Togakure-ryū (戸隠流?) is a historical tradition of Ninjutsu known as the "School of the Hidden Door", purportedly founded during the Oho period (1161–1162) by Daisuke Nishina (仁科大助?) (also known as Daisuke Togakure (戸隠大助?)), who learned his original fighting techniques from a Chinese monk named Kain Dōshi. However, the history and early lineage of Togakure-ryū may be impossible to verify due to the antiquity of the time period and its claimed historicity has been disputed by Watatani Kiyoshi, writer for the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten. After Togakure, the title of Sōke (grand master) was stated by Toda Shinryuken Masamitsu to have been passed down through other practitioners that kept the style secret from the outside world.
Toshitsugu Takamatsu is the stated 33rd Sōke of this style. According to Bujinkan sources he became well-known throughout China and Japan for his martial arts abilities and also his knowledge from studying Ninjutsu that he then imparted on various Chinese nobles. Passing on the title of Sōke to Masaaki Hatsumi, the stated 34th Sōke, it was Hatsumi who brought the style to public attention, which has resulted in the high amount of media and public attention on ninja in the Western world.
The style of Togakure-ryū has been described by its practitioners as being less restricted into certain training regimens like other styles and instead encourages questions and individual, personal training. One of the main goals of the training is to teach students the ability of shin shin shin gan (God's eyes, God's mind) so that they can learn to properly know their opponents and defend themselves.
The historical claims stated by Masaaki Hatsumi and his Bujinkan organization have been disputed, as there is little evidence to corroborate the history as it is told. The Bugei Ryūha Daijiten has claimed that embellishments were made to the history, changing the age of things to make the school appear older than it is.
According to Bujinkan researcher Glenn Morris, Togakure-ryu originated in the Mie Prefecture with its creator, Daisuke Nishina. Morris explains that it was started in 1162, as a way of fighting in the war between the Genji and Heike (Taira) clans. The style itself would go on to be known as the origination of ninjutsu and its various fighting styles. Nishina was a samurai and a member of the Genji clan, which had been staging a revolt against the Heike clan because of their oppression against the Genji people. The revolt, however, was crushed and Nishina fled his home village of Togakure in Shinano Province to save his children.
Hatsumi Masaaki indicates that Nishina then changed his name to Togakure to reflect where he had come from and settled down in the forests on the Kii Peninsula in the Iga Province. This account claims that it was there that Nishina met Kain Dōshi, a warrior-monk who had been politically exiled from China. From Kain, Togakure learned the fighting styles of China and Tibet and put aside his 'samurai code'. Hatsumi has stated that Togakure's first successor was his son, Rokosuke, and that Togakure also trained a deshi called Shima, who would become the third master of the style after Rokosuke.
According to Hatsumi, since historical times, the Togakure-ryū style has been passed down through the years until it was given mastership to Shinryuken Toda, the 32nd Sōke of Togakure-ryū. He began teaching the style to his grandson, Toshitsugu Takamatsu, since Takamatsu was five in 1893. When he turned 19, Takamatsu was announced as the next successor of the Togakure-ryū style, becoming the 33rd Sōke. After this pronouncement, Takamatsu decided to spend a year meditating in the "mountains between Kyoto and Nara". Upon his return, he set out again, this time to China where he spent time in the courts of nobles as an important adviser because of his extensive knowledge from his ninja training. It is stated by Hatsumi that because of a series of incidents that occurred throughout China, Takamatsu became infamous throughout the region by the age of 25. When he turned 28, he was elected as the "Head of Japanese martial arts in China".
Bujinkan sources indicate that Takamatsu became well known throughout China and Japan for his martial arts abilities and also his knowledge from studying Ninjutsu that he then imparted to various Chinese nobles. Passing on the title of Sōke to Masaaki Hatsumi (the stated 34th Sōke) it was Hatsumi who took the style public, which has resulted in the high amount of media and public attention on ninjas in the Western world. Masaaki also went on to found the Bujinkan, an international martial arts organization, in Noda, Chiba. The group combines modern Togakure-ryū and the eight other martial arts styles.
As of 1986, there were 20 dojos for Togakure-ryū in Japan that housed 100 instructors and around 100,000 students. There were also around 50 international dojos teaching Togakure-ryū outside Japan.
As stated by the Bujinkan organization, the lineage in the line of Sōke (grand masters) of Togakure-ryū, beginning with Daisuke Togakure, is as follows:
- Daisuke Togakure (1162)
- Shima Kosanta Minamoto no Kanesada (1180)
- Goro Togakure (1200)
- Kosanta Togakure
- Kisanta Koga
- Tomoharu Kaneko
- Ryuho Togakure
- Gakuun Togakure
- Koseki Kido
- Tenryu Iga
- Rihei Ueno
- Senri Ueno
- Majiro Ueno
- Saburo Iisuka
- Goro Sawada
- Ippei Ozaru
- Hachiro Kimata
- Heizaemon Kataoka
- Ugenta Mori
- Gobei Toda
- Seiun Kobe
- Kobei Momochi
- Tenzen Tobari
- Seiryu Nobutsuna Toda (1624–1658)
- Fudo Nobuchika Toda (1658–1681)
- Kangoro Nobuyasu Toda (1681–1704)
- Eisaburo Nobumasa Toda (1704–1711)
- Shinbei Masachika Toda (1711–1736)
- Shingoro Masayoshi Toda (1736–1764)
- Daigoro Chikahide Toda (1764–1804)
- Daisaburo Chikashige Toda (1804)
- Shinryuken Masamitsu Toda (born 1824 - died 1909)
- Toshitsugu Takamatsu (born 1887 - died 1972)
- Masaaki Hatsumi (born 1931–present)
As a Ninjutsu tradition influenced by the samurai martial arts of the Sengoku period, the style of Togakure-ryū consists of a small number of physical escape and evasion techniques called "ninpo taijutsu," as well as a series of sword attack patterns, or biken kata. However, the majority of the art involves techniques of geography, meteorology, swimming, signaling, potion-making, fire-starting, concentration, disguise, impersonation, and other forms of knowledge suited for the unique information-gathering and infiltration roles of ninja.
Togakure-ryū's ninpo taijutsu is described as being "fundamentally different" from other styles of Japanese martial arts that are currently taught in Japan and around the world. This is largely because, unlike these other styles, Togakure-ryū does not have a "tightly regimated organizational structure." The Bujinkan teaches that while Togakure-ryū contains some "historical kata," which are similar to the training in judo and aikido in that they require an attacker to attack to initiate the movements. much of the "formality" that other styles contain is not present in modern Togakure-ryū. Stephen K. Hayes explained that it is likely this "freer, more flexible structure" that makes it different, as the style has an atmosphere where "questions are encouraged, but there isn't one pat answer for every question."
In a different manner, modern Togakure-ryū has resemblances to other martial arts styles as well in that there is certain "footwork and dynamics" that all styles utilize because of how the human body moves and works. Hayes stated that a main goal of the style is shin shin shin gan (God's eyes, God's mind), which refers "development of a broad vision or knowledge". This is in relation to learning to anticipate the moves that an opponent will make and to also be able to sense danger.
The Bujinkan organization teaches that the original Togakure-ryū utilized many special weapons. One was the shuko, which is a "spiked iron band worn around the hand". It enabled the wearer to use it as a defense against sword attacks and also to reach higher terrain, as it could be used to climb trees or walls, especially when worn with ashika which were worn on the feet. Additionally,the tetsubishi (a type of caltrop) was a "small spiked weapon used to slow pursuers or protect doorways". The third was the kyoketsu-shoge, a blade from a double-bladed spear that was then tied to the rope that also had an iron ring attached at the other end to hold onto. It could be used to "wedge open a door, climb into a tree or over a wall, or tie up an opponent" as well as for fighting.
There are 18 training areas that modern Togakure-ryū focuses on. The areas are constantly updated to remain relevant to modern threats that practitioners will need to face. The Togakure ryu Ninjutsu Hidensho is a Japanese manuscript written by Takamatsu, in the possession of Masaaki Hatsumi, that documents modern Togakure-ryū. The document is purported to contain the origin of the "18 Skills of Ninjutsu". Modern Togakure-ryu is taught in the syllabi of the Bujinkan, Genbukan, Jinenkan, and To-Shin Do.
The training areas include:
- Seishin teki kyoyo (spiritual refinement)
- Tai jutsu (unarmed combat)
- Kenjutsu (sword techniques)
- Bo-jutsu (stick and staff fighting)
- Shuriken-jutsu (throwing blades)
- Yari-jutsu (spear fighting)
- Naginata-jutsu (halberd fighting)
- Kusari-gama (chain and sickle weapon)
- Kayaku-jutsu (fire and explosives)
- Henso-jutsu (disguise and impersonation)
- Shinobi-iri (stealth and entering methods)
- Ba-jutsu (horsemanship)
- Sui-ren (water training)
- Bo-ryaku (strategy)
- Chōhō (espionage)
- Intonjutsu (escape and concealment)
- Ten-mon (meteorology)
- Chi-mon (geography)
Criticism of historical claims regarding modern Togakure-ryu
Modern Togakure-ryu and various historical claims are taught by Masaaki Hatsumi (Takamatsu's successor) and the Bujinkan organization. Criticism regarding the historical accuracy of the Bujinkan's claims of lineage have arisen from several issues of the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten:
- The 1978 version of the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten states that Takamatsu's Togakure-ryu "genealogy includes embellishments by referring to data and kuden about persons whose existence is based on written materials and traditions in order to appear older than it actually is."
- The 1969 version of the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten states that Takamatsu's Togakure-ryu "is a genealogy newly put together by Takamatsu Toshitsugu, who made use of (took advantage of) the popularity of written materials on ninjutsu after the Taishō era" and that "there are many points where it has added embellishments, it has made people whose real existence is based on written records older than is actually the case, and so it is a product of very considerable labor".
- The 1963 version of the Bugei Ryūha Daijiten states of Takamatsu's Togakure-ryu "this genealogy refers to various written records and oral transmissions and there are many points/places where embellishments have been added and people appearing in the genealogy are also made older than they actually are".
- Richmond, Simon; Dodd, Jan; Branscombe, Sophie; Goss, Robert; Snow, Jean (2011). The Rough Guide to Japan. Penguin Group. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Kornicki, Peter Francis; McMullen, James (1996). Religion in Japan: arrows to heaven and earth. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Morris, Glenn (1992). Path Notes of an American Ninja Master. North Atlantic Books. pp. 1–2. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Cawthorne, Nigel (2009). The Immortals: History's Fighting Elites. MBI Publishing Company. p. 40. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Andy Adams (October 1982). "The Roots and Reality of Ninjutsu". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 20 (10): 45–48. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Ilan Gattegno (June 1985). "Takamatsu: The Man Who Taught Ninjutsu To Today's Ninja Leader". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 23 (6): 20–24; 118–119. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- Levy, Joel (2008). Ninja: The Shadow Warrior. Sterling Publishing Company. p. 47. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Andy Adams (October 1986). "Ninjutu's Leader Opens Fire". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 24 (10): 36–40. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Jim Coleman (February 1983). "Ninja in the modern world". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 21 (2): 20–25. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Wilhelm, Thomas; Andress, Jason; Garner, Bryan (2010). Ninja Hacking: Unconventional Penetration Testing Tactics and Techniques. Elsevier. pp. 10–12. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Tanemura, Shoto (1992). Ninpo Secrets. Japan: Genbukan World Ninpo Bugei Federation. ISBN 0-9720884-2-3.
- Andrew Breen (December 1992). "Trick or treat?". Black Belt (Active Interest Media): 30–34. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Hayes, Stephen K. (1990). The ninja and their secret fighting art. Tuttle Publishing. p. 22. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Darryl Caldwell (June 1985). "The Ninja Web". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 23 (6): 15. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Stephen Hayes (January 1978). "Ninjutsu: A Martial Art of Mystique". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 16 (1): 76–78. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- Hatsumi, Masaaki (1988). Essence of ninjutsu: the nine traditions. Contemporary Books. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Green, Thomas A.; Svinth, Joseph R. (2010). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. pp. 162–171. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Watatani Kiyoshi and Yamada Tadashi (1978). Bugei Ryuha Daijiten. Various. pp. 626–627. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Watatani Kiyoshi and Yamada Tadashi (1969). Bugei Ryuha Daijiten. Various. p. 537. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- Watatani Kiyoshi and Yamada Tadashi (1963). Bugei Ryuha Daijiten. Various. p. 293. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- Hayes, Stephen K. (1983). Ninja: Warrior Path of Togakure. Black Belt Communications.
- Hatsumi, M. (1981) Ninjutsu: History and Tradition. Burbank, CA: Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-027-2.
- Wolfgang Ettig: Takamatsu Toshitsugu. The last shinobi. 2006, ISBN 3-924862-10-9.
- Robert Bussey (November 1985). "Ninja Invisibility Training: The Secret To Silent Movement". Black Belt (Active Interest Media) 23 (11): 42–46. ISSN 0277-3066. Retrieved October 20, 2011.