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|Born||August 6, 1890|
|Died||August 5, 1931(aged 40)|
|Known for||Founding the Taiwanese Cultural Association and the Taiwanese People's Party|
Chiang Wei-shui (Chinese: 蔣渭水; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chiúⁿ Ūi-súi; 6 August 1890 – 5 August 1931) was a founder of the Taiwanese Cultural Association and the Taiwanese People's Party. He is seen as one of the most important figures in Taiwan's resistance movement against Japanese rule.
He once wrote a short essay on Taiwan called Certificate of Bedside Diagnosis or Certificate of Clinical Diagnosis (臨床講義) about how the patient (Taiwan) suffered from severe culture malnutrition. Written in the form of a medical examination, it is his most famous work.
Chiang was born in Yilan during the Qing Dynasty rule. At the age of 10 he began to study with a Confucian scholar (張鏡光). In 1915 he graduated from the Taiwan Medical College, now the National Taiwan University College of Medicine. Around 1919 he married Chen Tian.
He founded the Taian Hospital (大安醫院). in Daitōtei, a district in modern-day Taipei, and invited fellow intellectuals to the hospital to discuss contemporary affairs. In 1920 he began participating in the movement to found the Taiwan Assembly. In 1921 he helped found the Taiwan Cultural Association. He was imprisoned for four months in 1923 and again in 1925 for his opposition to the Japanese colonial government. During this time, Chen Tian would lecture in his stead, continuing the promotion of his ideas. In total, Chiang was imprisoned twelve times.
In 1927, the Taiwan Cultural Association split because of an internal ideological division between rightists and leftists. Chiang went on to help found the Taiwanese People's Party on a platform of unity. The Taiwan People's Party was the first legal party to be founded in Taiwan. Chiang was also involved with the League of Taiwanese Laborers and the Taiwan Peasant’s Union. He came under criticism from rightists in the government. When Chhoà Pôe-hóe, Ia̍p Êng-cheng and others prepared for the formation of the Taiwanese Alliance for Home Rule, Chiang expelled them. The Taiwan People's Party contacted the League of Nations several times to protest Japanese issuance of special permits for opium sale as well as the Wushe Incident.
The Taiwanese People's Party's political philosophy was the Three Principles of the People, but Hsieh Chun-mu and others pushed for a revolutionary line. In 1931, the colonial administration forced the dissolution of the party. Chiang died of typhoid that same year, at the age of 40 (41 by traditional Chinese reckoning).
A 12.9 kilometres (8.0 mi) freeway tunnel passing under Xueshan to link Taipei with Yilan was opened in 2006. It marked the completion of Taiwan's latest freeway, which was subsequently named the Chiang Wei-shui Freeway in a move that pleased all sides of the political spectrum in Taiwan.
Chiang was featured on a commemorative 10 New Taiwan Dollar coin in 2010.
- Mo, Yan-chih (6 August 2006). "Politicians of all stripes honor Chiang Wei-shui". Taipei Times. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Social Activist | Chiang Wei-shui". Ministry of Culture. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- http://dadaochen.ylps.tp.edu.tw/upload/justwarp/images/%E5%9C%96%E4%BA%8C%20%E6%98%94%E6%97%A5%E7%9A%84%E5%A4%A7%E5%AE%89%E9%86%AB%E9%99%A2%281%29.bmp in http://dadaochen.ylps.tp.edu.tw/content.php?titlename=hospital&output_menu=true
- Chien, Hui-ju; Chin, Jonathan (6 October 2015). "Democracy pioneer Chiang Wei-shui's ashes return to Yilan". Taipei Times. p. 3. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Chuang, Jimmy (15 Jun 2006). "Taipei-Ilan freeway named in honor of democracy pioneer". Taipei Times. p. 2. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "Announcement: issue a NT$10 coin in memory of Mr. Chiang Wei-shui on 5th August 2010". Central Bank of Republic of China (Taiwan). 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29.