslim leaders as Fazli Husain.[citation needed]

The Unionist Party won elections in 1935 to form the provincial government in the capital at Lahore. As revenue minister, he brought in changes in the law to stop the practice of usury (charging interest on interest). Among the supporters of the party at this point were such prominent urban Muslims as Abdul Qadir.[5]

Ram initially approved the Bhakhra Dam Scheme.[citation needed] He got an agreement between the Maharaja of Bilaspur, in whose territory the waters of river Sutlej were to be impounded and the Punjab government signed only a few weeks before he died on 9 January 1945.

Political views[edit]

There are many instances, which represent his value for education and compassion for the poor. A substantial portion of his salary as minister was set aside for scholarships and stipends for economically poor but bright students.

The enactment of two agrarian laws was primarily due to his contribution. These were the Punjab Relief Indebtedness Act of 1934 and the Punjab Debtor's Protection Act of 1936,[6] which emancipated the peasants from the clutches of the moneylenders and restored the right of land to the tiller.

Ram died in Lahore on 9 January 1945. His body was carried back to his home in Rohtak city, where it was cremated at the Jat Heroes Memorial Anglo Sanskrit Senior Secondary School in the presence of thousands of people.


Chhotu Ram was awarded the title of 'Rao Bahadur'.[citation needed] He was knighted in 1937 and was popularly known as Deen Bandhu (in Urdu as Rahbare Azam, which translates as messiah of the poor).


All punjabis recognised that Chotu Ram's demise possessed profound political consequences.[7] Farmers flocked to Rohtak to pay respects at his demise. His legacy has been evoked by the formation of a new party, the National Unionist Zamindara Party by guar farmers in Rajasthan in 2013.[8]

Monuments and memorials[edit]

Ram's place of residence in Rohtak was known as "Prem Nivas" and "Nili Kothi" (English: Blue Bungalow). The chowk (road square) nearest to his house is now known as "Chhotu Ram Chowk" and a Dharamshala exists at the same place in his name. A samadhi (tomb) was created in his memory at the school campus where he was cremated, and there people pay homage on his birthday each year.

Chhotu Ram State College of Engineering College in Murthal (Sonepat District), Haryana, is named after him (the name of the college has since been changed to Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology abbreviated as DCRUST, after it got the University Status in 2006).

Sir Chhotu Ram College of Education, Kurukshetra is named after him.[9] Further, Sir Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering & Technology at Meerut is also named after him.

The Indian government issued a commemorative stamp on 9 January 1995.

The Jat-Anglo Sanskrit School was started by him on 26 March 1913 in Rohtak. A Bachelor of Education college at the same campus, is also named after him.

Ch. Birender Singh, Sir Chhotu Ram's daughter's son got built a 64 feet statue by Ch. Chhotu Ram Trust - Rohtak, highest in Haryana, at his birth site, Garhi Sampla. This statue was unveiled by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 9 October 2018.


  1. ^ Tika Ram (1979). Sir Chhotu Ram: a biography. Ritu.
  2. ^ S.P. Sen, Dictionary of National Biography, Vol ?, Calcutta, 1973, p.309
  3. ^ S.P. Sen, Dictionary of National Biography, Vol ?, Calcutta, 1973, p.310
  4. ^ Sir Chhotu Ram Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ J. Henry Korson. (1974) Contemporary Problems of Pakistan. Brill. p. 10
  6. ^ Abhishek Kadyan (3 January 2009) UK Indymedia – Rahabar-i-Azam Sir Chhotu Ram – angel for farmer. Retrieved on 30 November 2018.
  7. ^ Khizr Tiwana, the Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India. Routledge. 16 December 2013. ISBN 9781136790362.
  8. ^ Guar farmers plan own party in Rajasthan. (23 October 2012). Retrieved on 2018-11-30.
  9. ^ "Sir Chhotu Ram". Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • K.C.Yadav: The Crisis in India: Reflections of Sir Chhotu Ram, Haryana Historical Society, Kurukshetra, 1996
  • Balbir Singh: Sir Chhotu Ram in Thoughts and Deeds, Jat Samaj Sewa Trust (regd.), New Delhi, 1930
  • Madan Gopal: Sir Chhotu Ram: A Political Biography, B.R. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 1988
  • Madan Gopal: Sir Chhotu Ram: The Man and the Vision, Bhagirath Sewa Sansthan, Ghaziabad, 1997 ISBN 81-85083-28-2

External links[edit]