Chicken Kiev

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Chicken Kiev
Chicken Kiev - Ukrainian East Village restaurant.jpg
Place of origin Russian Empire
Main ingredients Chicken breast, garlic butter, herbs, bread crumbs
Cookbook: Chicken Kiev  Media: Chicken Kiev

Chicken Kiev (Ukrainian: Котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, Russian: Котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a popular entree of boneless chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold garlic butter with herbs, then coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and either fried or baked.[1][2] The dish is also known in Russian, Ukrainian and Polish cuisines as côtelette de volaille (Russian: котлета де воляй, tr. kotleta de voliay, Polish: kotlet de volaille).[3][4] The French de volaille means "of poultry" but denotes almost exclusively chicken dishes in French cookbooks.[5] The French name means thus simply "chicken cutlet".

History[edit]

The history of the dish is not well documented, and various sources make controversial claims about its origin.

Côtelette de volaille and dishes à la Maréchale[edit]

Despite the original French name, the recipe is unknown in French cuisine, where the term côtelette de volaille refers to chicken breasts in general[6] and is used synonymously with chicken fillet or suprême. The French term may also denote a minced chicken cutlet.[7][8] As the name for stuffed chicken breasts, kotleta de voliay appears in the pre- and post-revolutionary Russian literature (both in cookbooks[3] and in fictional prose[9][10][11]) since the beginning of the 20th century.

The recipe in the classical Russian cookery textbook The practical basics of the cookery art by Pelageya Alexandrova-Ignatieva (which had eleven editions between 1899-1916) includes a complex stuffing similar to quenelle (a mixture of minced meat, in this case the rest meat of chicken, and cream) but with butter added. It also points out that "the cutlets de volaille are made from whole chicken fillets, in the same way as the game cutlets à la maréchale". The recipe is preceded by a similar one for grouse cutlets à la maréchale with a quenelle and truffle stuffing.[12]

The term à la maréchale denotes in French cookery tender pieces of meat, such as cutlets, escalopes, sweetbreads, or chicken breasts, which are treated à l'anglais ("English-style"), i.e. coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and sautéed.[13][14] According to the Russian food historian William Pokhlyobkin, dishes à la Maréchale were created in France during the reign of Louis XIV and were introduced to Russia after the victory over Napoleon in 1814.[15] Many recipes of such dishes, some of them with stuffings, are described both in Western and Russian cookbooks of the 19th century. Jules Gouffé presents roebuck cutlets à la Maréchale[16] and broiled sweetbreads à la Maréchale[17] in The royal cookery book (1867). Charles Elmé Francatelli provides fish recipes à la Maréchale in The Modern Cook (1859).[18] The latter book also includes recipes for a rabbit à la Maréchale filled with duxelles[19] and a fowl fillet à la Maréchale stuffed with truffles and herbs.[20] A similar filet de poulets à la Maréchale with herbs and forcemeat is also found in La cuisine classique by Urbain Dubois (1868).[21] In contrast, chicken suprêmes à la Maréchale mentioned by August Escoffier in Le guide culinaire are not stuffed.[22] Elena Molokhovets' A Gift to Young Housewives, the most successful Russian cookbook of the 19th century, has included since its first edition in 1861 a recipe for grouze à la Maréchale stuffed with madeira sauce with champignons and truffles.[23]

The Russian Tea Room Cookbook notes that Chicken Kiev was "most likely ... a creation of the great French chef Carême at the Court of Alexander I."[24] Marie-Antoine Carême spent just several months of the year 1818 in St. Petersburg,[25] but made a profound impact on Russian cuisine at this short time.[26] The reforms carried out by his followers introduced in particular meat cuts, such as cutlets, steaks, escalopes etc. into Russian cookery.[26] However, it is unknown, whether it was Carême who created the Russian côtelette de volaille.

While the roots of this dish can thus be traced back to the French haute cuisine, the origin of the particular recipe known today as chicken Kiev, with the elaborate stuffings replaced by butter with herbs, is disputed.

Novo-Mikhailovsky cutlet[edit]

The entree has traditionally been considered Ukrainian in origin since its name comes from Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. However, William Pokhlyobkin claimed that Chicken Kiev was invented in the St. Petersburg Merchants' Club during the early 20th century as Novo-Mikhailovsky cutlet, and was subsequently renamed kotleta po-kiyevski by a Soviet restaurant.[27]

In popular culture[edit]

Similar entrees[edit]

There are other entrees similar to Chicken Kiev. Particularly popular is Chicken Cordon Bleu with a cheese and ham filling instead of butter.

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Volokh (1983), p. 320.
  2. ^ Cookery 1955.
  3. ^ a b Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), p. 425.
  4. ^ Watt (2014), p. 99–100.
  5. ^ Escoffier (1907), p. 473.
  6. ^ Vintcent (2004), p. 50.
  7. ^ Dubois (1868), p. 160–161.
  8. ^ Meyer (1903), p. 192–193. See recipes for côtelettes de volaille à la du Barry, côtelettes de volaille à la Montglas, and côtelettes de volaille à la Lucullus.
  9. ^ Averchenko (1914). "Make cutlets de volaille for her. / Anything but cutlets de volaille! It's what chanteuses eat, cutlets de volaille."
  10. ^ Bulgakov (1928–40), p. 58, online parallel text. "And, really, can one let chicken cutlets de volaille perish?"
  11. ^ Stepun 1947. In his memoirs Fyodor Stepun recalls in particular his school graduation in May 1900 and mentions: "We were eating like adults: zakuski, cutlets de volaille, Guriev porridge and two bottles of champagne".
  12. ^ Alexandrova-Ignatieva (1909), pp. 421 (igredients for côtelettes de volaille), 425 (recipe for côtelettes de volaille), 415 (recipe for game cutlets à la maréchale). The recipe for côtelette de volaille reads: "Котлеты де-воляйль приготовляются из цельных куриных филеев, как котлеты марешаль из дичи (см. по оглавлению); из одной курицы получается всего две котлеты. Отделив филеи курицы от костей с плечевыми косточками, снять с них пленки, отбить слегка тяпкой, чтобы филей имел везде одинаковую толщину; маленькие филейчики также отбить, чтобы были шире и тоньше. Из всей остальной мякоти приготовить фарш, как для кнели, но только с прибавкою сливочного масла, которое кладется в фарш при толчении его в ступке. Приготовив все указанным образом, нафаршировать большие филеи кнелевым фаршем, положить внутрь по кусочку чистого льда, накрыть маленькими филейчиками, запанировать в яйце и тертом белом хлебе и изжарить на отколерованном сливочном масле, как и прочие котлеты. Гарниры и соуса подаются самые разнообразные." A somewhat similar recipe in English is given in Watt (2014), p. 100
  13. ^ Supertoinette. "À la Maréchale se dit de petites pièces de boucherie (côtes ou noisettes d'agneau, escalopes ou côtes de veau, ris de veau, suprêmes de volaille) panées à l'anglaise et sautées."
  14. ^ Escoffier 1907, p. 521. Escoffier notes that the commonly used "English-style" coating in these dishes is an economical substitute for the original treatment with chopped truffles.
  15. ^ Pokhlyobkin 2006.
  16. ^ Gouffé (1867), p. 405 (in 1869 English translation).
  17. ^ Gouffé (1867), p. 352 (in 1869 English translation).
  18. ^ Francatelli (1859), pp. 145 ("404. Turbot, à la Maréchale"), 149 ("417. Salmon, à la Maréchale"), 164 ("471. Soles, à la Maréchale").
  19. ^ Francatelli (1859), p. 357 ("1060. rabbit, à la Maréchale").
  20. ^ Francatelli (1859), p. 37 ("996. Fillets of fowls, à la Maréchale"). The closely related recipe for "fillets of fowls, à la Maréchale" reads: "Trim the fillets of three of four fowls, and with the minion fillets form three or four large ones; make a slight incision down the centre of each fillet, so as to hollow it out a little: this must be done on the rough side. Then, chop a truffle, one shalot, and a little parsley very fine, and simmer these for five minutes in a small stewpan, with a bit of butter, pepper and salt, nutmeg, and a small piece of glaze, add the yolks of two eggs, and with this preparation fill the hollow made in the fillets, and then mask them over on both sides with a little stiffly reduced Allemande sauce, when this has become firmly set upon them by cooling, bread-crumb the fillets twice over: having once after dipped them in beaten eggs, and again after they have been sprinkled over with clarified butter; put them gently into shape with the blade of a knife, and place them upon a dish in the larder. Twenty minutes before serving to table cover the gridiron with a piece of oiled paper, place the fillets upon this, and broil them (on both sides) over a clear coke fire, of a bright-yellow color; when they are done, glaze them lightly, and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout, pout some reduced essence of fowls under them, and serve."
  21. ^ Dubois (1868), p. 178. The recipe for fowl fillets à la Maréchale reads: "Parez 14 filets de poulets sans moignons; fendez-les sur leur épaisseur, fourrez-les avec une petite partie d'appareil aux fines herbes cuites, liées simplement avec un peu de glace; soudez les deux parties avec un peu de farce crue. Assaisonnez les filets, trempez-les dans des œufs battus pour les paner; 20 minutes avant de servir, trempez les dans du beurre fondu; rangez les sur un gril pour les faire cuire des deux côtés à feu modéré; dressez-les ensuite en couronne sur une mince couche de farce, pochée sur plat; emplissez le puits avec une garniture de petits pois cuits à l anglaise, liés avec une cuillerée de bon velouté, un morceau de beurre fin. Envoyez en même temps une saucière de velouté."
  22. ^ Escoffier (1907), p. 512.
  23. ^ Molokhovets (1861), 495. Марешаль из рябчиков; (1113. Марешаль из рябчиков in the 1901 edition). The recipe for "grouze à la Maréchale" reads: "Взять рябчики, снять с каждого по два филея, оставить косточки крылышек по 1-й сустав, потом надрезать филеи вдоль сбоку, нафаршировать, зашить, обвалять в яйце, изжарить во фритюре или обвалять в яйце и сухарях и изжарить на рашпоре. Фарш следующий: заправить красный соус, а именно: 1/8 фунта масла, 1⁄2 стакана муки, развести 11/2 стаканами бульона, посолить, прокипятить раза два-три, влить рюмку мадеры, положить рубленых сырых шампиньонов штук 6, трюфелей 1--2 штуки, вскипятить раза четыре, остудить, нафаршировать надрезанные филеи. Сложить на блюдо рябчики, в середину положить следующий рагул: заправить белый соус, а именно: 2/3 стакана муки, 2 ложки ракового масла, сделанного из очистков раков, развести 2 стаканами бульона, положить сырых вымытых шампиньонов штук 12, раковых шеек штук 25, прокипятить все это вместе раза два, прибавить 1-2 штуки нашинкованных трюфелей."
  24. ^ Steward-Gordon & Hazelton (1981), p. 74.
  25. ^ Goldstein 1995.
  26. ^ a b Pokhlyobkin (2004), p. 21.
  27. ^ http://www.ogoniok.com/archive/1997/4500/17-56-57/
  28. ^ Åslund, Anders (March 2009). How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy. Peterson Institute for International Economics. pp. 29–30. 
  29. ^ "Bush Sr. clarifies 'Chicken Kiev' speech". Washington Times. 2004-05-24. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  30. ^ Moran, Joe (2005-01-24). "Hum, ping, rip: the sounds of cooking". New Statesman. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  31. ^ "Do you know what you are eating?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 

Sources[edit]