Clockwise from top left:View of night in Chiayi, Chiayi Confucius Temple, Fountain at the Lantan Reservoir, Chiayi City Sports Arena, Chiayi Sun Shooting Tower, Chiayi National University
|Nickname(s): Peach City (桃城) or Jia City (嘉市)|
|• Mayor||Twu Shiing-jer (DPP)|
|• Deputy Mayor||Hou Chong-wen|
|Area(Ranked 24 of 25)|
|• Total||60.0256 km2 (23.1760 sq mi)|
|Elevation||69 m (226 ft)|
|Population (December 2014)|
|• Density||4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Population ranked 21 of 25|
|Time zone||National Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|Area code(s)||(+886) 05|
|Flower||Hong Kong orchid tree
|Tree||Hong Kong orchid tree|
Chiayi (also romanized as Jiayi), officially known as Chiayi City (Chinese: 嘉義市), is a provincial city located in the plains of southwestern Taiwan. Formerly called Kagee during the late Qing Dynasty and Kagi during the Japanese era (all using the same characters 嘉義), its historical name is Tirosen.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government
- 4 Education
- 5 Tourist attractions
- 6 Notable natives
- 7 International relations
- 8 Transportation
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
First inhabited by the Hoanya aborigines, the region was named Tirosen. With the arrival of Han Chinese immigrants in southwestern Taiwan, the name evolved to become Tsulosan (諸羅山; pinyin: Zhūluóshān; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chu-lô-san) in Hokkien. Eventually, Tsulosan was shortened to simply Tsulo. Because of the choice of the characters, it has been mistakenly suggested that the origin of the name came from the expression "mountains surrounding the east." "Peach City" is another name for Chiayi City due to its peach-shaped territory in ancient times. The tip of the peach is around Central Fountain and was called "Peach-tip" by citizens.
Tsulosan was once the foothold to which people from the mainland immigrated. In 1621, "Chinese Peter" (顏思齊), who came from Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, first led his people to cultivate this land after they landed at Penkang (笨港, Peikang).
Records from the Dutch era show Tirosen as the usual form of the name; it also occurred as Tirassen, Tirozen, Tilocen, Tilossen, Tilocen, and Thilocen. The place was north of Mattau (modern-day Madou, Tainan) and south of Favorlang (Huwei, Yunlin).
Kingdom of Tungning
In 1661 (the 15th year of Yung-Li, Ming Dynasty), Koxinga defeated the Dutch based in Taiwan and founded the Kingdom of Tungning. He established one province, Cheng-Tien-Fu (承天府), and two counties, Tien-Hsing (天興縣) and Wan-Nien (萬年縣), demarcated by the Hsin-Kang River (新港溪, now the Yanshui River). Chiayi was under the jurisdiction of the Tien-Hsing County.
In 1683, when Qing rule began, the island was governed as Taiwan Prefecture under the administration of Fujian Province. In 1684, Tsulo County was established and initially encompassed the underdeveloped northern two-thirds of Taiwan. (Taiwan and Hongsoa counties were divided from Wan-Nien County during the Kingdom of Tungning, which was changed from Tien-Hsing County.) In 1704, the county seat was moved to Tsulosan, the site of modern-day Chiayi City, and had wooden city walls.
In 1727, the county magistrate, Liu Liang-Bi rebuilt the gatehouses and set a gun platform for each gatehouse. The four gatehouses were named: "Chin Shan" (襟山) for East, "Tai Hai" (帶海) for West, "Chung Yang" (崇陽) for South, and "Kung Chen" (拱辰) for North. In 1734 (the 12th year of Yongzheng), magistrate Lu-Hung built piercing-bamboo to better protect the city.
In 1786, Lin Shuang-Wen (林爽文) attempted to siege Tsulosan but failed to overcome the defense of the inhabitants. Consequently, on November 3 of the next year, the Qing Emperor conferred the name Kagee (嘉義; literally: "commended righteousness") to praise the citizens' loyalty.
Empire of Japan
In 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. In 1906, a major earthquake devastated the entire city wall except the Eastern Gate. The Japanese authorities reconstructed the city. Industries and trades started to flourish. According to the census taken in 1904, Kagi was the fourth most populous city in Taiwan, with a population of over twenty thousand. In 1907, the construction of Alishan Forest Railway to Mount Ali was begun. In 1920, the city became an autonomous group as Kagi Town (嘉義街), Kagi District (嘉義郡), within Tainan Prefecture, which included modern day Tainan City, Chiayi County and Yunlin County. In 1930, the town was upgraded to an autonomous city under the same prefecture.
Republic of China
In 1945, when Japan relinquished control of Taiwan on 25 October 1945, Chiayi City was established as a provincial city of Taiwan Province. On 16 August 1950, because of the re-allocation of administrative areas in which Taiwan was divided into 16 counties, five provincial cities and a special bureau, Chiayi City was downgraded to a county-controlled city and merged with Chiayi County to be the county seat. As a result, a shortage of capital hindered its development. On 1 July 1982, Chiayi City was elevated again to a provincial city as a result of pressure from local elites.
Chiayi City is located on the north side of Chianan Plain, south west of Taiwan Island. On the east side is the Mount Ali, on the west side is the Chiayi Airport, on the north side is the Puzi River and on the south side is the Bazhang River. The distance from east to west of Chiayi City is 15.8 km and from north to south is 10.5 km with a total area of 60.0256 km2. Chiayi City is completely surrounded by Chiayi County. Most of Chiayi City land are broad flat fertility plains. The terrain slowly rises from west to east.
Chiayi City has a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Northeasterly winds during fall and winter mean that rainfall is depressed during that time, while southwesterly winds during summer and the later portion of spring bring most of the year's rainfall, with more than 60% falling from June to August. Humidity is high year-round, even during winter.
|Climate data for Chiayi (1971–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.5
|Average low °C (°F)||12.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||27.6
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.4||7.0||7.4||8.4||11.1||14.4||14.9||18.1||9.8||3.6||3.0||3.7||106.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81.8||83.1||83.7||84.1||84.5||82.0||80.4||83.6||84.7||84.1||81.4||80.3||82.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||153.2||121.8||143.0||150.3||156.8||176.9||208.6||184.1||186.9||174.0||151.7||158.7||1,966|
Chiayi City is a provincial city of Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. The city is governed by the Chiayi City Government, while the residence is represented in the Chiayi City Council. The current Mayor of Chiayi City is Twu Shiing-jer of the Democratic Progressive Party.
|as of 2014||km²|
- National Chiayi University
- Tatung Institute of Commerce and Technology
- National Chiayi Senior High School
- Chiayi Park
- Sun-Shooting Tower (in Chiayi Park)
- Taiwan Hinoki Museum
- Lantan Lake
- Chiayi Confucian Temple
- Historic Archives Building of Chiayi City (史蹟博物館)
- 228 Memorial Park
- National 228 Memorial Park
- Chiayi Municipal Museum
- Chiayi Prison Museum
- Wenhua Road Night Market
- Chung Cheng Park
- Alishan Forest Railway & Railway Park
- Chiayi International Band Festival
- Art Site of Chiayi Railway Warehouse
- Water Source Water Meter Room
- Hinoki Village
Chiayi is the city of wind music in Taiwan. The wind music festival started as a local event in 1988, when it was more like a joint performance by local wind music bands. Over the years the festival has become the most anticipated annual event in Chiayi.
- Chen Cheng-po (陳澄波) (1895-1947), Taiwan famous painter.
- Sow-Hsin Chen (陳守信) (1935), American physicist, Professor.
- Vincent Siew (蕭萬長) (1939), Taiwanese politician, Vice President of the Republic of China (2008 – 2012), Vice-Chairman of the Kuomintang.
- Deng Feng-Zhou (鄧豐洲) (1949), Taiwanese poet, Local history writer, Nedan academics.
- Huang Min-hui (黃敏惠) (1959),The incumbent mayor of Chiayi City, vice chairperson of Kuomintang, a member of the Legislative Yuan (1999 and 2005).
- Jody Chiang (江蕙) (1961), Taiwanese popular singer.
- Lo Chen-Jung (羅振榮) (1961), Taiwanese left-handed baseball pitcher.
- Wu Bai (伍佰) (1968), Taiwanese rock singer.
Twin towns — sister cities
Chiayi is twinned with:
- East Orange, New Jersey, United States (1972)
- Jackson, Mississippi, United States (1972)
- Juneau, Alaska, United States (1977)
- Murray, Utah, United States (1977)
- Bulacan Province, Philippines (1980)
- Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States (1988)
- Syracuse, New York, United States (1995)
- Hsinchu City, Republic of China (2002)
Chiayi City is accessible from Chiayi Station and Jiabei Station of the Taiwan Railways Administration or a slightly further THSR Chiayi Station in Chiayi County. It also houses the first station for the Alishan Forest Railway.
- Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. p. 549. OCLC 644323041.
- Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1907). "Chapter XIII: Population and future development of the island resources". Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. p. 200. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.
- "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau.
- "The sound of wind music: 2008 Chiayi City International Band Festival"by Eva Tang, 17 January 2009,Taiwan Culture Portal. http://www.culture.tw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1080&Itemid=157
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- Chiayi City/County tourism official website
- Chiayi City government official website (Chinese) 
- Chiayi City Police Bureau official website
- Chiayi travel guide from Wikivoyage
- National Chung Cheng University official website