Chia seed

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Chia seeds
General color and closeup detail of chia seeds

Chia seed is obtained most commonly from Salvia hispanica of the Lamiaceae family. Other plants referred to as "chia" include "golden chia" (Salvia columbariae) and the flowering herbaceous perennial Salvia polystachya, which is rarely cultivated and the seeds are not used. The seeds of Salvia columbariae are used medicinally and for food.

The sixteenth-century Codex Mendoza provides evidence that it was cultivated by the Aztec in pre-Columbian times and economic historians say it may have been as important as maize as a food crop. It was given as an annual tribute by the people to the rulers in 21 of the 38 Aztec provincial states.[1] Chia seeds served as a staple food of the Nahuatl (Aztec) cultures of Central Mexico. Jesuit chroniclers placed chia as the third most important crop in the Aztec culture, behind only corn, beans, and ahead of amaranth. Offerings to the Aztec priesthood were often paid in chia seed.

Ground or whole chia seeds are still used in Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Paraguay for nutritious drinks and food.[2][3] Today, chia is cultivated on a small scale in its ancestral homeland of central Mexico and Guatemala, and commercially in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico.

Description[edit]

Chia seed
Chia seed sliced in half
Chia seeds, dried, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 486 kcal (2,030 kJ)
42.1 g
Dietary fiber 34.4 g
30.7 g
16.5 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(7%)
54 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(54%)
0.62 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(14%)
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
(59%)
8.83 mg
Folate (B9)
(12%)
49 μg
Vitamin C
(2%)
1.6 mg
Vitamin E
(3%)
0.5 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(63%)
631 mg
Iron
(59%)
7.7 mg
Magnesium
(94%)
335 mg
Manganese
(130%)
2.72 mg
Phosphorus
(123%)
860 mg
Potassium
(9%)
407 mg
Zinc
(48%)
4.6 mg
Other constituents
Water 5.8 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Chia is grown commercially for its seed, a food rich in omega-3 fatty acids since the seeds yield 25–30% extractable oil, including α-linolenic acid. The composition of the fat of the oil may be 55% ω-3, 18% ω-6, 6% ω-9, and 10% saturated fat.[4]

Typically, chia seeds are small ovals with a diameter of approximately 1 mm (0.039 in). They are mottle-colored with brown, gray, black, and white. The seeds are hydrophilic, absorbing up to 12 times their weight in liquid when soaked. While soaking, the seeds develop a mucilaginous coating that gives chia-based beverages a distinctive gel texture.

Chia (or chian or chien) has mostly been identified as Salvia hispanica L. Today, chia is grown and consumed commercially in its native Mexico and Guatemala, as well as Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Australia.[5] New patented varieties of chia have been developed in Kentucky for cultivation in northern latitudes of the United States.[6]

Seed yield varies depending on cultivars, mode of cultivation, and growing conditions by geographic region. For example, commercial fields in Argentina and Colombia vary in yield range from 450 to 1250 kg/ha.[7][8] A small-scale study with three cultivars grown in the inter-Andean valleys of Ecuador produced yields up to 2300 kg/ha, indicating that favorable growing environment and cultivar interacted to produce such high yields.[20] Genotype has a larger effect on yield than on protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, or phenolic compounds, whereas high temperature reduces oil content and degree of unsaturation, and raises protein content.[9]

Food uses[edit]

Chia seeds may be added to other foods as a topping or put into smoothies, breakfast cereals, energy bars, granola bars, yogurt, tortillas, and bread. In 2009, the European Union approved chia seeds as a novel food, allowing chia to be 5% of a bread product's total matter.[11] Chia seed (tokhm-e-sharbatī, meaning "beverage seed") is used to prepare a sharbat (cold beverage) in Iran.[citation needed]

They may also be made into a gelatin-like substance or eaten raw.[10][11][12][13] The gel from ground seeds may be used to replace as much as 25% of the egg and oil content in cakes, also providing other nutrients.[14]

Nutrient content[edit]

Dried chia seeds are 6% water, 42% carbohydrates, 16% protein, and 31% fat (table).

In a 100 gram amount, chia seeds are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitamins, thiamin and niacin (54% and 59% DV, respectively), and a moderate source of riboflavin (14% DV) and folate (12% DV). Several dietary minerals are in rich content, including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc (all more than 20% DV; table).

The fatty acids of chia seed oil are highly unsaturated, with linoleic acid (17-26% of total fat) and linolenic acid (50-57%) as the major fats.[15]

Preliminary health research[edit]

Although preliminary research indicates potential health benefits from consuming chia seeds, this work remains sparse and inconclusive.[16] In a 2015 systematic review, most of the studies did not demonstrate a statistically significant effect of chia seed consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in humans.[17]

Drug interactions[edit]

No evidence to date indicates consuming chia seeds has adverse effects on or interacts with prescription drugs.[16]

Decorative and novelty uses[edit]

During the 1970s in the United States, the first substantial wave of chia seed sales was tied to Chia Pets. These "pets" come in the form of clay figures that serve as a base for a sticky paste of chia seeds; the figures then are watered and the seeds sprout into a form suggesting a fur covering for the figure. About 500,000 chia pets a year are sold in the U.S. as novelties or house plants.[18]

Chia pet

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cahill, Joseph P. (2003). "Ethnobotany of Chia, Salvia hispanica L. (Lamiaceae)". Economic Botany. 57 (4): 604–618. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0604:EOCSHL]2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ Kintzios, Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. CRC Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-90-5823-005-8. 
  3. ^ Stephanie Strom (November 23, 2012). "30 Years After Chia Pets, Seeds Hit Food Aisles". New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2012. Whole and ground chia seeds are being added to fruit drinks, snack foods and cereals and sold on their own to be baked into cookies and sprinkled on yogurt. ... 
  4. ^ USDA SR-21 Nutrient Data (2010). "Nutrition facts for dried chia seeds, one ounce". Conde Nast, Nutrition Data. 
  5. ^ Dunn C (25 May 2015). "Is chia the next quinoa?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Cheryl Kaiser, Matt Ernst (February 2016). "Chia" (PDF). University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Center for Crop Diversification Crop Profile. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  7. ^ Coates, Wayne; Ayerza, Ricardo (1998). "Commercial production of chia in Northwestern Argentina". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75 (10): 1417–1420. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0192-7. Retrieved 2014-10-08. 
  8. ^ Coates, Wayne; Ricardo Ayerza (1996). "Production potential of chia in northwestern Argentina". Industrial Crops and Products. 5 (3): 229–233. doi:10.1016/0926-6690(96)89454-4. Retrieved 2014-10-08. 
  9. ^ Ayerza (h), Ricardo; Wayne Coates (2009). "Influence of environment on growing period and yield, protein, oil and α-linolenic content of three chia (Salvia hispanica L.) selections". Industrial Crops and Products. 30 (2): 321–324. ISSN 0926-6690. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.03.009. Retrieved 2014-09-29. 
  10. ^ "Chewing Chia Packs A Super Punch". NPR. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  11. ^ Albergotti, Reed. "The NFL's Top Secret Seed". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Trujillo-Hernández, C.A.; Rendón-Villalobos R.; Ortíz-Sánchez A.; Solorza-Feria J. (2012). "Formulation, physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial evaluation of corn tortillas supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.)" (PDF). Czech Journal of Food Science. 30 (2): 118–125. 
  13. ^ Costantini, Lara; Lea Lukšič; Romina Molinari; Ivan Kreft; Giovanni Bonafaccia; Laura Manzi; Nicolò Merendino (2014). "Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients". Food Chemistry. 165: 232–240. ISSN 0308-8146. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.095. Retrieved 2014-10-09. 
  14. ^ Borneo R, Aguirre A, León AE (2010). "Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations". J AmDietAssoc. 110 (6): 9469. PMID 20497788. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.011. 
  15. ^ (h), Ricardo Ayerza (1995-09-01). "Oil content and fatty acid composition of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) from five northwestern locations in Argentina". Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 72 (9): 1079–1081. ISSN 0003-021X. doi:10.1007/BF02660727. 
  16. ^ a b Ulbricht C, et al. (2009). "Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration". Rev Recent Clin Trials. 4 (3): 168–74. PMID 20028328. doi:10.2174/157488709789957709. 
  17. ^ de Souza Ferreira C, et al. (2015). "Effect of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in humans: a systematic review". Nutr Hosp. 32 (5): 1909–18. PMID 26545644. doi:10.3305/nh.2015.32.5.9394. 
  18. ^ Chia Pet | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-26.