Chicken Kiev

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Chicken Kiev
Chicken Kiev - Ukrainian East Village restaurant.jpg
Chicken Kiev cut open
Alternative names Côtelette de volaille, suprême de volaille à la Kiev
Course Main
Place of origin Russian Empire
Serving temperature hot
Main ingredients Chicken breast, garlic butter, herbs, bread crumbs
Cookbook: Chicken Kiev  Media: Chicken Kiev

Chicken Kiev (Ukrainian: котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, Russian: котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a popular dish of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and either fried or baked.[1][2] In general, the dish of stuffed chicken breast is also known in Russian, Ukrainian and Polish cuisines as côtelette de volaille (Russian: котлета де-воляй, tr. kotleta de-volyay, Polish: kotlet de volaille).[3][4][5][6] The French de volaille means "of poultry" but denotes almost exclusively chicken dishes in French cookbooks.[7] The French name means thus simply "chicken cutlet". As fillets are often referred to as suprêmes in professional cookery,[8] the dish is also named suprême de volaille à la Kiev.[9][10]

History[edit]

The history of the dish is not well documented, and various sources make controversial claims about its origin.

Since the 18th century Russian chefs have adopted many techniques of French haute cuisine and combined them with the local culinary tradition. The adoption was furthered by the French chefs, such as Marie-Antoine Carême and Urbain Dubois, which were hired by Russian gentry. In particular the use of quality meat cuts, such as various cutlets, steaks, escalopes and suprêmes became widespread in the 19th century, and a number of original dishes involving such cuts were developed in Russia at that time.[11][12]

Côtelette de volaille[edit]

Despite the original French name, the recipe is unknown in French cuisine, where the term côtelette de volaille refers to chicken breasts in general[13] and is used nearly synonymously with chicken fillet or suprême.[8] The French term also denotes a minced chicken cutlet-shaped patty.[14][15][16] The general Russian term for chicken cutlets, kurinaya kotleta (куриная котлета), refers predominantly to minced cutlets, whereas kotleta de-voliay is applied exclusively to the stuffed chicken breast dish. The latter name appears in the pre- and post-revolutionary Russian literature (in cookbooks,[3] as well as in fiction[17][18][19][20][21]) since the beginning of the 20th century and is usually mentioned as a common restaurant dish.[17][18][19][20][21]

The recipe in the classical Russian cookery textbook The Practical Fundamentals of the Cookery Art by Pelageya Alexandrova-Ignatieva (which had eleven editions between 1899–1916) includes a complex stuffing similar to quenelle (a mixture of minced meat, in this case the rest meat of chicken, and cream) but with butter added. It also points out that "the cutlets de volaille are made from whole chicken fillets, like the game cutlets à la Maréchale".[22] The recipe is preceded by a similar one for "grouse cutlets à la Maréchale" with a quenelle and truffle stuffing.[23] Another Russian cookbook published at the same time gives basically the same recipes for côtelette de volaille and côtelette à la Maréchale and notes that the only difference between them is that the former are made of chicken while the latter are made of game, such as grouse, blackcock, etc.[24]

The term à la Maréchale ("marshal's wife-style") denotes in French cookery tender pieces of meat, such as cutlets, escalopes, sweetbreads, or chicken breasts, which are treated à l'anglais ("English-style"), i.e. coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and sautéed.[25][26] According to the Russian food historian William Pokhlyobkin, dishes à la Maréchale were created in France during the reign of Louis XIV and were introduced to Russia after the victory over Napoleon in 1814.[27] Numerous recipes of such dishes, some of them with stuffings, are described both in Western and Russian cookbooks of the 19th century. Among the stuffed versions, on finds a recipe for a "fowl fillet à la Maréchale" stuffed with truffles and herbs in The Art of French Cuisine of the 19th Century (1847) by Marie-Antoine Carême,[29] and a similar filet de poulets à la Maréchale with herbs and forcemeat in La cuisine classique (1868) by Urbain Dubois.[30] Elena Molokhovets' A Gift to Young Housewives, the most successful Russian cookbook of the 19th century, has included since its first edition in 1861 an elaborate recipe for "grouse à la Maréchale" stuffed with madeira sauce, portobello mushrooms and truffles.[31]

Pozharsky cutlet[edit]

The main difference between the old time côtelette de volaille and the modern chicken cutlet Kiev-style is that the elaborate stuffings of côtelette de volaille are replaced by butter.[32] The use of butter for chicken cutlets has been known in Russian cuisine at least since the invention of the Pozharsky cutlet in the first half of the 19th century. The Pozharsky cutlets are breaded ground chicken patties for which butter is added to minced meat. This results in an especially juicy and tender consistency. The dish was a widely appraised invention of the 19th-century Russian cuisine which was also adopted by French haute cuisine and subsequently by the international cuisine.[33][34][35][36]

While the roots of chicken Kiev can thus be traced back to the French haute cuisine and the Russian cookery of the 19th century, the origin of the particular recipe known today as chicken Kiev remains disputed.

Individual attributions[edit]

The Russian Tea Room Cookbook notes that chicken Kiev was "most likely … a creation of the great French chef Carême at the Court of Alexander I."[37] Marie-Antoine Carême spent just several months of the year 1818 in St. Petersburg,[38] but made a profound impact on Russian cuisine at this short time.[12] The reforms carried out by his followers introduced in particular various meat cuts into Russian cookery.[12] The recipe of the Russian côtelette de volaille is not present in Carême's major work mentioned above, but his "fowl fillet à la Maréchale" could have served as the starting point for the further development of such dishes.

Some Russian sources attribute the creation of this dish (or of its precursor) to Nicolas Appert, French confectioner and chef, best known as the inventor of airtight food preservation. In contrast, common biographic sources for Appert do not mention this dish, and the origin of these claims is unclear.[39][40]

Novo-Mikhailovsky cutlet[edit]

Russian food historian William Pokhlyobkin claimed that chicken Kiev was invented in 1912 as Novo-Mikhailovskaya kotleta in а St. Petersburg Merchants' Club located near the Mikhailovsky palace, and was renamed kotleta po-kiyevski in 1947 by a Soviet restaurant.[41] However, these claims collide with primary sources. The cookbook by Alexandrova-Ignatieva (including editions before and after 1912) describes indeed Novo-Mikhailovsky cutlets and mentions that they were invented in a club near the Mikhailovsky palace. However, in the provided recipe these cutlets are made from minced meat similarly to the Pozharsky cutlet, with the only difference being the meat pounded by a tenderizer until it gets minced. This allows one to remove tendons from the meat and results in a more tender consistency of the ground meat than after the use of a grinder. The author also remarks that not only breasts but also other parts of chicken can be prepared this way and added to the mixture of meat and butter.[42]

The second claim of Pokhlyobkin's version is invalidated, as the first references of chicken Kiev appear in published sources before WWII, at least in the 1920s.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

Modern chicken Kiev[edit]

Continental hotel in Kiev, beginning of the 20th century

Oral tradition in Kiev attributes the invention of the "cutlet de volaille Kiev-style" (kotleta de-volyay po-kievski) to the restaurant of the Continental hotel in Kiev in the 1910s.[50] A luxury hotel built in 1897 in the center of Kiev, it was run until the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. The building was then mined by the retreating Red Army and exploded when the German Army (Wehrmacht) occupied Kiev in September 1941.[51] After the war, the building was rebuilt and has since then been used by the Kiev Conservatory.

An early reference of the "chicken cutlet Kiev-style" is found in Apportionments for dinners, separate dishes and other products of public catering (1928) which served as a standard reference for Soviet catering establishments. The book included three items for stuffed chicken cutlets, the two other being called "cutlet de volaille" and "cutlet à la Maréchale". The book demanded renaming of many traditional restaurant dishes to replace the (mostly French-style) "bourgeoise" names with simple "proletarian" forms. In particular, the "cutlet Kiev-style" had to be renamed into "chicken cutlet stuffed with butter".[52] This program was not realised immediately (at least not completely), and its successor, The Directory of Apportionments for Catering (1940), published by the Soviet Ministry of Food Industry, still included these names.[53] In post-WWII publications of this directory and in other Soviet cookery books, such as Cookery (1955), the "Kiev-style" name was retained, but the terms de volaille and à la Maréchale were indeed dropped in favour of simple names such as "chicken cutlet stuffed with milk sauce" and "chicken cutlet stuffed with liver".[54][55] As a result of this policy, the names de volaille and à la Maréchale disappeared from menus of Soviet restaurants.

The "old-style" name "cutlet de volaille Kiev-style" was occasionally mentioned in some post-WWII Soviet fiction books.[20][56] In particular, in a short story This Is Not Written In A Cookbook by Yevgeny Vorobyov (1947), a Soviet soldier and a former chef in a Moscow noble hotel explains to his comrade in arms, that "cutlets de volaille are made for two tastes. There are cutlets de volaille Kiev-style and cutlets de volaille jardiniere."[20]

In Poland, the name kotlet de volaille is used until today for chicken Kiev.[5][6]

Early mentions of chicken Kiev are also found in US newspapers starting from 1937. The reports describe the Russian-style restaurant Yar in Chicago serving this dish.[44][45][46][47][48] The restaurant existed until 1951 and was run by Vladimir Yaschenko, a former colonel of the imperial Russian army. It was styled after the famous eponymous Moscow restaurant and was frequented by celebrities such as Ethel Barrymore, Tito Schipa, Jascha Heifetz, and Igor Sikorsky.[57][58] After WWII, US newspapers mentioned chicken Kiev served in New York restaurants.[59][60] Recipes of a "chicken cutlet à la Kiev" were published inThe New York Times in 1946[59][60] and in Gourmet magazine in 1948.[61]

Since the end of the 1940s or beginning of the 1950s, chicken Kiev became a standard fare in Soviet high class restaurants, in particular in the Intourist hotel chain serving foreign tourists. Tourist booklets warned the diners of the danger it presented to their clothing.[41][62] At the same time the popularity of this dish grew in the US.

Variants[edit]

Chicken Kiev is made from a boned and skinned breast which is cut lengthwise, pounded and stuffed with butter. Western recipes usually call for garlic butter, while in Russian ones regular butter is used. Herbs (parsley and dill) can be added to the butter.[1][63] In some American recipes butter is replaced by blue cheese.[64]

In the classical preparation of French côtelettes de volaille, the humerus bone of the wing is left attached.[8] This also holds for their Russian versions[3] and in particular for chicken Kiev.[1][62][63] For serving, the bone is usually covered with a frilled paper napkin.[62] However, industrially produced pure fillets are often used nowadays, and the cutlets are served without the bone. This is the usual way of serving chicken Kiev in the US.[1] A spherically shaped version was developed by English chef Jesse Dunford Wood.[65]

Convenience food[edit]

In the middle of the 20th century, semi-processed ground meat cutlets were introduced in the USSR. Colloquially known as Mikoyan cutlets (named after Soviet politician Anastas Mikoyan), these were cheap pork or beef cutlet-shaped patties which resembled industrially produced American beef burgers.[66] Some varieties bore names of well known Russian restaurant dishes but they had little in common with the original dishes. In particular, a variety of a pork patty was called "Kiev cutlet".[67] In modern (post-Soviet) times, "real" chicken Kiev cutlets are offered in Russia as convenience food.

Introduced in Britain during 1976, chicken Kiev was Marks & Spencer company's first ready-made meal.[68][65][69] As a whole, chicken Kiev remains popular in the UK, being readily available in supermarkets and served in some restaurant chains. The wide popularity of chicken Kiev as pre-packaged meal lead to the term Kiev being applied to various stuffed chicken dishes, such as "leak-and-bacon Kiev" or "cheese-and-ham Kiev" (the latter term replacing chicken Cordon Bleu).[70]

Similar dishes[edit]

Among other entrees similar to chicken Kiev, the aforementioned chicken Cordon Bleu with a cheese and ham filling instead of butter is particularly popular. The recipe of Karađorđeva šnicla, a Serbian breaded veal or pork cutlet, was inspired by chicken Kiev.[71]

Cultural references[edit]

Chicken Kiev is the name used by William Safire for a speech made in Kiev during August 1991 by then U.S. President George H.W. Bush cautioning Ukrainians against "suicidal nationalism".[72][73]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Volokh (1983), p. 320.
  2. ^ Cookery (1955), p. 442, 1145. Котлета по-киевски.
  3. ^ a b c Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), p. 425.
  4. ^ Watt (2014), p. 99–100.
  5. ^ a b Strybel (2003), p. 86.
  6. ^ a b Strybel (2005), p. 303.
  7. ^ Escoffier (1907), p. 473.
  8. ^ a b c Escoffier (1907), p. 507. Chicken suprêmes with the humerus bone left attached are referred to as chicken cutlets.
  9. ^ Leto & Bode (2006), p. 130.
  10. ^ Cracknell & Kaufmann (2012), p. 452.
  11. ^ MacVeigh (2007), p. 218.
  12. ^ a b c Pokhlyobkin (2004), p. 21.
  13. ^ Vintcent (2004), p. 50.
  14. ^ Dubois (1868), p. 160–161.
  15. ^ Meyer (1903), p. 192–193. See recipes for côtelettes de volaille à la du Barry, côtelettes de volaille à la Montglas, and côtelettes de volaille à la Lucullus.
  16. ^ Escoffier & (1907), p. 526.
  17. ^ a b Averchenko (1914). "Ладно. Выберу. Сделайте ей котлеты де-воляй. — Только не котлеты де-воляй! Это все шансонетки едят — котлеты де-воляй." – "Make cutlets de volaille for her. / Anything but cutlets de volaille! It's what chanteuses eat, cutlets de volaille."
  18. ^ a b Bulgakov (1928–40), p. 58, online parallel text. "В самом деле, не пропадать же куриным котлетам де-воляй?" – "And, really, can one let chicken cutlets de volaille perish?"
  19. ^ a b Stepun (1947). In his memoirs Fyodor Stepun recalls in particular his school graduation in May 1900 and mentions: "Обедали мы совсем как взрослые: закуска, котлеты «de volaille», Гурьевская каша и к ней две бутылки шампанского..." – "We were dining like adults: zakuski, cutlets de volaille, Guriev porridge and two bottles of champagne..."
  20. ^ a b c d Vorobyov (1947), p. 88. "Котлеты «де-воляй» готовятся на два вкуса, — поучал Бондарин. — Есть котлеты «де-воляй» по-киевски и котлеты «де-воляй жардиньер»." — "Cutlets de volaille are cooked for two tastes," tutored Bondarin. "There are cutlets de volaille Kiev-style and cutlets de volaille jardiniere."
  21. ^ a b Sologub (1926), p. 42. "И породисты, и горды, // В элегантных сюртуках, // В лакированных туфлях, // Лошадиные две морды // Ржут в саду Шато-Гуляй, // Жрут котлеты де-воляй."
  22. ^ Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), pp. 421 (ingredients for côtelettes de volaille), 425 (recipe for côtelettes de volaille). The recipe for côtelette de volaille: "Котлеты де-воляйль приготовляются из цельных куриных филеев, как котлеты марешаль из дичи (см. по оглавлению); из одной курицы получается всего две котлеты. Отделив филеи курицы от костей с плечевыми косточками, снять с них пленки, отбить слегка тяпкой, чтобы филей имел везде одинаковую толщину; маленькие филейчики также отбить, чтобы были шире и тоньше. Из всей остальной мякоти приготовить фарш, как для кнели, но только с прибавкою сливочного масла, которое кладется в фарш при толчении его в ступке. Приготовив все указанным образом, нафаршировать большие филеи кнелевым фаршем, положить внутрь по кусочку чистого льда, накрыть маленькими филейчиками, запанировать в яйце и тертом белом хлебе и изжарить на отколерованном сливочном масле, как и прочие котлеты. Гарниры и соуса подаются самые разнообразные." A somewhat similar recipe in English is given in Watt (2014), p. 100.
  23. ^ Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), p. 415 (recipe for game cutlets à la Maréchale).
  24. ^ Maslov (1911), p. 220.
  25. ^ Escoffier (1907), p. 512.
  26. ^ Supertoinette. "À la Maréchale se dit de petites pièces de boucherie (côtes ou noisettes d'agneau, escalopes ou côtes de veau, ris de veau, suprêmes de volaille) panées à l'anglaise et sautées."
  27. ^ Pokhlyobkin (2006), Марешаль.
  28. ^ Francatelli (1859), p. 37 ("996. Fillets of fowls, à la Maréchale"). "Trim the fillets of three of four fowls, and with the minion fillets form three or four large ones; make a slight incision down the centre of each fillet, so as to hollow it out a little: this must be done on the rough side. Then, chop a truffle, one shalot, and a little parsley very fine, and simmer these for five minutes in a small stewpan, with a bit of butter, pepper and salt, nutmeg, and a small piece of glaze, add the yolks of two eggs, and with this preparation fill the hollow made in the fillets, and then mask them over on both sides with a little stiffly reduced Allemande sauce, when this has become firmly set upon them by cooling, bread-crumb the fillets twice over: having once after dipped them in beaten eggs, and again after they have been sprinkled over with clarified butter; put them gently into shape with the blade of a knife, and place them upon a dish in the larder. Twenty minutes before serving to table cover the gridiron with a piece of oiled paper, place the fillets upon this, and broil them (on both sides) over a clear coke fire, of a bright-yellow color; when they are done, glaze them lightly, and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout, pout some reduced essence of fowls under them, and serve."
  29. ^ Carême, Plumerey & Fayot (1847), p. 119. The recipe for Filets de poulets à la Maréchale: "Après avoir levé quatorze filets de poulets suivant la règle, et avoir enleve les filets mignons, que vous parez et mettez mariner avec sel, poivre, quelques branches de persil et un jus de citron, préparez des fines herbes avec persil haché, champignons, truffes hachées, une échalote hachée très-finement et bien blanchie; passez au beurre ces fines herbes, en y ajoutant gros comme une noix de glace de volaille, et un peu de muscade rapée; versez sur une assiette, et laissez refroidir pour en garnir les filets de poulets au milieu, en leur faisant une légère incision dans la partie où se trouvait le filet mignon; puis trempez-les dans l'œuf battu; panez-les, et arrosez-les de beurre clarifié pour les paner de nouveau; un quart d'heure avant de servir, faites-les griller sur une feuille de papier huilèe; garnissez le puits de truffes ou d'une toulouse; couronnez de filets mignons, que vous aurez fat frire dans une pate légère, et saucez, sans masquer, d'une espagnole demi-glace." The same recipe is given in The Modern Cook (1859) by Charles Elmé Francatelli.[28]
  30. ^ Dubois (1868), p. 178. The recipe for "fowl fillets à la Maréchale": "Parez 14 filets de poulets sans moignons; fendez-les sur leur épaisseur, fourrez-les avec une petite partie d'appareil aux fines herbes cuites, liées simplement avec un peu de glace; soudez les deux parties avec un peu de farce crue. Assaisonnez les filets, trempez-les dans des œufs battus pour les paner; 20 minutes avant de servir, trempez les dans du beurre fondu; rangez les sur un gril pour les faire cuire des deux côtés à feu modéré; dressez-les ensuite en couronne sur une mince couche de farce, pochée sur plat; emplissez le puits avec une garniture de petits pois cuits à l anglaise, liés avec une cuillerée de bon velouté, un morceau de beurre fin. Envoyez en même temps une saucière de velouté."
  31. ^ Molokhovets (1861), 495. Марешаль из рябчиков; (1113. Марешаль из рябчиков in the 1901 edition; 863. Hazel grouse à la Maréchale in the English translation): "Remove both fillets from the hazel grouze, cutting off the wings at the first joint. Make a slit lengthwise on the underside of the fillets. Stuff them and sew them up. Dip the fillets in egg and deep fry, or dip them in eggs and crumbs and fry on gridiron. Stuff with the following: Prepare a brown sauce using 1/8 lb butter and 1/2 glass flour and dilute with 1 1/2 glasses bouillon. Add salt and bring to a boil 2 or 3 times. Add a wineglass of Madeira, 6 chopped raw field mushrooms, and 1-2 truffles. Bring to a boil 4 more times, cool, and stuff the fillet pieces with this mixture. Arrange the hazel grouse around a platter and fill the center with the following ragout: Prepare a white sauce using 2/3 glass flour, 2 spoons crayfish butter made from crayfish shells, and 2 glasses bouillon. Add 12 washed, raw field mushrooms and 25 crayfish tails. Boil together thoroughly about twice and add 1-2 chopped truffles."
  32. ^ Compare Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), p. 425 and Cookery (1955), p. 442, 1145. Котлета по-киевски
  33. ^ Syutkin (2015), Котлетная история.
  34. ^ Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), p. 317.
  35. ^ Escoffier (1907), p. 513.
  36. ^ MacVeigh (2008), pp. 218, 233.
  37. ^ Steward-Gordon & Hazelton (1981), p. 74.
  38. ^ Goldstein (1995).
  39. ^ Gelman & Zheutlin (2013), p. 201.
  40. ^ what-when-how, Appert, Nicolas (1752-1841) French Food Technologist (Scientist).
  41. ^ a b Pokhlyobkin (1997-05-04).
  42. ^ Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), pp. 655–656. The recipe and comments for Novo-Michailovksy cutlet read: "Правила приготовления. Не опаливая и не потроша, снять с костей всё мясо и очистить его от жил. Смочив стол и тяпку молоком, начать отбивать мясо так, как отбивается говядина, т. е. после каждого удара притягивать тяпку к себе, чтобы куски не отскакивали. Во время отбивания подливать к мясу понемногу сливок. Когда все мясо настолько отбито, что представляет такую же измельчённую массу, как для обыкновенных котлет, из него будут удалены все жилы, то соединить его с растертым сливочным маслом, прибавить соли, перцу, влить ещё сливок, если измельчённая масса недостаточно нежна, снова смочить стол молоком и разделать котлеты, как мясные. При разделке котлет в широкую их сторону вставляются косточки, взятые из крылышек или ножек курицы. Смазав с обеих сторон разделанные котлеты желтком, разведённым молоком, запанировать их в мелко нарезанных сдобных булочках и зажарить на медном сотейнике на отколерованном сливочном масле. Название. Новомихайловскими называются эти котлеты потому, что впервые были приготовлены в Петербурге, в клубе сельских хозяев, помещавшемся на Михайловской улице. Отличительное качество. Новомихайловские котлеты отличаются от обыкновенных рубленых куриных, или так называемых пожарских котлет, своей необыкновенной нежностью. Нежность эта достигается тем, что: а) берётся молодая курица, б) мясо не рубится, а отбивается тяпкой и в) что вместо толчёных сухарей для панировки употребляются сдобные булочки. При правильном отбивании достигается полное отделение мельчайших пленок, которые при обыкновенной рубке не замечаются и попадают в котлеты. Для получения еще большей нежности новомихайловские котлеты можно приготовлять из одних филе курицы, употребляя остальную мякоть на пожарские котлеты или на оттяжку для консоме; но можно их готовить и со всей остальной мякотью, в таком случае следует только тщательно выбрать из мяса все жилки. Если новомихайловские котлеты приготовляются не только из филеев, а со всей мякоти курицы, то темное мясо (не филей) нужно сначала изрубить, потом протереть через частое сито и тогда уже смешать с белым мясом."
  43. ^ Apportionments (1928), p. 98.
  44. ^ a b Chicago Daily Tribune (1937-11-26). "Col. Yaschenko, generalissimo of the Yar, is an ex-officer of the Russian imperial army. He recommends Russian food, particularly stuffed breast of chicken, Kiev style."
  45. ^ a b Dallas Morning News (1938-02-25). "Some of my Chicago friends took me to the same restaurant (a Russian restaurant called Yar—ed.) for dinner one night and ordered the specialty of the house, stuffed breast of chicken, Kieff. If you have ever eaten chicken prepared in this manner you know that you must begin at the small end of the batter shell which surrounds it. When you cut into it a savory butter sauce pours out."
  46. ^ a b Washington Post (1938-10-26). "A rare morsel is Troika’s breast of chicken à la Kieff. The commendable Mr. Kieff seems to have been the Ziegfeld of chicken breast."
  47. ^ a b Chicago Daily Tribune (1939-03-16). "Michael A. Thompson, who has been a chef for twelve of his thirty-two years, is in charge of the kitchen at the Yar. His favorite recipe is chicken à la Kiev, which he introduced to Chicago, he says, ten years ago. It is chicken-breast with sweet butter and prepared in a fashion which Mr. Thompson has no intention of bandying about. He says he’s told a few other chefs how to make it and that’s enough."
  48. ^ a b June Provines (1939-10-06). "Chicken Kiev at The Yar—breast of chicken with so much butter inside it spurts out when your fork goes in."
  49. ^ Apportionments (1940), p. 376. "730. Котлеты из филе курицы (киевские) с горошком." - "730. Chicken fillet cutlets (Kiev) with peas."
  50. ^ May (1997-12-05).
  51. ^ Zabecki (2015), p. 18.
  52. ^ Apportionments (1928), pp. 96-97.
  53. ^ Apportionments (1940), p. 376, 728. Котлеты из филе курицы с гарниром (деволяй). 729. Котлеты из филе курицы (марешаль) с горошком. 730. Котлеты из филе курицы (киевские) с горошком. - 728. Chicken fillet cutlets (de volaille) with a side dish. 729. Chicken fillet cutlets (Maréchale) with peas. 730. Chicken fillet cutlets (Kiev) with peas.
  54. ^ Cookery (1955), p. 442, 1145. Котлета по-киевски. 1146. Котлета из филе курицы, фаршированная молочным соусом. 1147. Котлета из филе курицы, фаршированная печёнкой.
  55. ^ DRC (1980), p. 311, 719. Котлеты из филе птицы или дичи, фаршированные печенью.
  56. ^ Bylinov (1959), p. 62. "Основное питание доставляют из ресторана "Интурист" с коньячком и котлетами де-воляй по-киевски."
  57. ^ Chicago Tribune (1968-11-07). "Services for Wladimir W. Yaschenko, owner of the Yar restaurant in Chicago in the 1930s...died Tuesday at the age of 71... During its day the Yar, a near north side dining place, was famous as a gathering spot for celebrities such as Ethel Barrymore, Tito Schipa, Jascha Heifetz, and Igor Sikorsky. It was designed after the Yar restaurant in Moscow... After completing four years at the Railroad Institute in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) Russia, he served in the imperial Russian Army. He was a colonel in the second light calvalry artillery regiment during World War I. Yaschenko came to Chicago in 1926. In addition to the Yar he operated the Opera club, the Club Petrushka, and the Trading Post."
  58. ^ Chicago Daily Tribune (1951-01-06). "A voluntary bankruptcy petition was filed in federal court yesterday by Col. Wladimir W. Yaschenko, owner and operator of the Yar restaurant, 181, E. Lake Shore dr., which closed earlier this week."
  59. ^ a b Nickerson (1946-08-06).
  60. ^ a b Hesser (2010), p. 455.
  61. ^ Gourmet (1948-07).
  62. ^ a b c Burros (1988).
  63. ^ a b Cookery (1955), p. 442. "1145. Котлета по-киевски"
  64. ^ Smith (2004), p. 378.
  65. ^ a b Salter (2010-10-10).
  66. ^ Tanner (1964-11-15).
  67. ^ BTHF (1952), p. 164.
  68. ^ Moran (2005-01-24).
  69. ^ Cloake (2012-06-07).
  70. ^ Ayto (2012), p. 194.
  71. ^ Dejanović (2004-06-11), p. 25.
  72. ^ Washington Times (2004-05-24).
  73. ^ Åslund (2009), pp. 29–30.

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