Chicken tikka masala
|Place of origin||Uncertain; South Asia or Scotland|
|Main ingredients||Chicken, yogurt, cream, tomato, onion, garlic, ginger, chili pepper, coconut|
|Variations||Lamb, Fish or Paneer Tikka Masala|
|Cookbook: Chicken tikka masala Media: Chicken tikka masala|
Chicken tikka masala is a dish of roasted chunks (tikka) of chicken in a spicy sauce. The sauce is usually creamy, spiced and orange-coloured.
Chicken tikka masala is chicken tikka, chunks of chicken marinated in spices and yogurt, that is then baked in a tandoor oven, and served in a masala (spice mix) sauce. A tomato and coriander sauce is common, but there is no standard recipe for chicken tikka masala; a survey found that of 48 different recipes, the only common ingredient was chicken. The sauce usually includes tomatoes (frequently as purée), cream, coconut cream and various spices. The sauce or chicken pieces (or both) are coloured orange with food dyes or using foodstuffs such as turmeric powder, paprika powder or tomato purée. Other tikka masala dishes replace chicken with lamb, fish or paneer.
The origin of the dish is unclear. One explanation claims that it originated in an Indian restaurant in the United Kingdom. Rahul Verma, a Delhi expert on street food, speculated in 2009 that the dish may have originated—probably by accident with subsequent improvisations—in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh during the last 50 years.
One claim recounts how a chef, Ali Ahmed Aslam, proprietor of the Shish Mahal restaurant in the west end of Glasgow, invented chicken tikka masala by improvising a sauce made from yogurt, cream and spices. His son Asif Ali told the story of its 1971 invention to the BBC's Hairy Bikers TV cookery programme:
On a typical dark, wet Glasgow night a bus driver coming off shift came in and ordered a chicken curry. He sent it back to the waiter saying it's dry. At the time Dad had an ulcer and was enjoying a plate of tomato soup. So he said why not put some tomato soup into the curry with some spices. They sent it back to the table and the bus driver absolutely loved it. He and his friends came back again and again and we put it on the menu.
In July 2009 British MP Mohammad Sarwar tabled an Early Day Motion in the House of Commons asking that Parliament support a campaign for Glasgow to be given European Union protected geographical status for chicken tikka masala. The motion was not chosen for debate, nor did Sarwar speak on this subject in Parliament.
Ethnic food historians Peter and Colleen Grove discuss various origin-claims of chicken tikka masala, suggesting that "the shape of things to come may have been a recipe for Shahi Chicken Masala in Mrs Balbir Singh’s Indian Cookery published in 1961".
In 2001, British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook declared that "Chicken Tikka Masala is now a true British national dish, not only because it is the most popular, but because it is a perfect illustration of the way Britain absorbs and adapts external influences." He went on to explain that "Chicken Tikka is an Indian dish. The Masala sauce was added to satisfy the desire of British people to have their meat served in gravy."
Chicken tikka masala is served in restaurants around the world,  including Indian restaurants in the UK and North America. A 2012 survey of 2,000 people in the United Kingdom claimed that it is that country's second most popular foreign dish to cook, after Chinese stir fry.
- Balti, a South Asian dish
- Chicken curry, a similar spiced chicken dish
- Butter chicken, a similar mild curry dish of South Asian origin
- List of chicken dishes
- Mughlai cuisine
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- Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)
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- "Stir-fry now Britain's most popular foreign dish". The Mirror. 21 January 2012.
- Hills, Suzannah. "Vindawho? Chicken tikka masala knocked off top spot by Chinese stir-fry as Britain's favourite dish". Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Curry Club Tandoori and Tikka Dishes, Piatkus, London — ISBN 0-7499-1283-9 (1993)
- Curry Club 100 Favourite Tandoori Recipes, Piatkus, London — ISBN 9780749914912 (1995)
- India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — ISBN 978-1-84537-619-2 (2007)
- Collingham, Elizabeth M (2006). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-19-517241-8.
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