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The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Anglican Communion's doctrine and as a reference point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. The four points are:
- The Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation;
- The creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith;
- The dominical sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion;
- The historic episcopate, locally adapted.
The quadrilateral had its genesis in an 1870 essay by the American Episcopal priest William Reed Huntington. The four elements were held to establish "a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing, made toward Home Reunion", that is, with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.
American House of Bishops resolution
We, Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in Council assembled as Bishops in the Church of God, do hereby solemnly declare to all whom it may concern, and especially to our fellow-Christians of the different Communions in this land, who, in their several spheres, have contended for the religion of Christ:
- Our earnest desire that the Savior's prayer, "That we all may be one," may, in its deepest and truest sense, be speedily fulfilled;
- That we believe that all who have been duly baptized with water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, are members of the Holy Catholic Church.
- That in all things of human ordering or human choice, relating to modes of worship and discipline, or to traditional customs, this Church is ready in the spirit of love and humility to forego all preferences of her own;
- That this Church does not seek to absorb other Communions, but rather, co-operating with them on the basis of a common Faith and Order, to discountenance schism, to heal the wounds of the Body of Christ, and to promote the charity which is the chief of Christian graces and the visible manifestation of Christ to the world.
But furthermore, we do hereby affirm that the Christian unity can be restored only by the return of all Christian communions to the principles of unity exemplified by the undivided Catholic Church during the first ages of its existence; which principles we believe to be the substantial deposit of Christian Faith and Order committed by Christ and his Apostles to the Church unto the end of the world, and therefore incapable of compromise or surrender by those who have been ordained to be its stewards and trustees for the common and equal benefit of all men.
As inherent parts of this sacred deposit, and therefore as essential to the restoration of unity among the divided branches of Christendom, we account the following, to wit:
- The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the revealed Word of God.
- The Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian Faith.
- The two Sacraments – Baptism and the Supper of the Lord – ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of institution and of the elements ordained by Him.
- The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the unity of His Church.
Furthermore, Deeply grieved by the sad divisions which affect the Christian Church in our own land, we hereby declare our desire and readiness, so soon as there shall be any authorized response to this Declaration, to enter into brotherly conference with all or any Christian Bodies seeking the restoration of the organic unity of the Church, with a view to the earnest study of the conditions under which so priceless a blessing might happily be brought to pass.
Lambeth Conference resolution
In 1888, the third Lambeth Conference (an international consultation of bishops of the Anglican Communion) passed Resolution 11. This was a scaled-back version of the resolution passed at Chicago two years earlier, more closely aligned with Huntington's original wording, and reads as follows:
That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion:
- The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith.
- The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith.
- The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself – Baptism and the Supper of the Lord – ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him.
- The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church.
The 1920 Appeal to all Christian People
A ministry acknowledged by every part of the Church as possessing not only the inward call of the Spirit, but also the commission of Christ and the authority of the whole body.
The episcopate was only expressly mentioned in the commentary which followed:
May we not reasonably claim that the Episcopate is the one means of providing such a ministry? It is not that we call in question for a moment the spiritual reality of the ministries of those Communions which do not possess the Episcopate. On the contrary, we thankfully acknowledge that these ministries have been manifestly blessed and owned by the Holy Spirit as effective means of grace ...
Significance of the quadrilateral
The quadrilateral has had a significant impact on Anglican identity since its passage by the Lambeth Conference. The resolution came at a time of rapid expansion of the Anglican Communion, primarily in the territories of the British Empire. As such, it provided a basis for a shared ethos, one that became increasingly important as colonial churches influenced by British culture and values, evolved into national ones influenced by local norms. At the same time, it has been the locus of fervent debate, especially over its third and fourth points.
The first point, concerning what Anglicans call "the sufficiency of Scripture", takes its language directly from Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles, foundational to Anglican scriptural exegesis and hermeneutics since the sixteenth century. As such, it has been widely accepted as written. Similarly, the second point describes the sine qua non of Catholic faith since antiquity, and so likewise has enjoyed broad acquiescence. To the extent that it has been controversial, the controversy has centered entirely on those parts of the Communion that have sought to expand a sufficient statement of faith to include other formulae. The third point has been controversial among some Anglicans as being inappropriately limited. In particular, many Anglo-Catholics have maintained that the five other sacraments should be included as essential marks of the Church (see Anglican sacraments). By far, the most controversial point has been the fourth, which many believe could open the door to challenging the Church's episcopal tradition of apostolic succession.
The quadrilateral in ecumenical dialogue
The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral has also been important to ecumenical dialogue. In this context, it had been helpful in consultations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic communions and between certain Anglican ecclesiastical provinces and national Lutheran organizations.
Apostolicae curae is the title of a papal bull issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void". It has been described as an early Catholic response to the ecumenical efforts of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral.
The quadrilateral has also proved a stumbling block, however, as in the discussions between the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada, between the Church of England and the Methodist Church of Great Britain, and between the Church of England and other free churches, all of which broke down largely due to the issue of episcopacy.
- Fuchs 2008, p. 95; Haugaard 1998, p. 42.
- Haugaard 1998, p. 42.
- Episcopal Church 2007, pp. 876–877.
- Davidson 1920, pp. 27, 122–123.
- Davidson 1920, pp. 122–123; Episcopal Church 2007, pp. 877–878.
- Dalferth 1997, p. 45.
- Evans & Wright 1991, p. 387.
- Ramsey 1960, p. 121.
- Hein & Shattuck 2004; Pierce 2009, pp. 78–79.
- Wells 2011, p. 39.
- Tucker 1986, p. 100.
- Methodist Church of Great Britain & Church of England 2001, p. 8.
- Dalferth, Ingolf (1997). "Ministry and the Office of Bishop according to Meissen and Porvoo: Protestant Remarks about Several Unclarified Questions". Visible Unity and the Ministry of Oversight: The Second Theological Conference held under the Meissen Agreement between the Church of England and the Evangelical Church in Germany. London: Church House Publishing. pp. 9–48. ISBN 978-0-7151-5755-8.
- Davidson, Randall T., ed. (1920). The Five Lambeth Conferences. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Episcopal Church (2007) . Book of Common Prayer. New York: Church Publishing. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via Wikisource.
- Evans, G. R.; Wright, J. Robert (1991). The Anglican Tradition: A Handbook of Sources. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
- Fuchs, Lorelei F. (2008). Koinonia and the Quest for an Ecumenical Ecclesiology: From Foundations through Dialogue to Symbolic Competence for Communionality. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-4023-3.
- Haugaard, William P. (1998). "The History of Anglicanism from the Early Eighteenth Century to the Present Day". In Sykes, Stephen; Booty, John; Knight, Jonathan. The Study of Anglicanism (rev. ed.). London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. pp. 3ff. ISBN 978-1-4514-1118-8.
- Hein, David; Shattuck, Gardiner H., Jr. (2004). The Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89869-497-0.
- Methodist Church of Great Britain; Church of England (2001). An Anglican–Methodist Covenant: Common Statement of the Formal Conversations between the Methodist Church of Great Britain and the Church of England (PDF). Peterborough and London, England: Methodist Publishing House and Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85852-218-0. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Pierce, Andrew (2009). "Comprehensive Vision: The Ecumenical Potential of a Lost Ideal". In Thiessen, Gesa Elsbeth. Ecumenical Ecclesiology: Unity, Diversity and Otherness in a Fragmented World. London: T&T Clark. pp. 76–87. ISBN 978-0-567-00913-5.
- Ramsey, Arthur Michael (1960). From Gore to Temple: The Development of Anglican Theology between Lux Mundi and the Second World War, 1889–1939. London: Longmans.
- Tucker, Ansley (1986). "The Historic Episcopate in Anglican Ecclesiology: The Esse Perspective". Consensus. 12 (1): 99–115. ISSN 2369-2685. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Wells, Samuel (2011). What Episcopalians Believe: An Introduction. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8192-2310-4.
- Draper, Jonathan (1988). Communion and Episcopacy: Essays to Mark the Centenary of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral. Cuddesdon, England: Ripon College Cuddesdon. ISBN 978-0-9513611-0-8.
- Huntington, William Reed (1870). The Church-Idea: An Essay towards Unity. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- Morris, Edwin (1969). The Lambeth Quadrilateral and Reunion. London: Faith Press. ISBN 978-0-7164-0145-2.
- Whipple, H. B.; Gilbert, M. N.; Nichols, Harry P.; Wright, John; Faude, John J.; Ten Boeck, Wm. P. (1896). Unity and the Lambeth Declaration. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Young Churchman. Retrieved 8 September 2017 – via Project Canterbury.
- Wright, J. Robert, ed. (1988). Quadrilateral at One Hundred: Essays on the Centenary of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, 1886/88–1986/88. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications. ISBN 978-0-264-67178-9.