A total of four singles were released from the album, all of which placed in the top 20 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. The success of the singles propelled Chicago 17 to achieve an RIAA certification of six times platinum. Chicago 17 remains the biggest-selling album in the band's history.
In 2006, Rhino Entertainment remastered and reissued the album, using the original analog versions of "Please Hold On" (which was co-written with Lionel Richie who was enjoying success from his album Can't Slow Down) and "Prima Donna" and adding a Robert Lamm demo, "Here Is Where We Begin" as a bonus track.
Some songs were recorded during the Chicago 17 sessions but not released. "Good for Nothing" was later released on the We Are the World superstar charity album in 1985. This is the last released Chicago song to feature Peter Cetera on vocals.
A song called "Sweet Marie" that was supposed to be released on the Chicago 17 album has been performed by the Norwegian band called TOBB. Bill Champlin offered this song to perform with the band. It was released on May 14, 2014 by the band, the 30th anniversary of the Chicago 17 album that was released on May 14, 1984. It was performed by Chicago on rare occasions back in 1984 and have surfaced online from VHS recordings of some of their performances.